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BOSTOIN^ 
PUBLIC 
UBRARY 


%f^ 


■■'1 


m 


J'^oyy^^^  uk, 


HISTORY 


OF    THE 


Town  of  Whatei^v,  Mass 


INCLUDING  A  NARRATIVE  OF  LEADING  EVENTS   FROM 
THE  FIRST   PLANTING   OF   HATFIELD; 


1661—1899, 


AS  REVISED  AND  ENLARGED 


By    JAMES    M.    CRAFTS, 


WITH  FAMILY  GENEALOGIES. 


PRINTED    FOR    THE    TOWN 

BY   D.   L.   CRANDALL,   JIANN'S  BLOCK,   ORANGE,   MaSS. 

1899. 


74 


V 


Entered  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  1899, 
The  History  of  Whately, 

Revised  and  Enlarged 

By    JAMES    M.    CRAFTS, 

in  the   Office   of  the   Librarian   of   Congress. 


PREFACE. 

When  we  undertake  to  gather  all  of  practical  interest,  as 
well  as  what  will  give  us  a  more  realistic  view  of  the  noble  men 
and  women  who  were  pioneers  in  ^he  settlement  of  the  north 
part  of  Hatfield,  now  the  town  of  Whately,  we  can  but  be  im- 
pressed with  the  importance  of  the  work  we  undertake,  and 
wonder  at  the  paucity  of  the  materials  at  our  disposal.  But  the 
many  years  of  labor  and  painstaking  investigation  leads  us  to 
give  to  our  town — the  place  of  our  birth — among  its  people  we 
were  reared  and  spent  the  greater  portion  of  our  life,  the  results 
of  our  labors. 

We  here  give  the  salient  portion  of  Mr.  Temple's  prefatory 
remarks,  fully  endorsing  what  he  has  said  so  well:  — 

"Somewhat  isol-ated  in  position,  and  with  nothing  of  nat- 
ural advantages  to  attract  notice — except  the  quiet  beauty,  and 
rich  variety,  and  broad  expanse  of  landscape,  as  seen  from  the 
central  village  and  the  hills  lying  westerly — Whately  has  held 
claim  to  no  special  distinction  among  her  neighbors.  But  the 
public  spirit  of  her  people,  and  the  generous  liberality  displayed 
in  arranging  and  carrying  out  to  a  successful  issue  the  com- 
memoration of  her  centenary,  and  in  providing  for  the  preserva- 
tion of  her  annals  in  the  printed  volume,  are  worthy  of  imitation 
by  the  other  towns  in  the  Commonwealth.  Records  are  perish- 
able, and  are  often  incomplete ;  they  are  at  best  but  the  out- 


lint-s:  the  filling  up  must  come  from  personal  reminiscences  of 
character  and  actions,  and  those  incidental  items  of  civil  and 
social  affairs,  which  are  transmitted  b}'  oral  tradition,  but  with 
enough  of  truth  to  explain  the  records,  and  enough  of  reality  to 
help  the  practical  antiquar\-  in  giving  a  life-like  picture  of  the 
time  of  which  he  treats. 

The  territory  comprising  the  town  was  included  in,  and  for 
one  hundred  }'ears,  was  a  part  of  Hatfield.  The  histor_\-  of  the 
colon\-.  then,  properly  begins  with  some  account  of  the  mother 
settlement.  Whatever  is  characteristic  of  the  growth  is  to  be 
found  in  the  germ.  What  societ}'  was  in  1771  is  a  result  of 
causes  preexisting,  and  working  through  the  preceding  genera- 
tions ;  hence,  a  sketch  of  leading  events,  from  the  first  purchase 
of  these  lands  by  the  settlers  from  Connecticut,  seemed  neces- 
sary to  a  clear  understanding  of  any  peculiarities  of  opinion, 
and  the  domestic  customs  and  religious  faith  of  our  fathers." 

A  few  prefator}'  remarks,  relative  to  our  revision  of  the 
History  and  Genealogy  of  Whately,  will  be  proper  at  the  outset 
of  the  work.  In  undertaking  the  revision  of  our  Town  History 
and  Genealogical  records,  I  must  needs  say  that  I  am  pro- 
foundly impressed  with  the  importance  of  the  work  that  is  im- 
posed upon  me.  It  is  with  much  trepidation  that  I  undertake 
the  work  of  preparing  the  labor  of  years  for  the  press.  After 
the  issue  of  Mr.  Temple's  work,  a  widespread  feeling  of  dissat- 
isfaction was  manifested  by  our  townspeople.  I  need  hardly 
say  that  this  feeling  still  exists,  and  hence,  for  this,  and  other 
reasons,  the  Town  desires  me  to  commence  the  work  at  once. 
In  many  respects  I  shall  adopt  the  precise  language  of  Mr. 
Temple  and  quote  page  after  page  of  what  he  has  so  well  given. 
Where  I  differ  from  him,  I  trust  the  people  of  W^hately  will 
iiive  me  the  credit  of  a  lifelong  interest  in  the  Town  and  its 
History.  For  many  years  I  have  studied  to  get  at  basic  facts 
which  underlie  our  early  history.  While  I  freely  and  gladly 
indorse  much  of  Mr.  Temple's  work,  and  reproduce  it  in  these 
pages,  yet,  in  very  many  instances,  we  can  but  say  that  we 
shall  change  radically  some  of  his  statements,    as  well  as  his 


inferences,  drawn  from  what  he  has  stated  as  facts.     The  three 
years  that  he  spent  in  the  early  days  of  his  ministn.-  were  insuf- 
ficient to  gather  all  of    the  truth   pertaining    to  the  multifarious 
transactions  of  the  people  of  our  town,  the  location  of  many  of 
the  roads,   the  names  of  various  localities,  the  hills,  brooks    and 
streams,  the  places  where  the  settlements  were  first  made,  etc.. 
and  allow  me  to  say  that  my  eighty-two  years'  experience  will 
fail  to  show  that  I  am   as  fully  posted   as  I  ought  to    be  to  set 
myself  up  as  above  mistakes.     So  I  trust  my  readers  will  kindly 
judge  of  my  honesty  of  purpose  in  giving  what  I  do.     Since  the 
publication  of  our  history   by   Mr.  Temple,  I  have  spent  much 
time  in  the  investigation  of  our  history  and  its  genealogy,  and 
give  to  the  public  the  results  of  my  labors.      For  several  years 
that  painstaking    antiquary,  Chester  G.  Crafts,   was    intimately 
associated  with   me  in  this  work.     We  carefully  sur\'eyed   and 
measured  much  of  the  central  and  eastern  portion  of  the  town, 
and  only  his   untimely  sickness  and  death  preveiUed  a  continu- 
ance of  our  work. 

As  soon  as  the  histon,'  was  issued  I  commenced  to  correct 
the  errors,  make  additions,  and  arrange  them  as  tl)ey  were  in- 
tended, more  particularly  in  the  genealogical  portion  ot  the 
work.  I  had  prepared  this  portion  of  the  work  and  it  was 
agreed  that  I  should  correct  the  proof  sheets.  But  in  this  I  was 
disappointed,  as  not  a  sheet  was  sent  me.  In  the  historical  part 
I  had  rendered  such  assistance  as  I  could,  furnishing  many  old 
papers,  and  }et,  venv'  ftw  were  satisfied  with  either  part  of  the 
work.  It  is  quite  possible  that  cur  enlarged  work  may  tall 
short  of  what  may  be  expected  b>  my  townspeople.  The  threat 
majority  of  our  townspeople  are  now,  as  in  the  past,  engaged  in 
rural  occupations.  While  I  can  say  they  are  a  people  of  whom 
I  feel  proud,  yet  few  have  risen  to  celebrity,  particularl}-  while 
remaining  in  town.  Still  a  few  of  those  who  left  town  have 
been  in  Congress,  and  one  in  the  national  cabinet,  tut  the>-  and 
their  parents  left  our  town,  removed  to  the  West  and  grew  up 
under  a  different  regime,  and  freed  from  any  old  stigmas  resting 
on  the  family.     It  is  right  for  me  to  say   of  some    families  that 


left  town,  and  New  England  as  well,  that  the  place  of  their  res- 
idence is  unknown.  I  shall  avail  myself  of  every  avenue  where 
information  can  be  obtained.  I  freely  acknowledge  my  indebt- 
edness to  Sheldon's  History  of  Deerfield,  Judd's  History  of 
Hadley.  The  Crafts  Families,  the  Bardwell  Families  and  San- 
dersons, both  gathered  by  me,  as  well  as  the  Graves'  records, 
in  which  I  assisted  in  collecting. 

I  shall  also  reproduce  a  large  portion  of  Mr.  Temple's  work 
\'erbatim.  Where  I  disagree  with  him  I  shall  manfully  say  so, 
and  give  m}-  version  of  the  matter.  In  the  Ecclesiastical  portion 
I  shall  leave  out  many  things  like  the  confession  of  faith,  the 
covenant  and  some  other  things.  All  proper  and  right  for  a 
histor}-  of  the  church,  but  seemingly  out  of  place  in  a  town 
history.  I  confess  to  a  feeling  of  pride  in  the  old  Congrega- 
tional church,  its  establishment  in  Whately  and  its  influence  for 
good  among  our  people.  But  this  does  not  a^ord  any  reason  for 
inserting  it  entire  in  our  town  histon.'. 

JAMES  M.   CRAFTS. 
Orange.  Mass.,  1S99. 


HISTORY  OP    WHATELY. 


CHAPTER    I. 


INDIAN    OWNERSHIP — PURCHASE    BY    PYNCHON    AND    THE    HAD- 

LEY    COMPANY. 

At  the  time  of  the  proposed  settlement  of  the  part  of  the 
vallev  of  the  Connecticut  River  Ivin^  between  the  Mt.  Holvoke 
range  on  the  south,  and  Sugar  Loaf  and  Toby  on  the  north, 
this  Tract  was  in  the  occupancy  of  the  Norwottuck  Indians,  who 
were  a  branch  of  the  Nipnett  or  Nipmuck  tribe,  whose  chief  seat 
was  in  the  central  part  of  the  state. 

The  Nor\vottucks  of  the  valley  were  divided  into  three  prin- 
cipal families,  under  three  petty  chiefs,  viz.  :  Chickwallop. 
Umpanchala  and  Quonquont.  Each  claimed  ownership  of  the 
lands  lying  for  a  distance  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  and  extend- 
ing indefinitely  east  and  west.  Chickwallop  held  the  lands  pur- 
chased by  the  Northampton  planters  and  eastward.  Umpan- 
chala claimed  on  the  Hadley  side  as  far  north  as  Mill  River,  and 
on  the  Hatfield  side  from  Northampton  bounds  to  the  upper  side 
of  Great  Meadow.  Quonquont  occupied  from  Umpanchala's 
line  to  Mt.  Wequomps,  or  Sugar  Loaf,  and  Mt.  Toby.  North 
of  these  was  the  territory  of  the  Pocumtucks,  or  Deerfield  Indi- 
ans.    Collectively,  these  were  called  the  River  Indians. 

Each  of  these  Indian  families  had  its  fort,  its  planting  field 
and  its  hunting  grounds.  The  fort  was  located,  for  obvious 
reasons,   on  a  bluff,  in  some  commanding  position,  and  near  a 


stream  or  spring  of  water.  It  was  constructed  of  palisades,  or 
poles  about  lo  feet  long  set  in  the  ground.  Its  size  depended 
on  the  la}'  of  the  land  and  the  necessities  of  each  tribe,  as  their 
wigwams  were  placed  within  the  enclosure.  The  cornfield  was 
always  close  to  the  fort. 

Quonquont.  who  claimed  the  lands  now  comprisng  Whately 
and  eastward,  had  a  strong  fort  on  the  east  side  of  the  Connecti- 
cut, north  of  Mill  River  in  Hadley.  It  was  built  on  a  ridge  that 
separates  the  east  and  west  School  Meadows,  and  enclosed  about 
an  acre  of  ground.  His  cornfield,  of  sixteen  to  twenty  acres, 
was  in  the  upper  meadow.  This  fort  was  abandoned  some  time 
before  the  attack  on  Quaboag. 

The  principal  fort  of  Umpanchala  was  on  the  high  bank  of 
the  Connecticut  near  the  mouth  of  Half-way  Brook,  between 
Northampton  and  Hatfield.  This  fort  was  occupied  by  the  tribe 
till  the  night  of  August  24,  1675,  and  was  the  last  fortified  dwell- 
ing place  held  by  the  Indians  in  this  part  of  the  valley.  The 
planting  field  of  this  family  was  the  "Chickons,"  or  Indian 
Hollow,  in  Hatfield  South  Meadow. 

The  Indian's  home  in  this  valley  was  then,  what  it  still 
remains,  a  scene  of  abundance  and  beauty.  The  mountains 
reared  their  bold  heads  towards  the  sky  for  grandeur  and  de- 
fence ;  the  hills,  clothed  in  their  primeval  forests  of  variegated 
hues,  arrested  the  showers,  and  poured  down  their  tributes  in 
little  rivulets,  whose  path  was  marked  by  green  verdure  and 
brilliant  flowers  ;  the  annual  overflow  of  the  great  river  made 
the  valley  fat  and  fertile.  Yet  these  natural  advantages  appear 
to  have  been  of  small  account  with  the  natives.  So  far  as  we 
can  judge,  convenience  and  necessit}'  alone  influenced  them  in 
the  selection.  The  furs  and  flesh  of  animals,  and  the  fish  of  the 
streams,  met  most  of  their  ordinary  wants;  grass  was  of  no  ac- 
count ;  and  even  the  corn  which  their  women  raised  was  a  kind 
of  surplus  for  emergencies,  to  be  relied  on  in  the  scarcity  of 
game  and  the  event  of  war.* 

The  Indian  was  a  savage,  with  the  instincts  and  ideas  of  a 
savage  ;  and  he  estimated  things  accordingly.  Personal  ease 
and  sensual  gratification  was  his  highest  happiness  •,\he  pursuit 
of  game  was  his  excitement;  war  was  his  highest  am'c'ition  and 
field  of  glory  ;  and  outside  of  ^these  he  had  nothing  lO  love^and 

*Josselyn,  Voyages,  says:  "They  [the  Indians]  beat  the  Corn  to 
powder  and  put  it  into  bags,  which  they  make  use  of  when  stonnie 
weather  or  the  like  will  not  suifer  them  to  look  out  for  other  food." 


nothing  to  live  for.     All  these  local  advantages  he  had  here  ; 
and  war  with  some  rival  tribe  was  always  at  his  option. 

The  red  man  had  long  been  the  occupant  of  the  territory. 
And  he  seems  to  have  understood  perfectly  the  validity  of  his 
title  to  these  lands  by  right  of  possession.  Why  then — the 
question  will  naturally  arise — was  the  Indian  so  ready  to  part 
with  his  title,  and  transfer  his  right  to  the  new  comers?  The 
general  answer  is,  because  he  was  a  man  and  a  savage.  There 
is  a  strange  fascination  accompaning  a  higher  order  of  intelli- 
gence, and  the  power  inherent  to  enlightened  intellect,  which  is 
irresistible  to  the  untutored  child  of  nature.  He  looks  up  with 
a\we,  and  instinctly  yearns  for  companionship  with  that  higher 
life.  To  his  apprehension  it  is  allied  with  the  supernatural  : 
and  partakes  of  the  potent,  if  not  the  omnipotent.  And,  aside 
from  any  veneration,  he  sees  the  advantage  every  way  of  civili- 
zation ;  and  the  manhood  in  him  rises  up  in  hope  and  expecta- 
tion. His  ideas  may  be  vague  as  to  results  to  accrue,  but  he 
anticipates  some  great  advantage;  he  expects  to  become  a  par- 
taker of  that  which  draws  and  inspires.  It  is  only  wlien,  by 
actual  contact  and  contrast,  he  discovers  and  comes  to  feel  his 
inferiority,  and  his  moral  w-eakness,  as  compared  with  civilized 
man,  that  he  becomes  jealous  of  him  ;  and  the  jealousy  ripens 
into  hatred  ;  and  the  hatred  ripens  into  hostility.  No  doubt  acts 
of  injustice  and  wrong  aggravate  the  jealousy,  and  hasten  the 
conflict.  But  civilized  and  savage  life  can  never  coalesce.  There 
is  inherent  antagonism  which  necessitates  a  conflict.  And  in 
the  struggle  the  weaker  must  yield  to  the  stronger.  .And 
strength  lies  not  in  numbers,  but  in  resources  ;  the  courage 
which  conquers  is  moral  rather  than  physical.  Thus  the  two 
orders  of  society  cannot  exist  together  ;  one  must  yield  and  flee, 
or  become  subordinate  and  be  absorbed  in  the  other. 

In  selling  their  lands  to  the  settlers,  the  Indians  in  this  val- 
ley expected  to  be,  and  believed  that  they  were  the  true  gainers 
by  the  bargain.  The-y  reserved  all  the  rights  and  privileges 
that  were  of  any  real  value  to  them  ;  and  calculated  on  receiv- 
ing advanta'^es  from  the  skill  and  traffic  of  the  whites,  as  well  as 
those  indf  ^nite,  perhaps  imaginary-  advantages,  to  which  I  have 
allud(.J.  Cr.e  reason  why  the  River  Indians  were  anxious  to 
sell,  at  the  particular  time  when  the  whites  came  to  the  valley, 
was  their  fear  of  the  Mohawks  from  the  Hudson,  who  were 
threatening  a  war  of  extermination — just  as.  sixteen  years  later, 
the  Pocumtucks  and  Norwottucks  planned  a  war  of  extermina- 


8 

tion  against  the  whites,  whom  they  now  so  cordially  welcomed. 

The  Hadley  Planters.  The  company  that  formed  the 
original  Hadley  plantation,  covering  lands  on  both  sides  of  the 
river,  was  from  Connecticut.  Their  first  step  was  to  obtain 
leave  from  the  General  Court  to  settle  within  the  jurisdiction  of 
Massachusetts  ;  and  the  second  step  was  to  purchase  the  lands 
of  the  Indians.  The  negotiation  was  carried  on  through  the 
agency  of  Maj.  John  Pynchon  of  Springfield,  to  whom  the  deeds 
were  made  out,  and  who  assigned  his  rights  to  the  Company, 
and  received  his  pay  of  individuals  as  they  took  possession  of 
their  assigned  lots.  Maj.  P^'nchon  paid  the  Indians  in  wampum 
and  goods  :  and  received  payment  in  grain,  with  perhaps  a  con- 
siderable quantity  of  wampum,  and  a  small  amount  of  silver. 

Wampum,  which  was  in  the  shape  of  beads,  was  made  of 
seashells.  It  was  manufactured  mainly  by  the  Indians  of  Long 
Island,  and,  later,  by  those  of  Block  Island.  It  was  of  tw^o 
kinds,  white,  or  wampumpeag  ;  and  black  or  blue,  called  suck- 
auhock,  which  was  of  double  the  value  of  white.  In  1650  the 
Massachusetts  government  ordered  that  wampumpeag  should  be 
a  legal  tender  for  debts  (except  for  country  rates)  to  the  value 
of  fort>'  shillings,  the  white  at  eight  and  the  black  at  four  for  a 
penny.  This  law  was  repealed  in  1661,  after  which  wampum 
had  no  standard  value — the  price  being  regulated  by  demand 
and  supply.  A  hand  of  wampum  was  equal  to  four  inches.  In 
the  Hatfield  purchase  it  was  reckoned  seven  inches.  A  fathom 
was  ten  hands  and  was  ordinarily  worth  five  shillings.  It  was 
much  used  for  ornaments,  such  as  belts,  bracelets,  head-bands, 
ear-pendants,  and  by  the  squaws  of  chiefs  for  aprons.  Its  use 
in  trade  was  continued  for  many  years  by  the  whites. 

The  first  purchase  on  account  of  the  Hadley  settlers  was 
made  December  25,  1658,  and  embraced  the  lands  on  the  east 
side  of  the  Connecticut,  from  the  mouth  of  Fort  River  and  Mt. 
Holyoke,  on  the  south,  to  the  mouth  of  Mohawk  brook  and  the 
southern  part  of  Mt.  Toby,  on  the  north,  being  about  nine  miles 
in  length,  and  extending  eastwardh'  nine  miles  into  the  woods. 
The  price  paid  was  two  hundred  and  twenty  fathoms  of  wam- 
pum and  one  large  coat,  equal  to  ^"62  lo.  The  deed  was  signed 
by  Umpanchala.  Quonquont  and  Chickwallop.  Quonquont 
reserved  one  cornfield  of  twelve — sixteen — twenty  acres,  near 
his  fort  ;  and  all  reser^-ed  the  liberty  to  hunt  deer  or  fowl,  and 
to  take  fish,  beaver  and  otter. 

The  second   purchase    was   made  July    10,  1660,  and  com- 


prised  the  lands  on  the  west  or  Hatfield  side,  from  Capawong 
brook  (now  Mill  river)  on  the  south,  to  the  brook  called  Wunck- 
compss,  which  comes  out  of  the  Great  Pond,  and  over  the  brook 
to  the  upper  side  of  the  meadow  called  Mincommuck.  on  the 
north,  and  extending  westerly  nine  miles  into  the  woods.  (The 
north  line  was  probably  where  is  now  the  meadow  road  running 
east  and  west,  just  north  of  the  dwelling  house  of  Austin  S. 
Jones.  Esq.)  The  price  paid  was  three  hundred  fathoms  of 
wampum  and  some  small  gifts,  equal  to  ^75.  The  deed  is 
signed  by  Umpanchala  and  approved  by  his  brother.  Etowotnq. 
The  reserA-ations  were  the  Chickens,  or  planting  field,  and  the 
liberty  to  hunt  deer  and  other  wild  creatures,  to  take  fish  and  to 
set  wigwams  on  the  Commons,  and  take  wood  and  trees  for  use. 

The  third  purchase  was  the  meadow  called  Capawonk.  lying 
in  the  south  part  of  Hatfield.  The  deed  is  dated  January  22, 
1663.  This  meadow  had  been  bought  of  the  Indians  in  1657. 
for  fifty  shillings,  by  the  Northampton  Planters.  The  price  paid 
by  Had  ley  was  £30. 

These  three  purchases  comprise  all  the  territory  north  of 
Fort  River  and  Northampton,  actually  possessed  by  Hadley. 
No  bounds  were  established  for  the  town  by  any  act  of  incorpo- 
ration ;  and  the  only  claim  it  had  to  what  is  now  the  northerly 
part  of  Hatfield  and  Whately,  was  a  report  of  commissioners 
appointed  by  the  General  Court  to  lay  out  the  new  plantation, 
in  which  their  north  bounds  on  this  side  of  the  river  are  stated 
"To  be  a  great  mountain  called  Wequomps," — which  report  of 
Commissioners  seems  never  to  have  been  accepted.  And  the 
last  two  purchases,  viz.:  From  Northampton  bounds  on  the 
south,  to  a  line  just  north  of  Great  Meadow,  comprise  all  the 
territory  west  of  the  river  owned  by  Hatfield  at  the  time  the 
latter  town  was  incorporated.  The  tract  of  land  lying  northerly 
from  Great  Meadow  (now  North  Hatfield  and  Whately)  was 
purchased  of  the  Indians  by  Hatfield,  October  19,  1672.  This 
was  Quonquont's  land,  and  the  deed  was  signed  by  his  widow 
Sarah  Quanquan,  his  son  Pocunohouse,  his  daughter  Majesset 
and  two  others.  The  price  paid  was  fifty  fathoms  of  wampum- 
peag.  The  south  line  was  trom  a  walnut  tree  standing  by  the 
river  in  Mincommuck  meadow,  westerly  out  into  the  woods.  It 
was  bounded  on  the  north  by  Weekioannuck  brook,  where  the 
Pocumtuck  path  crosses  it — the  line  running  east  to  the  great 
river,  and  west  six  miles  into  the  woods. 

The  reservations    in   these   deeds    were  somewhat    varied 


lO 

but  it  was  understood  by  both  parties — indeed  it  was  a  tradition 
current  in  my  own  boyhood — that  the  Indians  had  the  right  of 
hunting,  fowling  and  fishing  anywliere.  and  to  take  what  wal- 
nut and  white  ash  trees  they  had  occasion  to  use  for  baskets  and 
brooms." 

We  add  here  a  few  words  about  Weekioannuck  brook.  I 
have  ascertained  by  measurements  as  follows,  viz.;  going  east 
from  Deerfield  road  on  the  line  of  the  uppermost  lot  (No.  70)  2d 
division  of  commons,  starting  from  a  stone  boundary  standing 
on  the  east  bank  of  an  old  ditch.  This  south  from  the  corner 
stone  in  the  South  Deerfield  cemetery  41  chains,  37  links,  or  165 
rods  and  12  links  to  said  stone.  Thence  east.  26  chains  and  20 
links  to  ditch  top  of  Hopewell  hill,  then  37  chains,  97  links  to 
an  oak  tree  on  the  west  bank  of  the  brook,  Weekioannuck,  39 
chains,  72  links  to  an  oak  tree  on  the  east  bank  of  the  said 
brook,  154  rods,  22  links  to  the  east  oak  tree.  The  brook  run- 
ning in  almost  the  line  of  the  town  line.  From  this  last  oak  tree 
it  is  112  rods  to  the  bound  stone  north  of  the  Capt.  Parker  place, 
or  124  rods  to  the  centre  of  the  Sunderland  road.  This  is  from 
a  careful  survey-  made  by  C.  G,  and  J.  M.  Crafts  in  1SS3. 


CHAPTER    I  I. 

SETTLEMENTS — DIVISION    OF    LANDS — INCORPORATION 

OF    HATFIELD. 

The  first  planters  of  Mew  England  were  wholly  unaccus- 
tomed to  the  work  of  clearing  off  woodlands.  They  had  seen 
and  heard  nothing  of  it  in  the  mother  country.  Hence  the  ear- 
liest settlements  were  uniformly  made  at  places  where  they  could 
besrin  immediately  to  cultivate  the  ground  and  find  natural 
pastures  and  meadows. 

It  was  considered  scarcely  desirable  or  safe  to  form  a  Plan- 
tation where  there  was  not  plenty  of  "fresh  marsh" — what  we 
should  call  open  swamp.  And  so  when  the  west  side  people 
petitioned  for  a  new  town,  the  Hadley  Committee,  in  their  an- 
swer to  the  General  Court,  gave  as  one  of  the  strongest  reasons 
against  the  separation,  that  the  tract  west  of  the  river  "does 
not  afiford  boggy  meadows  or  such  like  that  men  can  live  upon  ; 
but  their  subsistence  must  be  from  their  Home  lots  and  inter- 
vals." 

Both  the  east  and  west  side  settlers  found  the  meadows  and 
adjacent  uplands  ready  for  grazing  and  tillage.  There  was 
needed  no  preliminary  work  of  clearing  off  the  forests.  They 
began  to  plant  corn  and  sow  wheat  and  flax  and  mow  grass  the 
first  season. 

From  early  times  the  Indians  had  been  accustomed  to  .burn 
over  the  whole  country  annually  in  November,  after  the  leaves 
had  fallen  and  the  grass  had  become  dry,  which  kept  the 
meadows  clean,  and  prevented  any  growth  of  underbrush  on  the 
uplands.     One  by  one  the  older  trees  would  give  way,  and  thus 


12 

many  cleared  fields,  or  tracts  with  only  here  and  there  a  tree, 
would  abound,  where  the  sod  would  be  friable,  ready  for  the 
plow  :  or  be  already  well  covered  with  grass  ready  for  pastur- 
age. The  meadow  lands  thus  burnt  over,  threw  out  an  early 
nnd  rich  growth  of  nutritions  grasses,  which  if  let  alone  grew 
"Up  to  a  man's  face."  Then  there  were  plots  of  ground,  of 
greater  or  less  extent,  which  the  Indian  squaws  had  cultivated 
in  their  rude  way  with  shell  or  wooden  hoes,  and  where  they 
had  raised  squashes  and  beans  and  corn. 

Strange  as  it  mav  seem,  both  timber  and  fire  wood  were 
scarce  in  the  valley  when  the  first  settlement  was  made.  At  the 
outset  Hatfield  passed  a  vote  that  no  clapboards,  shingles  or 
rails,  or  coopering  stuff  should  be  sold  "to  go  out  of  town." 
The  upland  woods,  on  each  side  of  the  river,  both  above  and 
below  the  towns,  were  passable  for  men  on  horseback. 

As  already  stated,  the  Hadley  planters  were  from  Wethers- 
field  and  Hartford,  in  the  Connecticut  Colony.  They  had 
mostly  come  over  from  England  in  the  years  1632  to  '34,  and 
landed  at  the  mouth  of  the  Charles  river  in  Massachusetts.  A 
part  lived  at  Watertown  till  1635,  when  they  removed  to  Weth- 
ersfield.  Mr.  Hooker,  who  came  over  with  his  flock  in  1633, 
stopped  in  Cambridge  till  '36,  when  they  removed  to  Hartford. 
Thus  they  had  resided  in  Connecticut  about  twenty-five  years. 

The  reason  for  leaving  Wethersfield  and  Hartford,  and 
seeking  a  new  residence  in  Hadley  and  Hatfield,  was  on  account 
of  a  schism  in  church  government.  It  was  strongly  held  that 
infants  d\-ing  in  an  unbaptized  state  were  lost  forever.  This 
really  abominable  tenet  in  the  church  was  strongly  opposed  by 
the  more  liberal  element  in  the  church  and  at  length  proved  suc- 
cessful, and  "persons  not  of  scandalous  character,"  who  would 
consent  solemnly  to  the  covenant,  really  joined  the  church 
"half-way."  This  would  allow  them  to  have  their  children 
baptized  and  if  the  sacrement  of  baptism  was  administered  it 
was  held  that  in  the  event  of  the  child  dying  before  coming  to 
the  age  of  moral  accountability,  it  would  be  saved.  The  di- 
vergence of  opinions  relative  to  this  matter  caused  the  removal 
to  Hadley  and  Hatfield. 

Those  who  came  were  the  bitter  opponents  of  more  liberal 
practices,  edged  about  by  a  conscientious  desire  to  worship 
as  they  deemed  only  right  and  proper.  On  these  questions, 
very  warm,  if  not  to  say,  hot  discussions  were  held  not  only  at 
Hartford  and  Wethersfield,  but  all  over  New  England.     It  was 


13 

npon  this  division  of  sentiment  and  other  really  unimportant 
matters  that  they  determined  to  leave  their  pleasant  nomes  and 
remove  to  Massachusetts.  It  is  quite  probable  that  they  well 
understood  the  condition  of  Hatfield,  even  when  they  formed 
the  agreement  to  remove  in  1^159.  and  probably  knew  the  pre- 
cise lot  assigned  to  them.  It  is  generally  agreed  that  but  one 
of  the  settlers  of  Hatfield  was  actually  on  the  ground  until  about 
the  first  of  October,  1^61.  Richard  Fellows  came  in  the  spring. 
He  in  1659  removed  to  Springfield  and  thence  to  Northampton 
and  in  1661  to  Hatfield,  where  he  died  in  1663.  Zechariah 
Field  came  to  Northampton  in  1659,  and  as  early  as  1663  re- 
moved to  Hatfield.  But  the  majority  of  the  first  settlers  came 
about  the  first  of  October,  166 r. 

It  is  claimed  that  ten  days  were  taken  for  the  journey  of 
some  less  than  50  miles,  as  brooks,  creeks  and  other  streams 
had  to  be  bridged  or  fording  places  found,  swamps  and  mo- 
rasses corduroyed  to  afford  safe  passage  for  their  carts,  heavily 
loaded  with  their  women  and  small  children  and  their  personal 
effects.  Of  course  this  required  an  efficient  force  of  pioneers. 
They  brought  with  them  their  stock  of  various  kinds.  One 
could  now  much  easier  move  to  California,  and  accomplish  it 
quicker. 

Availing  myself  of  the  assistance  of  that  exceedingly  well- 
posted  antiquary.  D.  W.  Wells,  Esq.,  of  Hatfield,  and  long  time 
President  of  the  Smith  Charities,  enables  me  to  fill  up  the 
list  of  the  noble  band  of  Hatfield's  first  settlers.  Richard  Fel- 
lows, in  the  spring  of  1661.  Then  came  later  John  Coleman, 
Thomas  Graves.  Isaac  Graves.  John  Graves,  Samuel  Belden, 
Stephen  Taylor,  Daniel  Warner,  Daniel  White,  John  White, 
Jr..  John  Cowles.  or  Cole,  Ozias  Goodwin,  Richard  Billings, 
Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  Samuel  Dickinson,  Obadiah  Dickin- 
son, William  Gull,  Eleazer  Frary,  Samuel  Kellogg,  John  Wells, 
Philip  Russell  and  probably  John  Hawks,  Samuel  Gillett. 
Thomas  Bull  gave  up  his  claim.  And  it  is  claimed  that 
Wm.  Allis  and  Tliomas  Meekins  came  in  166 1,  possibly  with 
the  others  by  way  of  the  cart  path  through  Westfield. 

Judd's  History  of  Hadley  says  that  Hadley  in  166 1  allotted 
176  acres  to  the  Hatfield  settlers,  giving  most  of  the  settlers  eight 
acres  each  where  they  had  families;  to  some  young  men  four 
acres  each.  Thomas  Graves,  then  a  very  old  man,  was  not 
given  any,  as  he  lived  with  his  son  Isaac.  A  homestead  of 
eight  acres  was  assigned  to  Thomas  Bull,  but    for  some  reason 


he  gave  it  up  and  went  back  to  Hartford.  There  were  six  that 
only  had  four  acres  each,  making  24  acres;  and  nineteen  that 
had  eight  acres  each,  making  152  acres,  which  with  24  added 
makes  the  whole  176  acres  granted  by  Hadley. 

It  is  quite  in  the  line  of  probability  that  each  settler  knew 
just  where  his  lot  was  before  he  came  as  Samuel  Partridge  said, 
"A  meeting  was  held  on  the  west  side  of  the  Connecticut  River 
in  1660."  And  this  was  doubtless  that  of  a  committee  sent  up 
to  lay  out  the  several  lots  on  each  side  of  the  wide  street.  The 
location  of  these  lots  is  fairly  well  known  to  the  present  gener- 
ation of  Hatfield  people. 

Perhaps  I  may  be  justified  in  giving  a  few  words  relevant 
to  some  of  the  lots  now  occupied  by  public  buildings.  The 
meeting  house,  Town  hall  and  Congregational  parsonage  are 
all  on  the  lot  assigned  to  Lieut.  William  Allis.  The  Memorial 
hall  is  on  the  lot  assigned  to  Thomas  Meekins.  The  Smith 
academy  on  the  lot  assigned  to  Samuel  Kellogg,  all  nice  struc- 
tures.  The  Main  street  was  surrounded  by  a  continuous  line  of 
palisades.  These  extended  from  the  highway  to  Northampton, 
north  about  one  hundred  and  two  rods  f^nd  about  12  rods  west 
and  so  east  of  the  street.  This  really  enclosed  all  of  the  orig- 
inal settlers'  houses,  with  good  and  substantial  gates.  Settlers 
who  came  later  were  outside  of  the  palisades,  and  it  was  that 
part  that  was  raided  by  the  Indians  September  19,  1677,  when 
12  were  killed  and  17  captives  carried  to  Canada. 

The  first  comers  were  men  of  wealth  and  good  social  posi- 
tion, and  were  regarded  by  the  Massachusetts  authorities  as  a 
most  desirable  addition  to  her  population.  They  had,  as  their 
subsequent  history  proved,  the  self  reliance  and  earnestness  and 
courage  which  usualh'  attach  to  men  who  strike  out  a  new  path 
for  conscience's  sake. 

The  agreement  to  remove  to  the  new  purchase  was  signed 
April  j8,  1659,  and  some  went  up  that  summer  to  make  prepa- 
ration for  a  general  transfer.  Perhaps  a  few  families  spent  the 
winter  of  '59-to  at  the  new  plantation,  which  at  first  was  called 
New  Toun.     It  received  the  name  of  Hadleigh  in  1661. 

Division  of  Lands.  By  agreement,  made  before  leaving 
Connecticut,  each  original  proprietor  received  an  equal  share, 
viz.,  eight  acres  of  land  as  a  home  lot.  The  street  on  the  Had- 
ley side  was  laid  out  twenty  rods  wide  and  the  lots  extended 
back  from  it  on  each  side.  The  street  on  the  Hatfield  side  was 
ten  rods  wide,  and  the    first  home  lots  at    the  lower   end  con- 


15 

tained  eight  acres.     Those  granted  afterwards,   further  north, 
contained  only  four  acres. 

Ownership  of  land  in  fee  simple,  by  every  inhabitant,  was  a 
characteristic  American  idea  and  was  a  corner  stone  of  the  social 
fabric  built  by  our  fathers.  It  was  personal  independence,  it 
was  capital,  it  was  power,  it  was  permanence  and  it  was  substan- 
tial equality.  The  first  planters  here  recognized  the  principle 
that  ever>'  honest  citizen,  whatever  the  amount  of  his  cash 
assets,  had  a  right  to  so  much  land  as  secured  him  an  indepen- 
dent home,  a  real  property,  which  could  not  be  alienated  except 
by  his  own  option;  which  assured  him  the  tneans  of  rearing  and 
educating  a  family.  He  was  a  free  man  indeed.  He  had  some- 
thing to  build  upon,  something  to  fix  his  affections  upon,  some- 
thing to  defend,  something  to  leave  his  children,  which  they 
after  him  could  love  and  build  upon  and  defend.  Love  of  home 
and  love  of  country  are  co-ordinate  and  reciprocal  and  have 
their  most  \dtal  rootln  ownership  of  the  soil,  with  the  power  and 
privilege  it  engenders. 

Our  ancestors  in  this  valley  could  never  have  stood  against 
the  tides  of  savage  warfare,  which  in  rapid  succession  burst  over 
them,  had  it  not  been  that  they  defended  their  own  and  their 
children's  home  and  heritage 

As  we  have  seen,  the  first  division  of  home  lots  was  equal. 
But.  after  this  first  equal  division,  all  subsequent  allotments  of 
meadows  and  intervals  were  made  according  to  estates.  Vet 
here  only  a  nominal  inequality  was  allowed,  a  single  man  of 
twenty-one  receiving  one-fourth  as  much  as  the  man  of  large 
wealth  and  family. 

The  term  estates,  as  used  at  that  time,  requires  an  explana- 
tion. It  did  not  represent  a  man's  actual  property,  real  or  per 
sonal.  Precisely  how  the  thing  was  brought  about  we  are  not 
informed.  But  by  mutual  agreement,  evidently  satisfactory  to 
all  parties,  a  sum  varying  from  /,'50  for  a  young  unmarried  man 
to  /"200  for  a  man  of  independent  means,  was  set  against 
each  proprietor's  name  and  called  his  estate,  and  used  as  a  ba- 
sis of  land  distribution  and  taxation.  The  wealthy  planters  con- 
sented to  receive  less  than  their  proper  share  of  lands  and  were 
held  to  pay  less  than  their  ratable  proportion  of  expenses;  while 
the  young  man,  for  the  sake  of  receiving  a  larger  allotment  of 
land,  agreed  to  pay  a  proportionate  part  of  the  plantation  taxes. 

And  the  principle  of  substantial  equality  was  further  recog- 
nized by  the  peculiar  method  adopted  in-  distributing  the  com- 


i6 

mon  fields,  where  no  one  received  his  full  share  in  one  lot,  in 
which  case  he  would  run  the  chance  to  get  all  good  or  all  poor 
land, -but  each  meadow  was  first  partitioned  off  into  two  or  more 
parts,  and  each  proprietor  had  a  share  in  the  subdivision  of  the 
several  parts.  Thus  the  North  or  Great  Meadow  was  first  ap- 
portioned into  six  parts,  and  each  west  side  settler  had  a  lot  in 
each  of  the  six  divisions.  Little  Meadow  was  apportioned  into 
two  parts  and  South  Meadow  into  three  parts,  each  proprietor 
receiving  a  lot  in  each  part.  A  ^^50  estate  drew  of  mead- 
ow land  thirteen  and  one-half  acres  in  all  ;  a  ^"200  estate 
drew  fifty-four  and  one-half  acres.  At  the  same  time  the  vast 
extent  of  upland  was  open  to  all  equally  for  wood,  rimber  and 
pasturage. 

And  now  they  began  to  build  upon  these  foundations.  As 
there  were  no  sawmills  driven  by  water,  the  frame  and  covering 
of  their  houses  must  be  got  out  by  hand.  Boards  as  well  as 
joists  were  sawed  in  saw  pits,  as  they  were  called,  i.  e.,  two 
men,  one  above  on  a  scaffolding,  and  one  below  in  the  pit.  work- 
ing the  saw,  but  most  of  the  covering  stuflT  for  buildings  was 
split  or  cleft.  These  cloven  boards,  or  clapboards,  were  com- 
monly from  four  to  six  feet  long,  five  inches  wide  and  six-eighths 
of  an  inch  thick  on  the  back.  Shingles  were  all  the  way  from 
fourteen  inches  to  three  feet  long,  and  one  inch  thick  at  the 
thick  end.      At  first  all  stuff  was  split  from  oak. 

Fences,  next  in  order  after  roads  and  houses,  were  built. 
The  home  lots,  which  were  fenced  by  the  owners,  usually  with 
posts  and  rails,  required  above  twenty  miles  of  fencing.  The 
common  fields,  except  Great  Meadow,  which  was  surrounded 
by  ponds  and  brooks,  were  usually  enclosed  with  a  broad  ditch, 
on  the  bank  of  which  were  set  two  poles  or  three  rails,  making 
the  whole  over  four  feet  in  height.  The  ditch  was  on  the  out- 
side, as  the  main  object  was  to  keep  out  roving  animals.  The 
by-laws  regarding  fences  were  minute  and  strict.  Common 
fences  were  required  to  be  made  good  by  March  20th  of  each 
year,  and  to  be  so  close  as  to  keep  out  swine  three  months  old. 
Each  proprietor  of  a  common  field  was  required  to  fence  accord- 
ing to  the  number  of  acres  he  held  in  the  field,  and  "To  have  a 
stake  twelve  inches  high  at  the  end  of  his  fence,  with  the  two 
first  letters  of  his  name  facing  the  way  the  fence  runs."  The 
location  of  a  man's  fence,  like  that  of  his  land,  was  determined 
by  lot. 


17 

Gates  were  placed  wherever  a  road  crossed  a  common  field. 
If  a  person,  owner  or  traveler,  left  open  the  gates  or  bars  of  a 
meadow  after  March  20,  he  had  to  pay  2s.  6d.;  at  a  later  date 
the  fine  was  5  shillings  besides  all  damages.  Gates  were  in 
existence  on  the  River  road  and  in  other  parts  of  the  town  after 
the  Revolution. 

All  males  over  sixteen  years  were  required  to  work  one  day 
yearly  on  the  highway  and  owners  of  meadow  land  at  the  rate 
of  one  day  for  every  twenty  acres.  All  over  fourteen  years  were 
required  to  work  one  day  in  June  cutting  brush  or  clearing  the 
commons. 

At  first  the  tillage  lands  were  devoted  mainly  to  corn, 
wheat,  peas  and  flax,  as  these  were  the  essential  articles  of  food 
and  the  means  of  payment  of  debts  and  taxes,  and  an  important 
item  of  each  season's  work  was  the  gathering  of  fire  wood  and 
candle  wood.  The  latter  was  the  pitch,  or  hard  pine,  and  was 
the  only  substitute  for  candles  for  a  number  of  years. 

The  first  gristmill  was  built  in  r662  by  Thomas  Meekins, 
on  Hatfield  Mill  River.  (The  stream  in  a  town  on  which  a 
mill  was  first  erected  was  usually  called  Mill  River. )  He  re- 
ceived a  grant  of  twenty  acres  near  the  mill  for  building  it.  and 
the  town  agreed  to  have  all  the  grain  ground  at  his  mill  "Pro- 
vided he  make  good  meal." 

Formation  of  a  Church  and  Incorporation  of  the 
Town.  The  west  side  proprietors  grew  and  multiplied  so  that 
at  the  end  of  seven  years  they  numbered  forty-seven  families. 
The  river  was  a  serious  obstacle  to  the  enjoyment  of  religious 
ordinances,  and  as  early  as  1667  a  petition  for  a  separate  society 
was  sent  to  the  General  Court.  The  next  year  the  Court  granted 
them  leave  to  settle  and  maintain  a  minister,  but  Hadley 
objected,  and  an  earnest  controversy  ensued,  the  result  of  which 
was  that  the  west  side  was  incorporated  into  a  town  by  the  name 
of  Hatfields,  May  31,  1670.  At  the  time  the  Court  granted 
leave  for  separate  church  privileges  they  determined  to  have 
their  own  preaching  whether  Hadley  consented  or  not.  and  at  a 
"side  meeting,"  as  it  wascalled,  held  Nov.  6,  166S,  a  committee 
was  chosen  "To  provide  a  boarding  place  for  a  minister  and 
arrange  for  his  maintenance,  al.so  to  build  a  meeting-house  thirty 
feet  square."  No  plantation  was  considered  fit  for  municipal 
privileges  till  a  meeting-house  and  minister  were  provided  for, 
and  it  is  likely  that  their   determined    action    in  this  matter  in- 


18 

duced  the  Court  to  set  them  off  into  a  town,  even  before  they 
expected,  or  were  quite  ready  for  it. 

In  addition  to  preparation  for  the  ordinances  it  was  voted, 
at  a  side  meeting,  February,  1670,  to  lay  out  a  piece  of  ground 
twenty  rods  long  by  eight  rods  wide,  upon  the  plain  near  Thomas 
Meekin's  land,  for  a  burying  place.  They  had  also  virtually 
"called"  their  minister  and  fixed  hissalar}'  before  incorporation. 
In  the  November  following  Mr.  Hope  Atherton,  the  pastor 
elect,  signified  his  acceptance  of  the  call,  and  the  town  voted 
him,  in  addition  to  the  home  lot  of  eight  acres,  the  ministerial 
allotment  in  the  meadows  "To  build  him  a  house,  forty  by 
twenty  feet,  double  story,"  and  allow  him /r6o  a  year,  two- 
thirds  in  wheat  and  one-third  in  pork,  with  the  proviso,  "If 
our  crops  fall  so  short  that  we  cannot  pay  him  in  kind,  then  we 
are  to  pay  him  in  the  next  best  way  we  have,"  and  the  further 
proviso,  that  if  Mr.  Atherton  left  them  before  his  death  certain 
sums  were  to  be  refunded  the  town.  The  precise  date  of  the 
formation  of  the  church  is  unknown,  but  there  is  pretty  clear 
evidence,  however,  that  it  took  place  near  the  firstof  April,  1671. 

It  appears  that  only  six  of  the  male  inhabitants  were  church 
members.  These  were  Thomas  Meekins,  Sr.,  William  AUis, 
John  Cole,  Sr.,  Isaac  Graves,  Samuel  Belden  and  either  Rich- 
ard Billings  or  William  Gull.  At  a  meeting  in  February,  1671, 
the  town  voted  that  these  resident  members  should  "Be  those 
to  begin  in  gathering  the  church,  and  that  they  should  have 
power  to  choose  three  persons  to  make  up  nine  to  join  in  the 
work."  The  exact  import  of  this  last  clause  is  not  apparent. 
"As  seven  is  the  least  number  by  which  the  rule  of  church  dis- 
cipline in  the  eighteenth  chapter  of  Matthew  can  be  reduced  to 
practice,  that  number  has  been  held  necessar}'  to  form  a  church 
state.  [Ency.  Rel.  Knowl.]  And  we  find  that  at  Northamp- 
ton, in  1 66 1,  seven  men,  called  the  "seven  pillars,"  were  organ- 
ized as  a  church.  Also  at  Westfield,  in  1679,  seven  men.  called 
"foundation  men,"  were  selected  to  be  formed  into  church 
state. 

Thus  all  the  essentials  of  social  life — homes,  fenced  fields, 
roads,  a  grist  mill,  a  bur\'ing  place,  a  meeting  house  and  min- 
ister— were  secured.  Schools,  as  we  now  use  the  term,  were 
not  regarded  a  necessity  in  the  first  years  of  a  settlement.  In- 
deed, the  public  or  free  school  system  was  not  a  germ,  but  a 
growth  of  our  institutions.  To  give  all  access  to  the  Holy 
Scriptures  family  instruction  in  spelling  and  reading  was  con- 
sidered obligatory  and. was  common  from  the  first.     To  secure 


19 

this  a  law  was  passed  in  1642  requiring  the  selectmen  of  towns 
to  look  after  the  children  of  parents  and  masters  who  neglected 
to  bring  them  up  in  "learning  and  labor."  In  1647  it  was  en- 
acted that  every  town  with  fifty  families  should  provide  a  school 
where  children  might  be  taught  to  read  and  write.  Practically 
this  secured  an  education  to  only  those  who  were  able  to  pay  for 
it  and  it  was  commonly  understood  to  apply  only  to  boys. 

The  first  books  used  were  the  "Horn  Book,"  Primer,  Psal- 
ter and  Testament.  The  Horn  Book  was  the  alphabet  and  a 
few  rudiments  printed  on  one  side  of  a  card  and  pasted  upon  a 
board,  and  this  was  covered  ^vith  translucent  horn  to  prevent  its 
being  soiled.  They  were  in  use  till  about  [700  when  Dilworth's 
spelling  book  was  introduced. 

Hatfield  had  a  school  regularly  established  in  167S,  two- 
thirds  of  the  expense  being  borne  by  the  scholars  and  one-third 
by  the  town.  The  first  schoolhouse  was  built  in  1681  and  Dr. 
Thomas  Hastings  was  the  first  teacher.  It  was  not  uncommon 
to  unite  the  profession  of  physician  and  teacher  in  the  same  per- 
son, and  as  the  grandmothers  were  mainly  relied  on  for  prescrip- 
tions and  poultices  he  seems  to  have  found  sufficient  time  for 
the  discharge  of  duty  in  the  double  capacity.  The  school  year 
was  divided  into  two  terms,  beginning  respectively  about  April 
I  and  October  i.  A  separate  rate  was  made  for  each  term,  the 
parent  paying  for  only  the  time  his  child  attended.  From  a 
record  of  attendance  for  1698-9  it  appears  that  thirty-seven  boys 
were  pupils  in  the  winter  and  thirty-eight  in  the  summer,  of 
whom  only  four  were  writers.  The  salary  of  the  teacher  was 
/)30  to  ^'35  per  year,  payable  in  grain.  This  school  became 
free  in  1722. 

Though  the  statutes  relating  to  schools  use  the  word  child- 
ren, jet  it  was  understood  to  apply  primarily  to  boys.  Girls 
were  taught  to  read  at  home  or  by  "dames"  who  gathered  a 
class  at  their  private  dwellings,  but  the  education  of  girls  seems 
to  have  been  regarded  as  unnecessary  for  the  first  hundred 
vears  of  the  New  England  colonies.  Even  so  late  as  the  Amer- 
ican  Revolution  comparatively  few  women  could  write  their 
names.  In  the  grammar  schools  of  most  of  the  older  towns  no 
girls  were  found.  Boston  did  not  allow  them  to  attend  the  pub- 
lic schools  till  1790.  Northampton  admitted  them  for  the  first 
time  in  1802. 

There  is  evidence  that  girls  attended  the  school  in  Hatfield 
when  it  was  first  opened  and  for  several  years  thereafter  and 


20 

pursued  the  same  studies  as  the  boys.  From  1695  to  1699  none 
are  found  upon  the  list.  In  1700,  during  the  winter  term,  four 
girls  and  fort>--two  boys  were  in  attendance.  In- 1709  there 
were  sixteen  girls  in  a  class  of  sixty-four,  which  shows  a  rapid 
change  in  public  sentiment. 

Probably  the  mothers,  educated  in  their  girlhood  by  Dr.  Hast- 
ings, discovered  the  advantage  of  an  education,  (possibly  their 
husbands  found  out  the  same  fact),  and  when  their  daughters 
arrived  at  a  suitable  age  they  sent  them  to  school,  and  thus  the 
custom  originated  and  rapidly  gained  force  which  resulted  in  the 
Iree  school  of  1722. 

With  this  fact  in  mind,  there  is  seen  to  be  a  striking  fitness 
that  a  Hatfield  woman,  Miss  Sophia  Smith,  should  be  the  5rst 
to  found  a  female  college  in  Massachusetts.  Whately  wisely 
adopted  her  mother's  \-iews,  as  no  one  remembers  the  time  when 
girls  did  not  commonly  attend  school  and  pursue  the  same  stud- 
ies as  bo>  s. 

These  early  settlers  lived  mostly  within  themselves,  depend- 
ing on  the  produce  of  tlieir  lands  and  cattle,  though  some,  in 
addition  to  farming,  did  carpenter's  or  blacksmith's  w^ork  and 
coopering.  The  women  helped  their  husbands,  reared  children, 
bolted  the  flour  and  spun  flax  and  wool  and  wove  them  into 
cloth. 

Most  families  had  a  few  cows  and  sheep,  and  many  swine. 
Oxen  were  used  for  farm  work  and  to  haul  grain  and  flour  to 
market  and  horses  were  kept  solely  for  the  saddle.  Money  was 
scarcely  a  circulating  medium  and  trade  was  mostly  "in  kind" 
or  wampum. 

Zechariah  Field  was  the  first  who  carried  oii  trade  in  Hat- 
field, but  his  business  was  limited  and  proved  unprofitable. 
Families  bought  most  of  their  goods  of  John  Pj'nchon  of  Spring- 
field, and  paid  in  wheat,  flour,  pork  and  malt. 

Taxes  were  paid  in  grain,  and  even  the  sacramental  charges 
of  the  church  were  paid  in  wheat,  for  which  purpose  three 
half-pecks  per  member  per  year  appears  to  have  been  the  usual 
requirement. 

The  only  communication  with  the  outside  world  was  with 
Northampton  and  Springfield  and  their  old  homes  in  Connecti- 
cut. There  was  a  cartway  to  Windsor  and  Hartford  by  way  of 
Westfield,  and  there  was  a  road  to  Springfield  on  the  east  side 
of  the  river.  The  Bay  Road,  through  Quaboag,  (Brookfield) 
was  only  a  horse  path  till  after  1700. 


CHAPTER  III. 

THE    FIRST     INDIAN    WAR,     1675 — 1678. 

Thus  in  their  quiet  seclusion  and  healthful  pursuits,  and 
the  enjoyment  of  social  and  Christian  intercourse,  they  passed 
fifteen  years.  Some  who  came  to  the  valley  with  gray  hairs  had 
laid  them  down  to  rest  in  the  old  grave-yard.  The  infant  had 
become  a  youth  and  the  youth  had  reached  manhood.  With 
some  homesickness  and  reverses  the  sun  of  prosperity  beamed 
kindly  and  brightly,  and  a  future  full  of  promise  and  hope  for 
their  children  seemed  opening  upon  them.  But -on  a  sudden 
this  quiet  life  was  broken  up.  War  in  its  most  frightful  form, 
war,  such  as  the  merciless  and  treacherous  savage  knows  how 
to  wage,  burst  upon  them  ! 

Up  to  this  time  the  whites  and  red  men  had  lived  together 
on  terms  of  friendship.  There  was  no  social  equality  and  no 
mingling  of  races.  Each  led  his  own  distinctive  life  and, 
though  the  separation  between  the  two  forms  became  daily  more 
apparent,  no  conflict  occurred  and  suspicion,  if  it  existed,  was 
studiously  concealed.  The  English  had  plowed  for  the  Indians 
the  reserved  planting  field  or,  as  they  sometimes  preferred,  had 
rented  their  own  plowed  fields,  the  squaws  planting  and  tending 
them  "at  halves;"  the  Indians  had  dwelt  in  their  Fort  or  pitched 
their  wigwams  on  the  Commons  and  sometimes  on  the  home  lots 
and  gone  in  and  out  at  pleasure.  The  only  danger  apprehended 
seems  to  have  been  from  the  thieving  and  begging  propensities 
of  the  savages  and  their  anger  when  under  the  influence  of 
alcoholic  drink.  The  people  erected  no  fortifications,  and  the 
militia  men  were  rather  for  ornament  than  use.  Hatfield  had 
only  six  troopers  in  1674. 


It  had  been  the  custom  for  the  Indians  to  apply  for  ground 
to  plant  upon  and  make  arrangements  for  the  same.  ver\-  early 
in  the  season,  usually  in  February,  but  this  spring  (1675)  they 
were  silent  on  the  subject  and  made  no  preparation  for  putting 
in  a  crop.  They  also  removed  their  wigwams,  and  whatever 
goods  they  claimed,  from  the  home  lots  and  adjacent  meadows 
to  the  fort.  And  earh-  in  summer  a  favorite  squaw  counseled 
good  wife  Wright  of  Northampton  "To  get  into  town  with  her 
children.''  These  things  were  known,  but  attracted  little 
attention.  The>'  may  have  awakened  suspicion,  but  it  could 
hardly  be  called  alarm  as  it  led  to  no  special  preparations  for 
defence.    . 

In  about  three  weeks  after  the  Brookfield  fight,  the  scat- 
tered bands  of  Indians  gathered  on  the  Connecticut  river.  They 
concentrated  at  the  Fort  between  Northampton  and  Hatfield. 
Capt.  Lathrop  and  Capt.  Beers,  with  their  companies,  composed 
mostly  of  men  from  the  eastern  part  of  the  state,  having  scoured 
the  region  of  the  river,  came  to  Hadley,  probably  on  the  23d  of 
August.  As  a  precautionary  measure,  rather  than  from  a  belief 
in  their  hostile  intentions,  it  was  judged  best  to  disarm  the 
Indians  then  in  the  Fort.  And  on  the  next  day  a  parley  was 
•held  and  a  formal  demand  for  the  surrender  of  their  arms  was 
made.  The  Indians  objected  and  demanded  time  for  considera- 
tion. And  it  was  finally  agreed  that  if  a  deputation  should  be 
sent  over  the  next  morning,  a  final  answer  would  then  be  given. 
Distrusting  their  sincerity,  the  officers  determined  to  surround 
the  Fert  and  secure  their  arms  by  force,  if  need  be.  To  effect 
this  with  certainty,  about  midnight  word  was  sent  to  the  com- 
manding officer  at  Northampton  to  bring  up  his  company  to  the 
south  of  the  Fort,  "As  near  as  they  could  without  being  per- 
ceived," while  the  others  would  post  themselves  on  the  north. 
The  two  companies  then  crossed  to  the  Hatfield  side  and  moved 
quietly  down,  reaching  the  Fort  q.  little  before  break  of  day. 

But  the  movement  was  too  late  to  effect  its  object.  The 
wily  savage  had  fled,  taking  arms,  goods  and  all,  having  first 
killed  an  old  sachem  who  opposed  their  plans. 

After  a  brief  council  of  war,  the  captains  resolved  to  follow 
and  with  one  hundred  men  pursued  "At  a  great  pace,"  up  the 
Deerfield  path.  The  Indians  had  evidently  anticipated  such  a 
n)ovement  and  were  lying  in  ambush  in  a  swamp  near  the  road. 
From  the  facts  that  have  come  to  light,  it  seems  probable  that 
the  English  captains  expected  to  hold  a  parley  rather  than  to 


23 

fight,  and  were  marching  without  special  precaution.  But  on  a 
sudden,  as  the  troops  were  crossing  the  head  of  a  ravine,  the 
Indians  "Let  fly  about  forty  guns  at  them."  Oar  men  quickly 
returned  the  fire ;  some  of  them  rushed  down  into  the  swamp, 
forcing  the  enemy  to  throw  away  much  of  their  baggage,  and 
after  awhile  each  man,  after  the  Indian  manner,  got  behind  his 
tree  and  watched  his  opportunity  to  get  a  shot  at  them.  The 
fight  continued  about  three  hours,  when  the  Indians  withdrew. 
"We  lost  six  men  upon  the  ground,  a  seventh  died  of  his 
wounds  coming  home  and  two  died  the  next  night,  making  nine 
in  all."*  Only  one  of  the  killed,  Richard  Fellows,  belonged  to 
Hatfield. 

Owing  to  an  apparent  contradiction  in  the  two  accounts  of 
this  fight  extant,  Mr.  Russell  of  Hadley  placing  it  at  "A  swamp 
beyond  Hatfield"  and  Hubbard  saying  it  occurred  "Ten  miles 
above  Hatfield,  at  a  place  called  Sugar  Loaf  Hill,"  the  location 
has  not  been  hitherto  identified. 

But  there  is  really  no  contradiction.  Both  accounts  are 
agreed  that  it  was  a  swamp  above  Hatfield,  at  a  place  called 
Sugar  Loaf  Hill.  It  is  also  clear  that  our  men  were  pursuing 
the  usual  Indian  trail  between  Hatfield  and  Deerfield.  If,  then. 
a  spot  can  be  found  where  the  trail  skirts  the  edge  of  the  swamp 
near  the  foot  of  Sugar  Loaf,  the  presumption  would  be  that  the 
ambush  was  concealed  at  that  point.  And  if  this  point  furnished 
a  background  fitted  for  a  cover,  and  at  the  same  time  afforded 
good  chance  of  retreating  in  case  of  defeat,  the  presumption 
would  amount  to  almost  certainty.  The  chief  ground  of  doubt 
remaining  is  the  "ten  miles  from  Hatfield,"  stated  by  Hubbard. 
But  Mr.  Hubbard  received  his  information  at  second  hand,  while 
Mr.  Russell,  who  lived  at  Hadley  and  gathered  his  account  at 
the  time  from  the  soldiers  themselves,  names  no  distance.  And 
-this  apparent  difficulty  vanishes  when  the  common  estimate  (for 
no  measurement  had  then  been  made)  of  distances  on  this  path 
is  considered.  As  appears  from  papers  relating  to  the  "Dedham 
Grant"  the  distance  from  Hadley  to  Deerfield  was  reckoned 
"twelve  miles."  Taking  this  estimated  distance  as  a  basis  for 
getting  a  ratio  of  the  true  distance,  the  "ten  miles"  would  be  to 
the  southward  of  Sugar  Loaf.  The  only  remaining  difficulty 
is  as  to  the  exact  line  of  march.  By  reference  to  the  Indian 
deed  and  the  act  defining  the  north  line  of  Hatfield,  it  is  plain 
that  the  Deerfield  path  crossed  Sugar  Loaf   Brook  where  said 

•Stoddard's  Letter. 


24 

brook  intersects  the  Deerfield  and  Hatfield  (afterwards  Whately) 
line.  Starting  from  "Poplar  Spring,"  a  well-known  locality  on 
this  path,  and  following  the  line  of  trail  towards  the  point  indi- 
cated, at  a  point  about  a  fourth  of  a  mile  south  of  Sugar  Loaf 
Brook  the  traveler  comes  upon  a  ravine  which  exactly  meets  all 
the  published  conditions  of  the  fight.  The  swamp  h.ere  trends 
into  the  plain,  making  a  triangular  depression,  where  is  a  spring 
of  water  that  finds  its  way  into  Hopewell  Brook.  An  ambush 
of  forty  Indians!  the  number  named  by  Stoddard)  could  be  hid- 
den among  the  "beaver  holes,"  prostrate  stumps  and  huge  hem- 
looks,  and  as  their  pursuers  crossed  the  head  of  the  ravine  their 
line  would  be  exposed  for  nearly  its  whole  length,  as  the  Indians 
could  fire  up  both  slopes  of  the  bluff.  The  peculiar  lay  of  the 
land  also  accounts  for  the  fact  that  "One  of  ours  was  shot  in 
the  back  by  our  own  men,"  which  might  readily  happen  if  he 
pushed  down  into  the  swamp  while  a  part  of  the  force  remained 
on  the  opposite  of  the  triangle. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  the  destruction  of  Quaboag  and  the 
successful  stratagem  by  which  they  escaped  from  the  fort  at  Hat- 
field and  the  indecisive  struggle  at  "The  Swamp,"  last  de- 
scribed, greatly  encouraged  the  Indians.  The  advantage  gained 
was  on  their  side.  The  loss  of  the  Indians  in  the  Swamp  fight 
was  put  by  our  men  at  twenty-six,  but  this  is  conjecture  and  the 
numbei  is  improbable.  The  scattered  and  isolated  situation  of  the 
towns  and  their  almost  defenceless  condition  was  in  the  .savages' 
favor.  Our  officers  and  soldiers  were  not  familiar  with  their 
modes  of  warfare  and  were  not  united  in  opinion  as  to  the  best 
method  of  attack  and  defence.  The  settlers  were  not  lacking  in 
courage,  but  in  skill  and  unity. 

From  the  date  last  gi\'en,  August  25,  there  were  constant 
alarms,  individual  surprises  and  scouting,  till  the  disastrous 
fight  at  Northfield  and  desertion  of  the  place,  September  2  and 
4,  and  the  still  more  disastrous  slaughter  of  "The  flower  of  Es- 
sex" at  Muddy  Brook,  September  18.  Deerfield  was  immedi- 
ately abandoned  and  her  settlers  retired  to  Hatfield  and  Hadley. 
The  whole  valley  was  a  scene  of  apprehension  and  mourning. 
Fathers  went  out  to  cut  fire  wood  or  gather  corn  in  the  morning 
and  returned  not  ;  the  light  of  blazing  barns  at  night  sent  fear 
to  the  hearts  of  the  boldest  ;  the  crack  of  the  Indian's  gun  in  the 
thicket  was  at  once  the  traveler's  warning  and  death  knell. 

Thus  passed  the  month  after  the  battle  of  Muddy  Brook, 
afterwards   appropriately   called    Bloody    Brook.     The  savages 


.      25 

were  always  on  the  alert  and  usually  appeared  just  when  and 
where  they  were  least  expected.  Springfield  was  burned  Octo- 
ber 5,  the  very  day  on  which  an  attack  on  Hadley  from  the 
north  was  expected.  An  extract  from  a  letter  written  by  Maj. 
John  Pynchon,  dated  Hadley,  September  30,  will  give  a  vivid 
picture  of  the  situation:  "We  are  endeavoring  to  discover  the 
enemy  and  daily  send  out  scouts,  but  little  is  effected.  Our 
English  are  somewhat  awk  and  fearful  in  scouting  and  spying, 
though  we  do  the  best  we  can.  We  have  no  Indian  friends  here 
to  help  us.  We  find  the  Indians  have  their  scouts  out.  Two 
days  ago  two  Englishmen  at  Northampton,  being  gone  out 
in  the  morning  to  cut  wood,  and  but  a  little  from  the  house, 
were  both  shot  down  dead,  having  two  bullets  apiece  shot  into 
each  of  their  breasts.  The  Indians  cut  off  their  scalps,  took 
their  arms  and  were  off  in  a  trice."  And  in  a  postcript  to 
another  letter,  dated  October  8,  he  says:  "To  speak  my 
thoughts,  all  these  towns  ought  to  be  garrisoned  as  I  have  for- 
merly hinted.  To  go  out  after  the  Indians  in  the  swamps  and 
thickets  is  to  hazard  all  our  men,  unless  we  know  where  they 
keep,  which  is  altogether  unknown  to  us."  This  will  explain 
the  defensive  policy  adopted  by  the  English. 

On  Tuesday,  the  19th  of  October,  early  in  the  morning,  the 
Indians  kindled  great  fires  in  the  woods  to  the  northward  of 
Hatfield,  probably  in  the  neighborhood  of  "Mother  George,"  to 
attract  the  village  people,  and  then  concealed  themselves  in  the 
bushes  to  await  the  result.  About  noon,  ten  horsemen  were 
sent  out  to  scout,  and  as  they  were  passing  the  ambush  the 
Indians  fired,  killing  six  and  taking  three  prisoners,  one  of 
whom  they  afterwards  tortured  to  death.  They  then  fell  with 
all  their  fury  upon  the  village,  evidently  hoping  to  wipe  it  out 
as  they  had  done  to  Northfield  and  Deerfield.  But,  as  the 
chronicle  has  it,  "According  to  the  good  providence  of  God," 
Capt.  Mosely  and  Capt.  Poole,  who  with  their  companies  then 
garrisoned  Hatfield,  successfully  repelled  the  assault.  After  a 
fierce  and  protracted  struggle  the  Indians  fled,  having  mortally 
wounded  one  soldier  and  burned  /.  few  buildings.  This  was  the 
first  decided  defeat  they  had  suffered,  if  we  except  the  repulse 
at  Hadley  (of  which  so  little  is  known)  through  the  skill  and 
courage  of  Gen.  Goflfe. 

Soon  after  this  affair  the  main  body  of  the  Indians  withdrew 
from  this  part  of  the  valley.  The  people  of  Hatfield  immedi- 
ately began  the  construction  of  palisades  around  the  more  thickly 


26 

built  portion  of  the  village,  comprising,  probably,  the  southern 
end  of  the  street;  they  also  fortified  the  mill  and  some  of  the 
more  exposed  houses. 

Winter  set  in  early  and  though  no  attack  was  made,  or  seri- 
ously apprehended,  the  time  passed  gloomily  enough.  Most  of 
the  families  from  Deerfield.  and  some  from  Northfield,  were 
gathered  here  and  a  company  of  thirty-six,  under  Lieut.  Wil- 
liam Allis.  were  quartered  upon  the  people.  Food  appears  to 
have  been  plenty,  but  the  deep  snows  (north  of  Brookfield  the 
snow  was  "mid-thigh"  deep)  and  severe  cold  prevented  much 
communication  with  other  parts  of  the  Colony.  Shut  up  and 
shut  out  from  the  world  as  they  were,  thoughts  of  the  past  and 
apprehensions  for  the  future  must  have  weighed  heavily  on  rheir 
hearts. 

Mr.  Russell's  report  of  the  numbers  slain  in  Hampshire 
county  in  1675  is  as  follows. 

Aug.  2,  at  Brookfield,  13  Sept.  28,  at  Northampton,  2 

Aug.  25,  above  Hatfield,  9  Oct.  5,  at  Springfield,  4 

Sept.  1,  at  Deerfield,  2  Oct.  19,  at  Hatfield,  10 

Sept.  2,  at  Northfield,  8  Oct.  27,  at  Westfield,  3 

Sept.  4,  at  Northfield,  16  Oct.  29,  at  Northampton,  4 

Sept.  18,  at  Muddy  Brook  74  

Total,  145 

The  number  here  given  is  probably  too  large  by  two.  Of  these 
not  less  than  forty-four  were  inhabitants  of  the  county,  the  rest 
were  soldiers  from  other  parts  of  the  Colony. 

From  the  testimony  of  a  Christian  Indian,  employed  as  a 
spy,  the  River  Indians  had  their  main  winter  quarters  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Connecticut,  above  Northfield,  though  a  few 
wintered  to  the  eastward  of  Albany.  They  returned  to  Hamp- 
shire county  near  the  end  of  February. 

When  the  fishing  season  arrived  they  established  them- 
selves, as  usual,  about  the  Falls  above  Deerfield.  They  also 
planted  large  fields  of  corn,  both  at  Northfield  and  Deerfield. 
This  would  go  to  show  that  they  considered  themselves  still 
masters  of  the  situation,  and  we  can  readily  credit  the  testi- 
mony of  Thomas  Reed,  an  escaped  captive,  that  "They  are 
secure  and  scornful,  boasting  of  great  things  they  have  done 
and  will  do." 

About  the  middle  of  April.  1676,  a  party  of  these  Deerfield 
Indians  went  down  to  Hatfield  North  Meadow  and  drove  off 
eighty  head  of  horses  and  cattle.  They  kept  these  cattle  for  a 
time  in  the  common  field,  previously  well  fenced  by  the  settlers. 


^7 

• 

at  the  Deerfield  meadow,  where  Reed  saw  them,  and   '"Found 

the  bars  put  up  to  keep  them  in."  ' 

The  report  which  this  man  Reed  brought  in  of  the  defiant 
manner  of  the  savages  and  their  quiet  possession  of  the  culti- 
vated fields  of  the  expelled  settlers,  seems  to  have  roused  the 
spirit  of  the  English  and  induced  them  to  take  the  offensive. 
"This  being  the  state  of  things,"  writes  Mr.  Russell,  "We  think 
the  Lord  calls  us  to  make  some  trial  what  mav  be  done  against 
them  suddenly  without  further  delay  ;  and  therefore  the  concur- 
ring resolution  of  men  here  seems  to  be  to  go  out  against  them 
to-morrow  at  night  so  as  to  be  with  them,  the  Lord  assisting, 
before  break  of  day." 

This  was  written  May  15th.  and  the  determination  was 
carried  into  effect  the  rSth,  when  about  one  hundred  and  fifty 
mounted  men,  chiefly  from  the  river  towns,  with  Benjamin  Wait 
and  Experience  Hinsdale  as  guides,  started  from  Hatfield.  "To 
assail-the  Indians  at  the  falls  above  Deerfield." 

The  expedition  was  under  command  of  Capt.  William  Tur- 
ner. "They  found. the  Indians  all  asleep,  without  having  any 
scout  abrqad,  so  that  our  soldiers  came  and  put  their  guns  into 
their  wigwams  before  the  Indians  were  aware  of  them  and  did 
make  a  great  and  notable  slaughter  among  them.  Some  got 
out  of  the  wigwams  and  fought  and  killed  one  of  the  English  ; 
others  did  enter  the  river  to  swim  over  from  the  English,  but 
many  were  shot  dead  in  the  waters;  others  wounded  were  there- 
in drowned,  many  got  into  canoes  to  paddle  away,  but  the  pad- 
dles being  shot,  the  canoes  overset  with  all  therein  ;  and  the 
stream  being  violent  and  swift  near  the  falls  most  that  fell  over- 
board were  carried  upon  the  falls.  Others  of  them,  creeping  for 
shelter  under  the  banks  of  the  great  river,  were  espied  by  our 
men  and  killed  with  their  swords."*  The  number  of  Indians 
slain,  most  of  them  women  and  children,  was  probably  about 
one  hundred  and  seventy-five,  though  the  account  at  the  time 
made  it  much  larger. 

But  this  first  success  in  earlv  morning  was  later  in  the  dav 
changed  into  a  most  disastrous  rout  of  the  English.  The  Indi- 
ans, who  were  camped  on  the  east  bank  and  on  Smead's  Island, 
crossed  the  river  and  assailed  our  men  in  the  rear  after  they  had 
begun  their  homeward  march.  At  the  same  time  a  report  that 
King  Philip  with  a  thousand  warriors  was  at  hand  got  started 
and  produced  a  panic. 

•History  of  Hadley. 


2g 
• 

Our  men  got  scattered  ;  Capt.  Turner  was  shot  as  he  was 
passing  Green  river;  many  lost  their  way  in  the  woods  ;  and 
though  Capt.  Holyoke,  the  second  in  command,  conducted  the 
retreat  with  great  bravery  and  skill,  he  was  followed  by  the  vic- 
torious savages  to  the  south  end  of  Deerfield  meadow.  In  all, 
thirt}--eight  of  the  English  were  killed,  three  of  whom  were 
Hatfield  men,  viz.  :  Samuel  Gillet,  John  Church  and  William 
Allis,  Jr. 

The  battle  was  fought  on  Friday,  but  some  of  the  men  who 
got  lost  wandered  about  for  two  or  three  days.  Jonathan 
Wells,  who  was  wounded,  after  severe  suffering  and  several 
narrow  escapes,  reached  Hatfield  on  the  Sabbath.  Rev.  Hope 
Atherton  of  Hatfield.  wl:o  accompanied  the  troops,  "After  sub- 
sisting." as  he  sa}-s,  "The  space  of  three  days  and  part  of 
another,  without  ordinary  food,"  came  into  Hadley  about  noon 
on  Monday. 

This  double  defeat  had  its  natural  result.  The  English 
saw  the  need  of  a  larger  force  which  could  crush  by  its  very 
weight;  and  the  Indians  felt  weakened  by  so  great  a  loss,  and 
contented  themselves  with  securing  a  stock  of  provisions,  partly 
by  the  fisheries  and  partly  by  plunder. 

Their  first  plundering  expedition  was  against  Hatfield, 
which  was  easiest  of  access  from  their  camp  above  Deerfield. 
On  the  30th  of  May,  while  most  of  the  men  were  away  at  work 
in  their  planting  field,  a  large  body  of  Indians,  estimated  at 
between  two  and  three  hundred,  made  a  simultaneous  attack 
on  the  line  of  palisaded  dwellings,  on  the  herdsmen  tending  the 
cattle  and  on  the  men  at  work  in  the  fields.  Holding  these  last 
at  bay  they  fired  twelve  houses  and  barns,  killed  or  drove  away 
manj'  of  the  cattle  and  nearly  all  the  sheep.  Seeing  the  flames 
of  the  burning  buildings,  a  company  of  twenty-five  young  men 
from  Hadley  crossed  the  river  in  face  of  a  hot  fire  from  the  ene- 
my and  by  their  daring  bravery  saved  the  town.  This  company 
lost  five  of  their  own  number,  but  so  far  as  appears,  none  of 
Hatfield  were  slain. 

A  large  body  of  troops  now  concentrated  in  the  valley. 
About  four  hundred  and  fifty  came  up  from  Connecticut  under 
Major  Talcott.  Capt.  Henchman,  with  over  three  hundred  and 
fifty  men,  arrived  soon  after  from  the  Bay.  These  scoured  the 
country  northward  and  eastward,  and  effectually  scattered  the 
enemy.  In  one  expedition  they  "Burnt  a  hundred  wigwams 
upon  an  island,  ruined  an  Indian  fort,  spoiled  an  abundance  of 


fish  which  they  found  in  barns  under  ground  and  destroyed 
thirty  canoes."*  Later  they  destroyed  all  the  standing  corn  at 
Deerfield  and  Northfield. 

Few  Indians  were  seen  in  the  county  later  than  July.  They 
were  suffering  from  famine  and  disease,  were  hunted  from  place 
to  place  and  many  were  killed.  Some  of  the  women  and  chil- 
dren gave  themselves  up  or  were  taken  prisoners.  The  death 
of  Philip,  August  1 2th,  appeared  to  put  an  end  to  the  war.  The 
main  body  drew  off  towards  Albany  where  they  were  harbored 
and  supplied  with  arms  by  the  authorities  acting  under  Andros. 
The  military  operations  of  the  preceding  spring,  as  well  as 
the  danger  imminent  at  that  time,  prevented  the  planting  of  the 
usual  extent  of  ground.  The  North  Meadow  was  probably  not 
put  in  tillage  at  all  this  year,  consequently  the  harvests  were 
light. 

Hatfield's  Great  Calamity.  The  spring  of  1677 
opened  propitiously.  Our  people  planted  and  tended  their  fields 
in  peace,  and  in  summer  gathered  the  hay  from  the  intervals. 
Their  sense  of  security  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  a  number  who 
were  driven  from  Deerfield  in  the  fall  of  '75  now  returned  there 
and  commenced  to  rebuild  their  houses. 

Though  rendered  cautious  by  experience  the  settlers  were 
somewhat  hardened  by  danger.  They  had  the  courage  and 
some  of  the  recklessness  which  is  always  engendered  by  constant 
alarms,  perils,  escapes  and  scouting.  "They  went  about  their 
ordinary  business  with  arms  in  their  hands,  and  to  their  solemn 
assemblies  as  one  goeth  to  the  battle,"  but  it  was  as  much  from 
habit  as  a  sense  of  imminent  danger.  As  the  fishing  season 
went  by  without  the  return  of  the  Indians  to  their  old  haunts, 
and  the  period  of  full  summer  foliage  of  the  trees,  usually  chosen 
because  of  the  better  facility  for  ambush  and  skulking,  was 
past,  they  seem  to  have  regarded  themselves  as  safe  for  the 
year.  No  scouts  were  sent  out  and  no  guards  were  maintained 
at  home. 

But  Hatfield  paid  dearly  for  her  fancied  security.  On  the 
19th  of  September,  more  than  a  year  after  the  war  was  consid- 
ered closed,  at  eleven  o'clock  in  the  forenoon,  while  the  princi- 
pal part  of  the  men  were  dispersed  in  the  meadows  and  unsus- 
picious of  danger,  a  party  of  Indians  suddenly  assaulted  the 
few  men  left  at  home,    who    just    then    were    at    work  upon  the 


•History  of  Hadley. 


30 

frame  of  a  house  outside  the  palisades,  killed  three  of  them  and 
then  fell  upon  the  defenceless  women  and  children.  Before 
help  could  come  thev  fired  seven  houses,  killed  nine  persons, 
making  twelve  in  all,  wounded  four,  took  seventeen  captives 
and  escaped  to  the  cover  of  the  woods. 

The  boldness  and  suddenness  of  the  movement  assured  its 
success.  The  people  seem  to  have  been  paralyzed  by  the  shock 
and  made  no  earnest  effort  at  rescue.  Perhaps  the  fear  lest  the 
captives  might  be  tomahawked,  if  pursuit  was  made,  and  the 
hope  that  they  would  be  spared  if  unmolested,  may  have  had 
weight.  The  Indians  went  that  day  to  Deerfield  where  they 
killed  one  and  captured  four  men,  and  halted  for  the  night. 
They  spent  the  second  night  at  Northfield  west  meadow. 
They  proceeded  further  up  the  river  and  camped  on  the  east  side, 
about  twent}-  miles  above  Northfield,  where  they  built  a  long 
wigwam  and  remained  about  three  weeks.  About  the  middle 
of  October  the  party,  augmented  by  about  eight}'  women  and 
children,  taken  in  the  neighborhood  of  Wachusett,  moved  off 
crossing  the  country  to  Lake  Champlain  and  thence  to  Canada. 

With  perhaps  an  individual  exception  these  seventeen  from 
Hatfield,  and  those  taken  at  Deerfield,  were  the  first  captives 
from  the  valley  that  had  to  endure  the  sufferings  and  perils 
of  a  march  through  the  then  almost  impassable  wilderness. 
The  captives  taken  in  the  two  preceding  years,  with  two 
exceptions,  were  either  burned  at  the  stake  or  otherwise  tortured 
to  death. 

Of  those  whose  descendants  settled  Whately,  Sergeant  Isaac 
Graves  and  John  Graves  were  killed;  Hannah,  the  wife  of  John 
Coleman  and  her  babe,  Bertha,  were  killed  ;  another  child  wound- 
ed and  two  taken  captive;  Mary,  the  wife  of  Samuel  Belden, 
was  killed ;  the  wife  and  daughter  of  John  Wells  were  wounded 
and  his  daughter  Elizabeth,  aged  two.  was  killed;  the  wife  of 
Obadiah  Dickinson  was  wounded,  himself  and  one  child  carried 
off;  Abigail,  daughter  of  John  AUis,  aged  six  ;  Martha,  the  wife 
of  Benjamin  Wait,  and  her  three  daughters;  Mar\',  the  wife  of 
Samuel  Foote,  her  daughter  Mar}-,  aged  three,  and  a  young  son 
were  carried  into  captivity. 

Thus  in  the  three  years  of  the  war,  twenty  seven  of  Hatfield 
were  killed  and  nineteen  made  prisoners.  In  regard  to  both 
life  and  property,  the  loss  of  this  town  was  greater  in  proportion 
to  population  than  any  of  the  surviving  towns  in  the  valley. 
"From  one- third  to  one-half  the  houses  were  burned  and  the 
greater  part  of  their  kine,  sheep  and  horses  killed  or  driven  off." 


31 

The  story  of  Benjamin  Wait,  whose  house,  situated  on  the 
west  side  of  Hatfield  street,  just  south  of  King's  hill,  was  burned, 
and  whose  family  were  among  the  captives  taken  on  the  19th  of 
September,  possesses  both  a  local  and  a  public  interest;  and  as 
he  was  the  ancestor  of  many  of  our  families,  it  should  have  a 
place  in  these  annals.  At  the  time  of  our  narrative  he  was  a 
young  man  of  about  thirty.  His  family  consisted  of  Martha,  his 
wife  and  three  little  girls,  Mary,  six,  Martha,  four,  and  Sarah 
two  years  of  age.  Inured  to  woodcraft  and  familiar  with  Indian 
customs,  it  is  not  difficult  to  imagine  what  was  his  first  impulse 
when  he  reached  the  ashes  of  his  home  and  learned  the  fate  of 
his  young  wife  and  babes.  But  he  had  prudence  as  well  as 
haste,  and  wisely,  as  the  event  proved,  took  counsel  of  liis  sec- 
ond thoughts. 

But  after  enduring  a  month  of  suspense,  Wait,  and  his 
friend,  Stephen  Jennings,  whose  family  was  also  among  the  cap- 
tives, determined  to  ascertain  the  fate  of  their  friends  and  re- 
deem them  if  found  alive.  With  a  commission  from  the;gov- 
ernor  of  Massachusetts  they  set  out  from  Hatfield,  October  24, 
to  go  by  way  of  Westfield  to  Albany,  then  the  only  traveled 
route  to  Canada. 

The  authorities  at  Albany,  who  were  on  friendly  terms  with 
the  French  and  their  Indian  allies,  blocked  their  plans  and  after 
vexatious    detentions,    sent    them  on    a    false    pretense  to    New 
York.      At  length,  through  the  intercession  of  Capt.  Brockhurst, 
they  were  sent  back  to    Albany    with    a    pass.      It  was  now  the 
19th  of  November  and  it  was  the   loth  of  December  before  they 
got  on  their    way.     A    Frenchman    whom    they    hired  to  act  as 
guide  was  bribed  by  the   Dutch   governor    and    deserted  them, 
and  they  were  forced  to  engage    a    Mohawk    Indian  to  conduct 
them  to  Lake  George.     This  savage,  who  proved  true  to  them, 
fitted  up  a  canoe  and  made  a    drawing    of    the    lakes  by  which 
they  were  to   pass.      "They    were    three    days    passing -the  first 
lakes  and    then,    carrying    their   canoe    two    miles    over  a  neck 
of  land,  they  entered  the  great  lake  which  the  second  day  the>-, 
hoping  to  trust  to  the  ice,  left  their  canoe,  but  having  tra\'eled 
one  day  upon  the  ice   they    were  forced    to  return  back  to  tetch 
their  canoe,  and  then  went  by  water  till  they  came  to  the  land. 
being  windbound  six  days  in  the  interim  ;    so    as    they  made  it 
about  the  first  of  January,  having  traveled  three  days  without  a 
bit  of  bread  or  any  other  relief  but  some  raccoon's  Mesh  which 
they  had  killed  in  an  hollow  tree. 


52 


"On  the  6th  of  January  they  came  to  Chamblee,  a  small 
village  of  ten  houses  belonging  to  the  French,  only  by  the  way 
they  met  with  a  bag  of  biscuit  and  a  bottle  of 'brandy  in  an 
empty  wigwam  with  which  they  were  not  a  little  refreshed  ;  and 
in  traveling  towards  Sorell,  filiv  mile  distant,  from  thence  they 
came  to  a  lodging  of  Indians,  among  whom  they  found  the  wife 
of  Jennings."*  They  found  the  remainder  of  the  captives  at 
Sorell  and,  to  his  great  joy,  Wait  found  a  little  daughter  added 
to  his  family.  He  named  her  Canada.*  Unable  to  secure  all 
the  captives  without  the  assistance  of  the  French  authorities, 
they  went  down  to  Quebec.  Here  they  were  well  entertained 
by  the  governor,  who  granted  their  desire  and  assigned  them  a 
guard  of  eleven  soldiers  for  the  journey  to  Albany.  They  left 
Quebec  on  the  19th  of  April  and  Sorell  on  the  2d  of  May,  hav- 
ing redeemed  all  the  captives  then  living.  They  reached  Albany 
on  their  return  May  22. 

From  Albany  a  messenger  was  sent  to  Hatfield  with  letters 
telling  of  their  success  and  need  of  assistance.  But  Wait's  let- 
ter will  tell  its  own  story: 

Albany,  May  23,1678. 
To  my  loving  friends  and  kindred  at  Hatfield:  — 

These  few  lines  are  to  let  you  understand  that  we  are 
arrived  at  Albany  now  \vith  the  captives,  and  we  now  stand  in 
need  of  assistance,  for  my  charges  are  very  great  and  heavy  ; 
and  therefore  any  that  have  any  love  to  our  condition  let  it  move 
them  to  come  and  help  us  in  this  strait.  Three  of  the  captives 
are  murdered, — old  Goodman  Ph^mpton,  Samuel  Foote's  daugh- 
ter, Samuel  Russell.  All  the  rest  are  alive  and  well  and  now  at 
Albany,  namely:  Obadiah  Dickinson  and  his  child,  Mary  Foote 
and  her  child,  Hannah  Jennings  and  three  children,  Abigail 
Allis.  Abigail  Bartholomew,  Goodman  Coleman's  children, 
Samuel  Kellogg,  my  wife  and  four  children  and  Quintin  Stock- 
well.  I  pray  you  hasten  the  matter  for  it  requireth  great  haste. 
Stay  not  for  the  Sabbath  nor  shoeing  of  horses.  We  shall  en- 
deavor to  meet  you  at  Kanterhook ;  it  may  be  at  Housatonock. 
We  must  come  very  softly  because  of  our  wives  and  children. 
I  pray  you  hasten  them,  stay  not  night  nor  day,  for  the  matter 
requireth  haste.      Bring  provisions  with  you  for  us. 

Your  loving  kinsman., 

BENJAMIN  WAIT. 

♦Hubbard's  New  England. 

•Canada  Wait  m.  Joseph  Smith,  son  of  the  John  Smith  of  Hadley  who 
was  slain  in  Hatfield  Meadow,  May  30,  1676  ;  she  was  the  grandniotber 
the  late  Oliver  Smith. 


33 

P.  S. — At  Albany  written  frommineown  hand.  As  I  have  been 
affected  to  \ours,  all  that  were  fatherless,  be  affected  to  me  now, 
and  hasten  the  matter  and  stay  not,  and  ease  me  of  my  charges. 
You  shall  not  need  to  be  afraid  of  any  enemies. 

After  stopping  at  Albany  three  days  they  started,  May  27. 
and  walked  twenty-two  miles  to  Kinderhook,  where  they  met 
men  and  horses  from  Hatfield.  They  rode  through  the  woods  to 
VVestfield  and  all  reached  home  safely  after  an  absence  of  eight 
months.  "The  ransom  of  the  captives  cost  above  ^200,  which 
was  gathered  by  contribution  among  the  English."  Copies  of 
this  letter  and  one  from  Stockwell  were  carried  to  Medfield  and 
thence  sent  to  the  governor  and  council  at  Boston. 

On  their  receipt,  the  following  official  notice  was  issued: 
"Knowing  that  the  labour,  hazard  and  charge  of  said  Ben- 
jamin Wait  and  his  associate  have  been  great  we  recommend 
their  case  with  the  captives  for  relief  to  the  pious  charity  of  the 
elders,  ministers  and  congregations  of  the  several  towns;  that 
on  the  fast  day  [previously  appointed]  they  manifest  their  char- 
ity by  contributing  to  the  relief  of  said  persons.  And  the  min- 
isters are  desired  to  stir  up  the  people  thereunto.  For  quicken- 
ing this  work  we  do  hereby  remit  a  copy  of  Benjamin  Wait's 
letter  to  be  read  publickly,  either  before  or  upon  that  day;  and 
what  is  freely  given  is  to  be  remitted  to  Mr.  Anthony  Stoddard, 
Mr.  John  Joyliff  and  Mr.  John  Richards,  or  either  of  them,  who 
are  appointed  to  deliver  and  distribute  the  same  for  the  ends 
aforesaid."     Signed,  "Edw.  Rawson,  Sec'y. 

Wait  rebuilt  his  burned  house,  but  it  is  not  strange  that 
he  was  a  changed  man.  The  next  few  years  were  years  of 
peace.  He  reared  a  family  of  three  hardy  boys,  in  addition  to 
the  girls  already  named.  When  the  news  reached  Hatfield  of 
the  French  and  Indian  attack  on  Deerfield,  Feb.  29,  1704, 
though  nearly  sixty  years  old,  he  was  the  first  to  start  for  her 
relief.  He  was  killed  by  a  musket  ball  in  the  meadow  fight  of 
that  morning. 

We  cannot  refrain  from  saying,  all  honor  to  the  brave  scout 
and  Indian  fighter  I  His  name  is  not  often  mentioned  among 
the  heroes  of  those  wars,  but  among  them  all,  among  those  who 
did  most  for  their  country's  welfare  and  stood  firmest  in  the 
hour  of  her  early  peril,  who  dared,  sufiered,  made  no  boasts 
and  claimed  no  official  distinction,  who  offered  his  life  in  sacri- 
fice for  those  he  loved,  among  those  whose  heroic  deeds  have 
made  this  beautiful  valley  immortal,  no  name  is  brighter  and  no 


34 

one's  memory  is  more  worthy  to  be  cherished  than  that  of  Ben- 
jamin Wait. 

Thus  did  our  fathers  receive  early  the  baptism  of  blood,  by 
which  they  did  enter  into  living  covenant  with  Him  who  was 
their  "Life  and  breath  and  all  things;  "  whose  Providence  was 
their  strength  and  defence  and  whose  grace  was  their  hope. 
And  thus  by  a  "fien,'  trial"  were  they  fitted  to  give  vital  force 
to  the  life,  shape  to  the  character  and  firm  foundation  to  the 
social  and  religious  institutions  which  are  our  favored  heritage 
to-dav. 


CHAPTER  IV. 

AN    INTERIM    OF    PEACE,     1678 — I7OO. 

Among  the  names  of  interest,  as  connected  with  these  an- 
nals, added  to  the  list  of  settlers  since  our  last  enumeration, 
were  those  of  Robert  Bard  well,  who  is  first  introduced  to  the 
valley  in  a  military  capacity.  Thomas  Crafts,  a  refugee  from 
Deerfield,  earlier  from  Roxbur>',  Eleazer  Frary  of  Medfield. 
Benjamin  Wait,  William  Scott,  probably  from  Waterbun.'  or 
Farmington,  Ct.,  Samuel  Marsh  from  Hartford.  Samuel  Gillet 
from  Windsor,  John  Wells  from  Stratford.  Ct.,  and  Dr.  Thomas 
Hastings  from  Watertown. 

The  wastes  of  war  had  been  great.  With  the  loss  of  life 
and  buildings,  the  neglect  of  the  fields  and  the  derangement  of 
trade,  everything  had  been  set  back.  Farm  employments  had 
been  so  difficult  and  dangerous  that  only  the  necessaries  of  life 
had  been  obtained — no  more  had  been  attempted — and  the 
brush  and  wild  grasses  had  made  encroachments  and  the  fences 
were  fallen  down.  In  many  respects  it  was  like  beginning 
anew.  But  though  sorely  crippled  the  settlers  seem  not  to  have 
been  disheartened.  They  set  themselves  in  earnest  to  repair 
the  waste,  re-establish  their  homes  and  add  to  their  comfort  and 
conveniences.  Apple  and  quince  trees  were  more  commonly 
planted,  and  now,  for  the  first  time,  houses  were  built  on  the 
"Hill."  west  of  Mill  River. 

A  larger  breadth  of  land  was  put  in  corn,  wheat,  flax,  and 
barley  for  malting  was  more  commonly  raised.  The  destruction 
of  their  sheep  had  made  a  scarcity  of  wool,  and  these  agricul- 
tural products    and    malt    were    needed    to    meet  the    increased 


36 

demand  for  taxes  and  as  a  medium  of  exchange  for  some  for- 
eign luxuries  which  now,  for  thefirst  time,  appear  to  have  been 
introduced  into  this  part  of  the  valley. 

War  always  loosens  the  restraints  and  vitiates  the  simpler 
tastes  of  home  life.  It  engenders  a  heedless,  arrogant  spirit, 
destructive  alike  of  habits  of  economy  and  regard  for  the  rights 
and  feelings  of  others,  and  brings  into  play  the  more  selfish 
passions.  Its  maxim  is  that  "Might  makes  right,"  and  hence 
too  often,  even  in  wars  of  necessity  and  defence,  it  comes  to  be 
an  acknowledged  principle  that  the  end  sanctifies  the  means. 
With  the  return  of  peace  there  usually  comes  a  period  of  extrav- 
agance and  lawlessness. 

The  quartering  upon  our  people  of  so  many  officers  and 
soldiers  from  the  older  settlements,  many  of  them  of  the  wealth- 
ier classes,  had  introduced  new  social  ideas  and  awakened  a 
desire  for  dress  and  other  accompaniments  of  rank.  These  mil- 
itan.-  men  were  looked  upon  as  their  saviors,  and,  of  course, 
demanded  their  gratitude  and  kind  consideration.  They  gladly 
shared  with  them  their  homes  and  the  best  provisions  their 
straitened  circumstances  permitted.  A  petition  sent  to  the  Gen- 
eral Court  by  the  friends  of  Rev.  Mr.  Russell  of  Hadley,  whose 
house  was  the  headquarters  of  the  army,  gives  us  some  insight 
into  this  matter.     They  sa}-: 

"The  chief  gentlemen  improved  in  the  affairs  of  the  war 
were  entertained  there,  which  called  for  provisions  answerable.' 
and  was  of  the  best  to  be  had  ;  that  he  had  to  draw  divers  bar- 
rels of  ale  and  much  wine,  and  fruit  suitable  to  the  company; 
and  had  no  more  credit  for  such  company  by  the  week  or  meal 
than  other  men  [had]  for  ordinary'  entertainment." 

Perhaps  all  could  not  command  for  their  guests  such  meats 
and  drinks,  but  there  is  no  doubt  that  all  furnished  "The  best 
to  be  had."  Very  naturally  these  ofiicers,  especially  the  lower 
grades,  who  were  brought  more  directly  in  contact  with  the  peo- 
ple, instilled  some  of  their  own  feelings  and  social  theories  into 
the  minds  of  the  young  men  and  maidens.  Very  naturally  the 
latter  wanted  to  appear  well  in  the  eyes  of  the  former  and 
adopted  some  notions  not  exactly  consistent  with  their  present 
impoverished  condition.  Very  naturally  they  coveted  the  lux- 
uries and  copied  the  fashions  prevalent  at  Boston  and  Hartford. 
Very  naturally  linsey-woolsey  had  to  give  place  to  silks,  and 
laces  and  ornaments  came  to  be  regarded  as  essential  to  fully 
set  off  natural  charms,  to  the  great  grief  of  staid  old  fathers  and 
mothers  and  the  offence  of  the  magistrates. 


37 

The  laws  of  the  colony  which  regulated  matters  of  dress 
and  ornament,  and  family  expenses,  and  restrained  excesses, 
have  been  much  criticised  and  often  held  up  to  ridicule,  and 
sometime  adduced  in  proof  of  Puritan  intolerance  and  narrow- 
mindedness.  These  early  fathers  certainly  differed  greatly  in 
opinion  from  us,  but  they  differed  as  greatlv  in  condition.  Per- 
haps in  their  circumstances  they  were  as  wise  and  tolerant  as 
their  children. 

To  show  the  grounds  and  reasons  for  their  sumptuan,'  laws, 
as  understood  by  themselves,  the  act  "Against  excesse  in  appar- 
rell,"  passed  14  October,  165 1,  is  here  copied  in  full: 

Although  severall  declarations  and  orders  have  bin  made 
by  this  Courte  against  excesse  in  apparrell,  both  of  men  and 
weomen,  which  have  not  taken  that  efiect  as  were  to  be  desired, 
but,  on  the  contrary,  wee  cannot  but  to  our  greife  take  notice 
that  intollerable  excesse  and  bravery  hath  crept  in  uppon  us, 
and  especially  amongst  people  of  mean  condition,  to  the  dishon- 
nor  of  God,  the  scandall  of  our  profession,  the  consumption  of 
estates,  and  altogether  uusuiteable  to  our  povertie  ;  and  although 
we  acknowledge  it  to  be  a  matter  of  much  difficultie.  in  regard 
to  the  blindnes  of  mens  minds  and  the  stubbornes  of  their  willes, 
to  sett  downe  exact  rules  to  confine  all  sorts  of  persons,  yett  wee 
cannot  but  account  it  our  duty  to  commend  unto  all  sortes  of 
persons  the  sober  and  moderate  use  of  those  blessings  which, 
beyond  expectation,  the  Lord  hath  bin  pleased  to  affoard  unto 
us  in  this  wilderness,  and  also  to  declare  our  utter  detestation 
and  dislike  that  men  or  weomen  of  meane  condition  should  take 
uppon  them  the  garbe  of  gentlemen,  by  wearing  gold  or  silver 
lace  or  buttons,,  or  points  at  their  knees,  or  to  walk  in  greate 
bootes,  or  weomen  of  the  same  rancke  to  weare  silke  or  tiffany 
hoodes  or  scarfes,  which  though  allowable  to  persons  of  greater 
estates,  or  more  liberall  education,  yett  wee  cannot  but  judge  it 
intollerable  in  persons  of  such  like  condition;  itt  is  therefore 
ordered  by  this  Courte,  and  the  authority  thereof,  that  no  per- 
son within  this  jurisdiction,  of  any  of  their  relations  depending 
uppon  them,  whose  visible  estates,  reall  and  personall,  shall  not 
exceede  the  true  and  indifierent  valew  of  two  hundred  pounds, 
shall  wear  any  gold  or  silver  lace,  or  gold  and  silver  buttons,  or 
any  bone  lace  above  two  shillings  pr.  yard,  or  silk  hoods,  or 
scarfes,  uppon  the  penaltie  of  tenn  shillings  for  every  such 
offence,  and  every  such  delinquent  to  be  presented  by  the  graund 
jury. 

And  forasmuch  as  distinct  and  particular  rules  in  this  case 
.suiteabie  to  the  estate  or  quallitie  of  each  person,  cannot  easily 
be  given,  itt  is  further  ordered  by  the  authoritie  aforesaid,  that 
the  selectmen  of  every  toune,  or  the  major  part  of  them,  are 
heereby  enabled  and  required  from  time  to  time  to  have  regard 
and  take  notice  of  apparrell  in  any  of  the  inhabitants  of  their 


38 

severall  tounes  respectively,  and  whosoever  they  shall  judge  to 
exceede  their  rancks  and  abillities  in  the  costlines  or  ffashion  of 
their  apparrell  in  any  respect,  especially  in  the  wearing  of  rib- 
bons or  greate  bootes  (leather  being  so  scarce  a  commoditie  in 
this  CO jatrie).  lace  pointer,  &c.  silke  hoodes  or  scarfes,  the 
selectmen  aforesaid  shall  have  power  to  assesse  such  persons  so 
offending  in  any  of  the  particulars  above  mentioned,  in  the 
country  rates,  at  two  hundred  pounds  estates,  according  to  that 
proportion  that  such  men  use  to  pay  to  whom  such  apparrell  is 
suiieable  and  al'owed, — provided  this  lawe  shall  not  extend  to 
the  restraint  of  any  magistrate  or  publicke  officer  of  the  jurisdic- 
tion, their  wives  and  children,  who  are  left  to  their  discretion  in 
wearing  ot"  apparrell,  or  any  settled  millitary  officer  or  souldier 
in  the  time  of  millitary  service,  or  any  other  whose  education 
and  imploiments  have  bin  above  the  ordinary  degree,  or  whose 
estates  have  bin  considerable,  though  now  decaied. 

Under  this  law,  at  the  March  term  of  the  court  for  Hamp- 
shire county,  1676,  "The  jury  presented  sixty-eight  persons, 
viz.,  thirty-eight  wives  and  maids  and  thirty  young  men,  some 
for  wearing  silk  and  that  in  a  flaunting  manner,  and  others  for 
long  hair  and  other  extravagancies."  Joseph  Barnard  and  his 
wife  Sarah,  and  his  sister  Sarah,  Thomas  Crafts,  Jonathan 
Wells  and  the  wife  of  Thomas  Wells,  Jr.,  "Were  fined  ten  shil- 
lings." 

In  September,  1682,  the  selectmen  of  the  five  River  towns 
were  all  "presented"  to  the  Court  for  "Not  assessing,  according 
to  law,"  those  of  the  inhabitants  of  their  several  towns  that 
"wore  silk"  and  "Were  excessive  in  their  apparel." 

But  the  public  sentiment  had  undergone  a  change.  The 
young  man  could  fight  the  Indians  as  well  as  his  father,  and 
personal  courage  was  a  passport  to  favor;  and  the  young  men 
and  young  women  combined  and  declared  their  independence. 
They — the  young  women — put  on  all  the  silks,  scarfs  and  gold 
rings  they  could  induce  their  brothers  snd  beaux  to  purchase 
for  them  and  defied  the  law  !  Of  course  the  law  was  a  dead 
letter. 

There  is  another  law  of  the  colony,  not  often  referred  to  but 
important,  as  showing  the  temper  of  the  times,  which  I  will 
quote  in  this  connection.  It  will  help  explain  some  of  the  cus- 
toms of  the  early  settlers,  to  be  described  more  fully  hereafter. 
It  is  the  order  of  the  court  of  14  May,  1656,  "Requiring  ye 
improovement  of  all  hands  in  spinning:" 

This  Court,  taking  into  serious  consideration  the  present 
streights  and  necessities  that  lye  uppon  the  countrie  in  respect 
of  cloathing,  which  is  not  like  to  be  so  plentifully  supplied  from 


39 

forraigne  parts  as  in  times  past,  and  not  knowing  any  better 
way  and  nieanes  conduceable  to  our  subsistence  than  the  im- 
prooveing  of  as  many  hands  as  may  be  in  spining  woole,  cot- 
ton, flax,  &:c. 

Itt  is  therefore  ordered  by  this  Court  and  the  authoritie 
thereof,  that  all  hands  not  necessarily  imploide  on  other  occa- 
sions, as  weomen,  girles  and  boyes,  shall  and  hereby  are  en- 
joyned  to  spinn  according  to  their  skills  and  abillitie;  and  that 
the  selectmen  in  every  toune  doe  consider  the  condit'on  and 
capacitie  of  every  family,  and  accordingly  to  assesse  them  at 
one  or  more  spinners;  and  because  several  families  are  necessa- 
rily emploied  the  greatest  part  of  theire  time  in  other  busines, 
yet,  if  opportunities  were  attended,  some  time  might  be  spared 
at  large  by  some  of  them  for  this  worke.the  said  selectmen  shall 
therefore  assesse  such  families  at  half  or  a  quarter  of  a  spinner, 
according  to  theire  capacities. 

Secondly,  that  every  one  thus  assessed  for  a  whole  spiner 
doe,  after  this  present  yeare,  1656,  spinn,  for  thirty  weekes  every 
yeare,  three  pounds  pr.  weeke  of  linin,  cotton  or  woollen,  and 
so  proportionably  for  half  or  quarter  spinners,  under  the  penal- 
tie  ot  twelve  pence  for  every  pound  short ;  and  the  selectmen 
shall  take  speciall  care  of  the  execution  of  this  order,  which 
may  be  easily  effected,  by  deviding  their  several  tounes  into 
tenn,  six,  five,  and  to  appoint  one  of  the  tenn.  six  or  five  to 
take  an  account  of  theire  division,  and  to  certifie  the  selectmen 
if  any  are  defective  in  what  they  are  assessed,  who  shall  im- 
proove  the  aforesaid  penalties  imposed  upon  such  as  are  negli- 
gent, for  the  encouragement  of  those  that  are  diligent  in  their 
labour. 

This  "mind"  of  the  court  was  in  force  not  latterly  as  a  law, 
but  as  a  custom,  for  nearly  one  hundred  and  fifty  years. 

As  a  further  illustration  of  the  condition  of  families  in  those 
early  times  and  the  convenience  of  housekeeping,  and  the  kind 
and  value  of  stock  and  tools  upon  a  good  farm,  the  inventory  of 
Lieut.  William  AUis,  taken  Sept.  iS,  1678,  is  herewith  ap- 
pended: 

In  purse  and  apparrell, 

Arms  and  ammunition, 

Beds  and  their  furniture. 

Napkins  and  other  linen. 

Brass  and  pewter  pieces, 

Iron  utensils. 

Cart  and  plow  irons,  chains,  stilliards, 

Tables,  pitchforks,  cushions,  sythe, 

Barrels,  tubs,  trays, 

Woolen  and  linen  yarne. 

Several  sorts  hi  grain,  flax, 

2  horses, 

3  cows,  2  steers,  2  calves,  i  heifer, 


£9 

13 

0 

6 

r 

0 

9 

5 

0 

o 

I 

0 

5 

ID 

0 

^ 

r  I 

6 

7 

5 

0 

r 

19 

0 

3 

9 

6 

0 

iS 

6 

1 1 

12 

0 

7 

0 

0 

20 

0 

0 

/lO 

8 

0 

lOO 

0 

0 

114 

0 

0 

136 

0 

0 

20 

0 

0 

28 

13 

0 

40 

Swine  and  sheep, 

Houses  and  home  lot, 

Land  in  South  meadow, 

"Land  in  Great  and  Little  meadow, 

Land  in  Plain  and  Swamp, 

Land  in  Quinepiake, 

^496     06     6 

Pastures. — Cows  and- sheep  were  pastured  on  the  "Com- 
mons" lying  to  the  west  and  northwest  of  the  street.  Young 
stock  of  all  kinds  was  "marked"  and  turned  out  to  run  at  large. 
As  soon  as  the  cattle  became  sufficiently  numerous,  i.  e.,  about 
1680,  a  cow-herd  was  employed.  An  agreement  is  recorded  by 
which  a  man  agreed  to  keep  the  town  herd  from  early  in  May 
to  Sept.  29,  for  twelve  shillings  a  week,  payable  in  grain.  He 
was  to  start  the  herd  in  the  morning  by  the  time  the  sun  was  an 
hour  high,  take  them  to  good  feed,  watch  them  and  bring  them 
in  seasonably  at  night. 

The  date,  Sept.  29.  is  named  because  this  was  the  time 
when  all  crops  on  the  intervals  were  required  to  be  gathered, 
and  after  which  the  proprietoTs  pastured  the  cows  in  their 
enclosed  fields  until  the  snow  fell.  The  care  taken  that  none 
should  be  deprived  of  religious  ordinances,  is  evinced  in  the 
vote  of  the  town  requiring  every  owner  of  cows  or  sheep  to  take 
his  turn  in  tending  the  herd  on  the  Sabbath.  Thus  gi\dng  the 
cow-herd  or  shepherd  an  equal  share  in  the  rest  and  privileges 
of  holy  time.  Hatfield  had  two  hundred  and  seventy-three 
sheep  in  169 1. 

By  a  law  of  the  colony  a  dog  that  bit  or  killed  sheep  was  to 
be  hanged.  Usually  the  guilty  dog  was  taken  to  the  woods,  a 
leaning  staddle  was  bent  down,  and  a  cord  was  fastened  to  the 
top  and  to  the  dog's  neck;  the  elastic  sapling  then  sprung  back, 
with  the  dog  dangling  in  the  air.  Sometimes  both  cats  and 
dogs  were  hanged  at  the  short  end  of  the  well-swipe,  as  is  relat- 
ed by  Sylvester  Judd  in  the  History  of  Hadley. 

Bashan. — About  this  time,  probably  in  1682,  the  meadows 
lying  north  of  Great  meadow  were  divided  and  allotted  among 
the  inhabitants.  No  doubt  the  planters  and  mowers,  as  they 
worked  close  up  to  Little  Pond,  had  often  looked  wishfully  over 
the  ridge  to  the  goodly  and  fruitful  land  beyond.  No  wonder, 
as  they  saw  its  noble  oaks  and  walnuts  ^nd  its  fat  pasturage, 
they  named  it  Bashan. 

Like  the  other  meadows,    this   tract  was   first  divided  into 


41 

two  parts,  now  known  as  Old  Farms  and  West  Farms  and  each 
of  the  then  fifty-eight  proprietors  received  a'lot  in  both  parts. 
Three  or  four  houses  were  built  on  Bashan  near  this  date.  The 
cellar  holes  of  two  of  these  houses  and  stones  used  for  the  chim- 
neys may  now,  or  could  till  recently,  be  seen  on  land  of  R.  H. 
Belden,  Esq. 

One  of  these  houses  was  "fortified,"  as  appears  from  the 
records  of  [695,  but  owing  to  their  great  distance  from  the  vil- 
lage and  the  difl&culty  of  getting  to  and  fro,  especially  during 
the  spring  freshets,  and  their  exposure  to  Indian  assaults,  they 
were  abandoned  for  a  time,  perhaps  permanently,  about  the 
time  of. the  breaking  out  of  the  war  of  1703. 

When  David  Graves  built  in  the  Straits,  thirty  years  later, 
some  of  the  timbers  from  one  of  these  Bashan  houses  was  trans- 
ferred and  used  in  the  frame  of  his  dwelling  house  (the  old 
Stockbridge  Tavern).  Possibly  the  Bashan  settlement  was  not 
finally  abandoned  till  about  1728. 

The  Major  Daniel  Dennison  grant,  lying  north  of  the  Great 
Pond  in  Hatfield  and  extending  one  rod  into  said  pond,  contain- 
ing 500  acres,  was  given  by  his  will  to  his  daughter,  Elizabeth, 
who  married  John  Rogers  of  Ipswich,  Mass.  The  will  was 
dated  5  Nov.,  16S8.  After  she  was  a  widow  she  sold  the  whole 
tract  to  William  Arms  for  i^ico  in  current  money.  It  was 
bounded  east  on  Great  river,  north  on  Bradstreet's  grant,  west 
on  Hatfield  commons  and  south  on  the  Great  meadows. 

This  was  bought  by  Mr.  Arms  as  an  agent  for  a  company 
of  seven,  viz.:  William  Arms,  Joseph  Field,  Robert  Bardwell, 
Samuel  Field,  Daniel  Warner,  Stephen  Jennings  and  Samuel 
Gunn. 

The  Four  Divisions  of  Commons. — Up  to  1683  only  a 
small  portion  of  the  lands  in  Hatfield  township  had  been  dis- 
tributed among  the  inhabitants.  All  the  River  meadows  north 
of  Bashan,  and  all  the  uplands  west  of  the  "Hill"  and  the 
Straits  road,  were  lying  common  and  used  for  general  pasturage. 
But  now  these  upland  Commons  were  divided  and  apportioned 
among  the  settlers. 

Oct.  21,  1684. — "The  town  hath  agreed  to  divide  the  Com- 
mons in  the  town  (except  what  is  reserved  for  home  lots,  sheep 
pastures,  etc., )  to  every  inhabitant,  according  to  his  present  val- 
uation of  estates  ;  and  the  said  Commons  shall  be  laid  out  in 
four  divisions,  the  first  to  begin  upon  the  plain  behind  the  Mill 
and  end  at  the  northerly  line   of   the   uppermost   lot  laid  out  in 


42 

Mill  River  swamp  ;  the  second  to  begin  at  the  north  side  of  the 
uppermost  lot  in  the  Mill  River  swamp  and  end  at  the  north 
side  of  the  town  bounds ;  the  .third  division  to  begin  at  the 
northwest  side  of  the  highway  that  goeth  towards  Northampton 
and  from  the  hill  commonly  called  Sandy  Hill  and  end  at  the 
rising  up  of  the  side  of  the  hill  called  the  Chestnut  mountain; 
the  fourth  division  to  begin  where  the  third  division  endeth  and 
to  end  at  the  outside  of  the  town  bounds." 

As  will  appear  from  this  vote,  the  whole  territory  lying 
westof  the  River  meadows  was  marked  off  into  two  parallelo- 
grams, one  embracing  the  land  between  the  said  River  meadows 
and  Chestnut  plain  road,  and  the  other  the  tract  west  of  this 
road.  These  main  divisions  were  then  cut  by  an  east  and  west 
line  running  nearly  parallel  to  though  not  coincident  with  the 
present  south  line  of  Whately.  The  whole  of  the  second  and 
fourth,  and  nine  lots  in  the  third  division,  also  nine  lots  in  the 
first  division  lay  in  Whately. 

Each  Hatfield  inhabitant  then  holding  real  and  ratable 
estate,  sixty-nine  in  number,  received  a  lot  in  each  of  the  four 
divisions.  The  principle  of  distribution,  i.  e.,  the  size  of  each 
man's  lot  was,  "According  to  the  present  valuation  of  estates." 
This,  of  course,  made  great  diversity  in  the  size  of  the  lots. 
The  allotment  thus  made  in  16S4  was  confirmed  in  1716,  and  re- 
confirmed in  1735. 

The  eastern  boundary  of  the  second  division  of  Commons 
was  very  irregular.  For  a  short  distance,  it  ran  on  the  bank 
west  of  the  wet  swamp,  afterwards  called  Hopewell ;  then  on 
the  west  line  of  the  Gov.  Bradstreet  farm;  and  from  the  north 
line  of  this  farm  to  the  north  line  of  the  town  it  extended  to  the 
Connecticut  river. 

After  the  division  of  the  Commons  according  to  the  vote  of 
the  town  of  Hatfield,  passed  21  Oct.,  1684,  confirmed  in  1716, 
and  reconfirmed  in  1735,  it  was  discovered  that  after  settling 
the  boundary  line  between  the  towns  of  Deerfield  and  Hatfield, 
that  several  of  the  mo^t  northerly  lots  did  not  run  through  to 
Chestnut  Plain  street,  which  was  the  western  boundary  of  the 
second  division  of  Commons,  as  they  should.  We  find  that 
the  town  of  Hatfield  passed  the  following  preamble  and  vote 
relative  thereto: 

"Whereas,  the  lots  in  the  .second  division  of  Commons  in 
Hatfield  were  originally  laid  out  running  west  and  by  north  and 
east  and  by  south,  and  the  said  division  was  to  run  to  the  north 


43 

side  of  the  town  bounds,  agreeable  to  the  town  of  Hatfield 
records,  in  ye  year  1684.  And,  whereas,  the  dividing  line  be- 
tween the  towns  of  Hatfield  and  Deerfield  is  a  line  running  east 
and  west,  as  finally  settled  by  the  general  court.  And  the  com- 
mittee that  was  employed  to  stake  out  the  several  divisions  of 
Commons  in  the  year  1743,  found  several  of  the  northernmost 
lots  in  this  division  were  cut  ofif  and  by  running  the  course  of 
the  division  met  with  the  dividing  line  between  the  said  towns, 
so. as  to  make  the  said  lots  triangular.  And  the  proprietors — 
owners  of  said  lots — are  cut  ofif  from  their  just  proportion  of 
land,  as  originally  granted  them.  And  it  appearing  to  tlie  pro- 
prietors that  a  line  run  north  and  south  at  the  west  end  of  the 
second  division  is  885  rods,  7  feet  and  i  inch,  which  is  135  rods. 
12  feet  and  5  inches  less  than  the  width  of  said  lots  at  ye  east 
end.  And  that  each  proprietor  hath  f^  just  claim  to  have  his 
lot  run  through  said  division  from  east  to  west. 

"Therefore,  voted  that  said  division  be  staked  out  anew  and 
that  each  proprietor  have  his  proportion,  as  to  the  width  staked 
out  to  him  both  on  the  east  end  and  on  the  westerly  part,  upon 
a  north  line  from  the  northwest  corner  of  the  uppermost  Mill 
swamp  to  Deerfield  bounds  (according  to  the  true  intent  of  the 
original  grant,  as  near  as  may  be),  and  that  the  several  lots  in 
the  division  be  staked  out  so  much  narrower  on  the  westerly 
part,  as  that  the  said  triangular  lots  may  run  through  to  the 
highway,  on  the  west  side  of  Mill  River  swamp,  and  have  their 
proportion  on  said  west  line  with  the  other  lots  in  said  division," 

We  also  here  give  a  copy  of  the  record  of  a  preamble  and 
vote  recorded  in  the  Hatfield  town  records,  in  reference  to  the 
fourth  division  of  Commons : 

At  a  meeting  of  the  proprietors  according  to  adjournment 
upon  Nov.  14,  1748.     It  was  voted  : 

"Whereas,  the  committee  that  was  employed  in  the  year 
1743  to  stake  out  the  second  division  of  Commons  in  the  six- 
mile  grant,  in  Hatfield,  have  reported  at  this  meeting  that  in 
staking  out  the  fourth  division  they  found  there  was  wanting  of 
land  to  complete  the  breadth  of  each  proprietor's  lot,  as  staked 
out  in  the  year  17 16,  124  rods,  3  feet  and  6  inches,  which  les- 
sens each  lot  two  feet  upon  ye  rod  (occasioned  by  the  settlement 
of  the  line  between  this  town  and  Deerfield).  The  committee 
have,  therefore,  lessened  each  lot  in  that  proportion  and  set  up 
stakes,  marked  with  the  two  first  letters  of  each  original  pro 
prietors's  name,  accordingly." 


44 

At  a  meeting  of  the  proprietors  of  four  divisions  of  Com- 
mons, in  Hatfield,  held  by  adjournment  Dec.  5,   1748. 

"Voted,  that  the  committee  chose  the  third  of  November 
last  to  search  the  records  and  enquire  of  those  learned  in  the 
law.  what  method  the}'  shall  proceed  in  affect  to  the  second 
division,  and  be  directed  to  perform  said  service  as  soon  as  may 
be,  and  make  report  to  this  meeting  at  the  time  it  may  be 
adjourned.  Then  voted,  that  this  meeting  be  adjourned  to 
Monday,  the  12  inst..  at  one  of  the  clock  in  the  afternoon,  then 
to  meet  at  ye  house  of  Mr.  Elisha  Allis,  innholder  in  Hatfield." 

At  a  meeting  of  the  aforementioned  proprietors  held  by 
adjournment  Dae.  12,  174S,  at  the  house  of  Elisha  Allis: 

"The  committee,  chosen  Nov.  3,  1748,  report  agreeable  to 
the  direction  of  the  proprietors.  They  have  searched  the  rec- 
ords and  obtained  the  advice  of  some  gentlemen  of  ye  law 
respecting  the  Commons,  particularly  the  second  division,  which 
the  gentlemen  reduced  to  writing,  and  is  as  follows: 

Northampton,  Dec.  6,  1748. — In  the  case  of  the  Commons, 
Hatfield,  referred  to  us.  We  are  of  the  opinion  that  the  Com- 
mons are  legally  brought,  a  propriety,  that  each  proprietor  must 
have  his  right  in  the  second  division,  this  from  east  to  west. 
.  The  vote  in  the  margin  that  the  course  of  the  lots  is  to  be.  east 
by  south  and  west  by  north,  notwithstanding,  and  to  have  their 
proportion  at  each  end.  Signed,  Tim  °  .  Dvvight,  Phineas  Ly- 
man, John  Worthington." 

From  the  foregoing  votes  of  the  inhabitants  of  Hatfield  is 
our  authority  for  the  correction  of  the  figures  giving  the  width 
of  the  several  lots  in  the  second  division  of  Commons,  Mr.  Tem- 
ple copying  the  first,  or  erroneous  records,  instead  of  the  records 
of  1748.  As  will  be  seen,  the  difiBculty  was  at  the  west  end  of 
the  division  (on  Chestnut  Plain  street).  The  second  division 
measured  from  the  northwest  corner  of  the  Mill  swamp  lots  885 
rods,  7  feet  and  i  inch,  while  the  east  end  measured  102 1  rods 
and  3  feet,  making  a  difference  of  more  than  135  rods. 

These  lots  in  the  second  division  were  laid  out  in  half  miles 
and  called  the  first,  second,  third  and  fourth  half  miles.  The 
first  half  mile  extended  from  Chestnut  Plain  street  east  to  Alon- 
zo  Crafts'  corner,  or  Claverack  road ;  the  second  half  mile 
extended  to  the  remains  of  an  old  drain  about  two  rods  west  of 
C.  R.  R.R.  station  ;  the  third  half  mile  extended  to  within  about 
16  rods  of  the  west  line  of  the  Gov.  Simon  Bradstreet  grant. 
The  average  widening  of  the  lots,  as  you  go  from  the  west  to 
the  east,  is  31.1915  rods  to  the  half  mile. 


45 

We  now  give  the  following,  copied  from  Hatfield  records, 
dated  Oct.  21,  1684.  The  first  division  of  Commons  began 
upon  the  plain  behind  the  mill.  The  lots  run  west  and  by  north 
and  east  and  by  south,  abutting  against  a  highway  westerly; 
part  of  them  against  the  clay  pits  and  stone  pits;  part  against 
Mr.  Williams'  lot,  against  the  land  of  John  Wells,  Benjamin 
Wait  and  Samuel  Belding  ;  part  against  the  hill ;  part  against 
the  pond,  and  part  against  the  hill  by  the  Great  swamp,  all  east- 
erly, containing  in  all  69  lots  as  follows: 

No.     I,  Samuel  Graves, 

No.     2,  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr., 

No.    3,  Thomas  Mason,  Jr., 

No.    4,  Town  lot, 

No.     5,  Mr.  Atherton's  heirs, 

No.    6,  Martin  Kellogg, 

No.     7,  Samuel  Marsh, 

No.    8,  William  Gull, 

No.    9,  John  Allis, 

No.  10,  Mr.  Chauncey, 

No.  II,  Benjamin  Wait, 

No.  12,  William  Arms, 

No.  13,  Philip  Russell, 
A  highway, 

No.  14,  John  Cow'les, 

No.  15,  W^idow  Graves, 

No.  16,  Edward  Church, 

No.  17,  Richard  Morton, 

No.  iS,  Obadiah  Dickinson, 

No.  19,  Samuel  Gunn, 

No.  20,  Samuel  Allis. 

No.  21,  Widow  Fellows, 

No.  22,  Samuel  Taylor, 

No.  23,  John  Hubbard, 

No.  24,  John  Coleman, 

No.  25,  John  Wells, 

No.  26,  Daniel  Belding, 

No.  27,  Thomas  Bracy, 

No.  28,  Samuel  Baldwin, 

No.  29,  Thomas  and  Noah  Wells,  come  in  lot  48. 

No.  30,  Thomas  Hastings,  9  rods       5  feet. 

A  highway,  10  rods     — 

No.  31,  Eleazer  Frary,  25  rods     — 


33  rods 

wide. 

9  rods 

12  feet. 

8  rods 

7  rods 

—  prob. 

for  road 

I  2  rods 

14  feet. 

5  rods 

14  feet. 

9  rods 

12  feet. 

26  rods 

6  feet. 

48  rods 

5  rods 

12  feet. 

20  rods 

13  rods 

19  rods 

— 

TO  rods 

37  rods 

— 

10  rods 

• 

25  rods 

28  rods 

6  feet. 

1 1  rods 

2  feet. 

5  rods 

8  feet. 

19  rods 

— 

II  rods 

12  feet. 

2 1  rods 

6  feet. 

17  rods 

37  rods 

6  feet. 

25  rods 

13  rods 

I  r  feet. 

5  rods 

27  rods 

6  feet. 

46 


No. 

32, 

Samuel  Foote, 

II  rods 

14  feet. 

No. 

33' 

Isaac  Graves, 

14  rods 

6  feet. 

No. 

34. 

Walter  Hixon, 

7  rods 

12  feet. 

No. 

35^ 

Joseph  Boardman, 

5  rods 

14  feet. 

No. 

36, 

Beriah  Hastings, 

ID  rods 

— 

No. 

37' 

Samuel  Partridge, 

10  rods 

No. 

38, 

Hezekiah  Dickinson, 

9  rods 

No. 

39. 

John  White, 

14  rods 

13  feet. 

No. 

40, 

John  Field, 

20  rods 

8  feet. 

No. 

41. 

Robert  Page, 

4  rods 

8  feet. 

No, 

42, 

Joseph  Field, 

9  rods 

4  feet. 

No. 

43. 

Stephen  Tailors'  heirs, 

3  rods 

10  feet. 

No. 

44. 

Samuel  Kellogg, 

15  rods 

8  feet. 

No. 

45. 

Samuel  Gillett's  heirs, 

5  rods 

4  feet. 

No. 

46, 

Daniel  White, 

24  rods 

12  feet. 

No. 

47. 

Samuel  Field, 

1 1  rods 

No. 

48, 

Noah  Wells, 

7  rods 

10  feet. 

No. 

49, 

John  Steel, 

5  rods 

ID  feet. 

No. 

50. 

John  Graves, 

15  rods 

10  feet. 

No. 

51. 

Samuel  Carter, 

5  rods 

8  feet. 

No. 

52. 

Ephraim  Beers. 

6  rods 

8  feet. 

No. 

53. 

Samuel  Billings'  heirs, 

6  rods 

— 

No. 

54. 

Samuel  Wells, 

10  rods 

2  feet. 

No. 

55. 

Thomas  Loomis, 

18  rods 

No. 

56, 

John  Smith's  heirs, 

5  rods 

3  feet, 

No. 

57. 

Daniel  Warner, 

37  rods 

— 

No. 

58. 

Joseph  Belknap, 

24  rods 

8  feet. 

No. 

59, 

Benjamin  Barrett, 
A  highway. 

5  rods 
10  rods 

4  feet. 

No. 

60, 

Nathaniel  Dickinson, 

40  rods 

— 

The 

i  remaining  9  lots  are  in  Whately. 

No. 

61, 

William  King, 

5  rods 

14  feet. 

No. 

62, 

Thomas,  Meekins,  Sr., 

13  rods 

2  feet. 

No. 

63, 

Samuel  Graves,  Jr., 

9  rods 

2  feet. 

No. 

64. 

Stephen  Jennings, 

14  rods 

10  feet. 

No. 

65. 

William  Scott, 

14  rods 

I  foot. 

No. 

66, 

Samuel  Belding,  Sr., 

31  rods 

6  feet. 

No. 

67. 

Stephen  Belding, 

14  rods 

12  feet. 

No. 

68, 

Samuel  Dickinson, 

32  rods 

No. 

69. 

Robert  Bardwell, 

10  rods 

4  feet. 

1086  rods  II  feet. 


47 


The  lots  in  WTiately  measure  146  rods,  i  foot,  6  inches. 

The  second  division  of  Commons,  abutting  upon  a  high- 
way on  the  west  side  of  the  Mill  River  swamp  (Chestnut  Plain 
street  so  called),  and  part  against  the  wet  swamp  and  part 
against  the  Great  river  easterly.  This  measurement  is  on  the 
west  end. 


rods 

feet 

inches 

No 

I 

Daniel  White, 

28 

5 

2 

No. 

2 

Stephen  Tailor's  heirs 

3 

0 

4 

No. 

■^ 

J 

Walter  Hixon, 

8 

2 

I 

No. 

4 

Samuel  Gunn, 

5 

6 

II 

No. 

5 

John  Smith's  heirs, 

3 

16 

4 

No. 

6 

Widow  Graves, 

9 

II 

9 

No. 

7 

Thomas  Hastings, 

8 

9 

5 

No. 

8. 

Samuel  Allis, 

18 

9 

II 

No. 

9. 

Mr.  Chauncey, 

6 

14 

I 

No. 

10, 

Richard  Morton, 

27 

7 

4 

No. 

II, 

Hezekiah  Dickinson, 

8 

9 

5 

No. 

12, 

Benjamin  Wait, 

19 

12 

3 

No. 

13- 

Edward  Church, 

24 

14 

8 

No. 

14, 

William  King, 

5 

6 

II 

No. 

15. 

John  Allis,   • 

45 

II 

10 

No. 

16, 

Samuel  Kellogg, 

II 

T3 

I  r 

No. 

17. 

Martin  Kellogg, 

5 

6 

II 

No. 

18, 

Joseph  Belknap, 

22 

5 

2 

No. 

19. 

John  Wells, 

21 

2 

— 

No. 

20, 

Samuel  Marsh, 

10 

— 

4 

No. 

2r, 

John  Coles, 

31 

12 

2 

No. 

22, 

Samuel  Dickinson, 

28 

5 

2 

No. 

23. 

Philip  Russell. 

18 

4 

3 

No. 

24, 

Town  lot, 

6 

1-4 

I 

No. 

25. 

Ephraim  Beers, 

6 

14 

I 

No. 

26, 

Robert  Page, 

4 

9 

I 

No. 

27. 

Samuel  Graves,  Jr., 

7 

II 

7 

No. 

28, 

Thos.  Meekins,  Jr. 's heirs,  6 

9 

6 

No. 

29. 

Daniel  Belding, 

12 

9 

6 

No. 

30. 

Robert  Bardwell, 

9 

2 

6 

No. 

31. 

Samuel  Partridge, 

9 

7 

3 

No. 

32, 

Benjamin  Hastings, 

9 

7 

3 

No. 

33. 

Stephen  Belding, 

12 

14 

3 

No. 

34. 

Samuel  Wells, 

9 

2 

6 

No. 

35. 

Samuel  Field, 

10 

15 

2 

48 


No. 

No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No, 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 


rods 

feet 

Inches 

36 

John  Coleman, 

31 

12 

2 

A  highway,  Christian  lane, 

ID 

— 

37. 

Thomas  Bracy, 

5 

2 

6 

38, 

Isaac  Graves, 

13 

6 

6 

39 

Samuel  Belding,  Sr., 

28 

I 

5 

40 

William  Scott, 

12 

14 

3 

41 

Joseph  Field, 

8 

13 

II 

42, 

Samuel  Foote, 

II 

2 

5 

43 

Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr. 

,    6 

4 

4 

44 

Samuel  Carter, 

4 

9 

I 

45, 

Samuel  Gailord. 

22 

5 

2 

46 

Widow  Fellows, 

II 

/ 

ID 

47 

Samuel  Billings'  heirs, 

5 

12 

— 

48, 

William  Gull, 

25 

2 

2 

49, 

Thomas  Meekins,  Sr., 

12 

14 

5 

.SO, 

Samuel  Gillett's  heirs, 

5 

6 

r  I 

51 

John  Steel, 

5 

6 

1 1 

52 

Joseph  Bodman, 

5 

6 

II 

53 

John  Graves, 

9 

54 

included  in  Noah  Wells' 

55- 

John  Field, 

II 

16 

5 

56 

Thomas  Loomis, 

9 

12 

7 

57 

John  Hubbard, 

9 

10 

10 

58 

Stephen  Jennings, 

7 

15 

2 

59 

Samuel  Belding,  Jr., 

15 

9 

10 

60 

Samuel  Graves,  Sr., 

8 

12 

2 

61 

John  White, 

8 

12 

2 

62 

William  Arms, 

7 

9 

1 1 

63 

Noah  Wells. 

4 

7 

4  . 

64 

,  Mr.  Atherton's  heirs, 

7 

10 

II 

65 

,  Obadiah  Dickinson, 

6 

2 

8 

66 

,  Benjamin  Barrett. 

4 

2 

6 

67 

.  Daniel  Warner, 

20 

4 

5 

68 

,  Eleazer  FrarA', 

14 

8 

7 

69 

,  Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Sr. 

,  21 

7 

5 

70 

,  overplus  to  Mr.  Williams 

,    8 

3 

10 

00 


879 

The  third  division  as  copied  from  Hatfield  records  as  laid 
out  21,  October  1684,  beginning  at  the  northwest  side  of  the 
highway  that  leadeth  to  Northampton  and  all  the  sandy  hill. 


49 


rods 

feet 

No. 

I,  Samuel  Graves,  Sr., 

137 

No. 

2 

Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Sr., 

217 

— 

No. 

3- 

William  King, 

5 

9 

No. 

4, 

John  White, 

13 

12 

No. 

5 

Samuel  Carter, 

5 

2 

No. 

6, 

William  Scott, 

13 

No. 

7 

Ephraim  Beers, 

6 

I 

No. 

8 

Joseph  Boardman, 

5 

10 

No. 

9 

Obadiah  Dickinson, 

13 

No. 

ID 

Robert  Page, 

4 

3 

No. 

II 

John  Graves, 

14 

8 

No. 

12 

Samuel  Tailor, 

19 

12 

No. 

13 

Eleazer  Frary, 

23 

I 

No. 

14 

Thomas  Bracy, 

4 

12 

No. 

15 

John  Field, 

18 

16 

No. 

16, 

Stephen  Jennings, 

13 

.9 

No. 

17. 

Town  lot, 

6 

8 

No. 

i8, 

John  Smith's  heirs, 

5 

2 

No. 

19 

Walter  Hixon, 

7 

2 

No. 

20 

Widow  Graves, 

ID 

I 

No. 

21 

Benjamin  Barrett, 

4 

^5 

No. 

22 

Samuel  Foote, 

II 

r 

A  highway, 

10 

— 

No. 

23 

,  William  Gull, 

25 

5 

No. 

24 

Thomas  Meekins, 

12 

3 

No. 

25. 

Samuel  Wells, 

9 

5 

No. 

26 

Samuel  Belding,  Jr., 

26 

7 

No. 

27 

Daniel  White, 

23 

— 

No. 

28 

John  Cowles, 

34 

3 

No. 

29 

Daniel  Belding,  Sr., 

13 

2 

No. 

30 

Samuel  Dickinson, 

29 

II 

No. 

31 

John  Hubbard, 

15 

12 

No. 

32 

,  Robert  Bardwell, 

9 

6 

No. 

33 

Martin  Kellogg, 

5 

.7 

No. 

34 

,  Rev.  Hope  Atherton's  heirs. 

12 

12 

No. 

35 

,  Thomas  Loomis, 

7 

6 

No. 

36 

,  Mr.  Chauncey, 

5 

7 

No. 

37 

Stephen  Belding, 

13 

II 

No. 

38 

,  Noah  Wells, 

7 

2 

No. 

39 

Thomas  Hastings, 

8 

10 

No. 

40 

,  Samuel  Graves,  Jr., 

8 

5 

50 


rods 

feet 

No.  41,  Joseph  Belknap, 

22 

II 

No.  42 

Joseph  Field, 

8 

8 

No.  43 

Philip  Russell, 

12 

I 

No.  44 

Thomas  Meekins,  Jr., 

7 

5 

No.  45 

John  A  His, 

44 

4 

No.  46 

Hezekiah  Dickinson, 

9 

4 

No.  47 

Isaac  Graves, 

13 

5 

No.  48 

John  Steel, 

5 

4 

No.  49 

Stephen  Tailor, 

4 

6 

No.  50 

Samuel  Partridge, 

9 

3 

No.  51 

Daniel  Warner, 

34 

3 

No.  52 

Samuel  Gillett's  heirs, 

5 

2 

No.  53 

Samuel  Allis, 

17 

9 

No.  54 

Thomas  Wells,  with  Noah  Wells 

No.  55 

Samuel  Marsh, 

9 

I 

No.  56 

John  Wells, 

23 

3 

No.  57 

Samuel  Field, 

10 

3 

No.  58 

William  Arms, 

12 

2 

No.  59 

Samuel  Belding, 

29 

3 

No.  60 

Samuel  Kellogg, 

14 

5 

No.  61 

Samuel  Gunn, 

5 

2 

No.  62 

Edward  Church, 

23 

2 

No.  63 

Benjamin  Hastings, 

9 

4 

No.  64 

Widow  Fellows, 

10 

15 

No.  65 

Richard  Morton,' 

26 

5 

No.  66 

Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr., 

9 

I 

No.  67 

John  Coleman, 

34 

II 

No.  68 

Samuel  Billings'  heirs. 

II 

— 

No.  69 

,  Benjamin  Wait, 

18 

9 

No.  70 

,  an  overplus  of  about 

6 

1281  6 

Ending  with  ye  uppermost  lot  laid  out  in  Mill  River  swamp. 
These  lots  were  laid  out  east  and  west  bounded  by  Mill  swamp 
lots  highway  east,  and  on  the  end  of  the  six  miles  from  Great 
River  west. 

Nine  last  lots  of  this  third  division  are  in  Whately,  147  rods, 
16  feet  Tsdde  in  all. 

The  fourth  division  of  Commons,  laid   out  29  April,  17 16. 

This  division  is  bounded  east  by  Chestnut  Plain  street, 
north  by  Deerfield  and  Conway,  west  by  the  west  town  line  and 
south  by  the  third  division. 


51 


rods 

feet 

inche 

No. 

I, 

Joseph  Field, 

9 

9 



No. 

2, 

Widow  Graves, 

9 

15 

3 

No. 

3. 

Samuel  Foote. 

1 1 

7 

— 

No. 

4, 

William  Arms, 

7 

12 

9 

No. 

5-. 

Stephen  Belding, 

13 

3 

— 

No. 

6. 

Robert  Bardwell, 

9 

6 

— 

No. 

7. 

Samuel  Allis, 

19 

6 

No. 

8, 

Samuel  Dickinson, 

29 

— 

No. 

9. 

Rev.  H.Atherton's heirs 

,    9 

15 

— 

No. 

lO. 

John  Coleman, 

32 

3 

6 

No. 

II, 

Hezekiah  Dickinson, 

8 

13 

— 

No. 

12, 

Samuel  Wells, 

9 

6 

— 

No. 

13. 

David  White, 

29 

— 

— 

No. 

14, 

John  Smith's  heirs. 

4 

I 

6 

No. 

15. 

John  Field, 

12 

5 

— 

No. 

16. 

Widow  Fellows, 

II 

II 

4 

No. 

17. 

John  Steel, 

5 

8 

10 

No. 

18, 

Edward  Church, 

25 

8 

— 

No. 

19. 

Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Sr. 

,21 

16 

No. 

20, 

Daniel  Warner, 

20 

12 

3 

No. 

21, 

Eleazer  Frary, 

14 

5 

4 

No. 

22, 

Samuel  Gailor, 

'-»o 

14 

No. 

23. 

John  Cowles, 

32 

8 

6 

No. 

24, 

William  King, 

5 

8 

10 

No. 

25, 

Samuel  Gillett's  heirs, 

5 

II 

6 

No. 

26, 

John  Hubbard,  • 

9 

14 

6 

A  highway. 

9 

— 

— 

No. 

27, 

John  White, 

8 

15 

7 

No. 

28, 

Samuel  Belding,  Jr., 

15 

16 

I 

No. 

29. 

Samuel  Field, 

1 1 

2 

— 

No. 

30. 

Samuel  Belding,  Sr., 

28 

13 

4 

No. 

31. 

Ephraim  Beers, 

7 

6 

No. 

32, 

Daniel  Belding, 

12 

14 

6 

No. 

33. 

William  Gull, 

25 

12 

4 

No. 

34, 

Samuel  Carter, 

4 

10 

ID 

No. 

35. 

Stephen  Tailor's  heirs. 

3 

2 

7 

No. 

36. 

Thomas  Wells,  with  Noa 

h. 

No. 

37. 

Samuel  Partridge, 

9 

1 1 

— 

No. 

38, 

Thomas  Lnomis, 

9 

16 

2 

No. 

39. 

Samuel  Kellogg, 

16 

3 

II 

No. 

40 

,  Obadiah  Dickinson, 

8 

II 

— 

52 


No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 


41 
42 

43 
44 
45 
46 

47 
4S 

49 

^o 

v./ 

5t 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 
60 

61 

62 

63 
64 

65 
66 

67 
68 

69 


roil  3 

Thos.  Meekins,  Sr.'s  hr's,  13 

Richard  Morton,  28 

Mr.  Chauncey,  7 

Robert  Page,  4 

John  Allis,                      '  45 

Samuel  Gunn,  5 

Samuel  Graves,  Sr.,  8 

Martin  Kellogg,  5 

Thomas  Meekins'  heirs,  7 

Isaac  Graves,  13 

Benjamin  Barrett,  4 

Thomas  Bracy,  5 

Town  lot,  7 

Benjamin  Hastings,  9 

Samuel  Graves,  Jr.,  7 

Joseph  Boardman,  5 

Samuel  Billings'  heirs,  7 

John  Graves,  9 

Joseph  Belknap,  22 

Samuel  Marsh,  10 

I'hilip  Russell,  .  19 

Noah  Wells,  4 

Thomas  Hastings,  8 

Walter  Hixon,  8 

Stephen  Jennings,  6 

Benjamin  Wait,  20 
Nathaniel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  6 

JohnWells,  23 

William  Scott,  13 


feet 
2 


10 

14 

8 

15 
8 

1 1 
6 

4 
6 

I  I 

15 
8 
6 

3 
14 
4 
5 
9 

13 
6 

2 
3 

5 
12 

3 


lnche» 


6 
10 
10 
10 

7 

10 
I 
8 
6 
6 


10 
1 1 

5 

6 
I 


6 

10 


887  1  .3 

It  is  proper  to  say  that  the  lot  left  for  a  highway  between 
lots  26  and  27  was  never  used  for  that  purpose.  This  would 
have  made  the  road  west  between  the  houses  of  Horace  Man- 
ning and  Donovan  brothers,  while  it  actually  was  built  near 
the  house  of  W.  I.  Fox,  but  later  changed  to  south  of  the  pres- 
ent hotel  and  the  Doctor  Bardwell  house  to  accommodate  Elijah 
Allis  at  the  time  he  built  the  hotel  in  1820,  the  town  assent- 
ing thereto. 

Perhaps  in  this  connection  it  will  be  proper  to  say  that 
the  method  of  division  of  the  Commons  was  upon  the  estates  as 


53 

inventoried  by  the  assessors.  The  following  schedule  will  show 
the  difference  in  a  few  of  the  valuations  :  Ichabod  Allis,  132^, 
7s;  while  Josiah  Scott,  25^,  iSs;  Joseph  Scott,  28/^;  Benjamin 
Scott,  b£  and  David  Graves,  23^",  4s,  6d.  So  the  large  inven- 
tor}' received  a  wide  piece  of  land,  while  the  small  tax  payer 
but  a  nap'ow  one.  The  same  method  of  division  was  used  in 
the  dividing  of  the  three-mile  addition,  now  a  part  of  Williams- 
burg, and  also  in  the  division  of  the  S064  acres,  known  as  the 
Hatfield  Equivalent  (the  eastern  part  of  Hawley).  The  three- 
mile  addition  was  granted  by  the  General  Court  in  1695  and 
allotted  to  the  inhabitants  in  1740.  The  Hatfield  Equivalent 
was  granted  and  the  allotment  made  in  1744,  on  the  basis  of 
estates.  The  man  of  large  estate  received  a  large  area,  while 
the  man  of  small  estate  received  but  a  small  amount  of  it.  As 
the  history  of  Hawley  says:  "\'erily,  to  him  that  hath  shall  be 
given,  and  to 'him  that  hath  not  shall  be  taken  away  even  that 
which  he  hath."  The  lots  were  from  two  to  four  miles  in  length, 
over  hills  and  swamps  and  arable  lands,  but  perhaps  not  over 
five  or  six  rods  wide,  wholly  unsuited  for  a  farm,  while  the 
wealthy  man,  like  Mr.  Allis,  had  a  strip  293  rods  wide  and 
three  miles  long,  making  over  1500  acres. 

Among  the  Whately  inhabitants  I  find  the  names  of  John 
Waite,  Abner  Dickinson,  David  Graves,  Josiah  Scott,  Josiah 
Scott,  Jr.,  Joseph  Scott,  Benjamin  Scott,  Elisha  Smith,  Joseph 
Belden,  Ebenezer  Bardwell,  who  were  among  the  number  who 
had  lands  in  the  three-mile  addition    and    Hatfield  Equivalent. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  allusion  is  often  made  to  the  Mill 
swamp  division.  This  was  a  meadow  on  both  sides  of  Mill  riv- 
er, varying  in  width  from  40  to  about  55  rods.  These  lots  were 
divided  among  Hatfield  residents,  only  three  or  four  of  them  lying 
in  Whately.  The  north  lot  is  now  owned  by  Rufus  M.  Swift,  east 
of  Mill  river,  and  on  the  west  side  by  Ashley  G.  Dickinson. 

It  was  intended  that  the  north  line  of  the  Mill  swamp  divi- 
sion should  be  coincident  with  the  south  line  of  the  second  divi- 
sion of  Commons.  There  is  really  only  about  15  feet  of  differ- 
ence. The  Mill  swamp  line  is  about  that  much  too  far  north  to 
exactly  correspond.  The  lines  in  the  second  division  run  at  a 
different  point  of  compass  than  those  in  the  Gov.  Bradstreet  grant. 
so  when  the  lots  extended  past  the  Gov.  Bradstreet  grant  to  the 
Connecticut  river  there  were  several  lots  from  15  to  20  rods  wide 
on  the  bank  of  the  river  that  were  gores,  running  to  points 
before  reaching  250  rods,  the  width  of  the  Bradstreet  farm. 


54 

Each  lot  was  reduced  in  width  about  two  feet  to  the  rod,  at 
the  we<t  end' of  the  second  division  of  Commons,  so  each  lot  is 
wedging,  and  we  here  gi\'e  the  per  cent,  of  increase  in  width 
from  Chestnut  Plain  street  to  the  Connecticut  river,  for  each 
half  mile. 

The  width  on  Chestnut  Plain  street  is  SS6  rods,  7  feet,  4 
inches,  or  in  decimals  8S6.4394  rods. 

First  half  mile,  917.7250  rods. 

Second  half  mile,  94.7. 6S23  rods. 

Third  haif  mile,  "      979.4722  rods. 

Fourth  half  mile,  loi  i  .2054  rods. 

Increase  in  all  for  the  second  division,  124.7660  rods. 
The  Major  Gen.  Dennison  grant  and  the  Gov.  Simon  Brad- 
street  grant  demand  considerable  of  our  attention.  In  1659  a 
erant  was  made  to  Gov.  Bradstreet  of  500  acres,  to  be  located 
by  him  by  some  unoccupied  lands  on  the  west  side  of  the  Con- 
necticut river.  Gov.  Bradstreet  had  the  first  choice,  and  took 
500  acres  in  Hatfield  noith  meadow,  and  Maj.  Dennisou  took 
his  500  acres  north  of  Bashan.  This  last  extended  from  one 
rod  in  Hatfield  pond  north  on  the  line  of  the  river  one  mile, 
and  west  from  the  Connecticut  river,  250  rods. 

After  much  agitation  over  Gov.  Bradstreet's  location,  the 
town  exchanged  with  him,  allowing  him  1000  acres  lying  aijd 
abutting  upon  the  Maj.  Dennison  farm,  and  extending  north  on 
the  line  of  the  Connecticut  river  two  miles,  with  the  width  of 
250  rods  west  from  the  river.  This  brought  the  whole  of  the 
Bradstreet  grant  into  Whately.  In  addition  to  the  increased 
amount  of  land,  the  town  had  to  pay  Gov.  Bradstreet  200  pounds 
sterling.  Gov.  Bradstreet  died  in  1697  and  after  his  death 
Edward  Church,  Robert  Bard  well  and  Samuel  Partridge  were 
among  the  syndicate  who  purchased  the  farm  of  his  heirs.  It 
is  probable  that  there  was  a  company  of  10  interested  in  the 
purchase,  as  I  find  that  Samuel  Partridge,  Jr.,  sold  to  John 
Belden  of  Hatfield  his  interest  (i-io)  one-tenth  part  of  the  Gov, 
Bradstreet  farm.  The  deed  bears  date  of  1 1  Jan.,  170^2,  really 
1702,  and  conveys  his  right,  viz.:  one  lot  in  each  of  the  four 
divisions  ;  two  lots  in  the  north,  or  upper  mile,  containing  50 
acres;  the  two  lots  in  the  southern  mile,  containing  14  acres, 
lying  east  of  the  highway,  as  agreed  upon  by  the  proprietors, 
the  remaining  36  acres  lying  west  of.  the  said  highway,  and  as 
yet  undivided,  to  be  divided  as  the  proprietors  may  ag-ree. 


55 

The  boundaries  then  were  as  follows:  The  first  half  mile, 
south  on  the  Maj.  Dennison  farm,  north  on  land  of  Robert  Bard- 
well,  east  on  Connecticut  river  and  west  on  the  highway  ;  the 
second  half  mile  bounded  south  on  land  of  Robert  Bardwell  (he 
owned  the  north  lot  in  the  first  half  mile  and  south  in  the  sec- 
ond half  mile),  east  on  Great  river,  west  on  the  highway  and 
north  on  the  south  lot  in  third  half  mile ;  the  third  half  mile 
bounded  east  on  Great  river,  west  on  second  division  of  Com- 
mons, south  on  Dea.  Church  land  and  north  on  Robert  Bard- 
well land  ;  the  fourth  half  mile,  east  on  Great  river,  west  on 
Hatfield  woodlands,  or  second  division  of  Commons,  south  on 
Robert  Bardwell  land  and  north  on  Dea.  Church  land  and  sec- 
ond division  of  Commons. 

Speculation  in  land  was  active  and  the  owners  were  often 
changed,  and  the  names  we  give  as  the  owners  in  1719  were 
soon  entirely  changed  as  settlements  in  the  north  part  of  Hat- 
field progressed. 

The  proprietors  of  the  Dennison  and  Bradstreet  grants  were 
finally  found  acting  together  in  holding  their  meetings  and  in 
keeping  their  records.  And  having  made  copious  extracts  from 
their  book  of  records,  and  realizing  the  importance  from  a 
historical  point  of  view,  I  will  now  make  some  extracts  from  my 
notes. 

In  1S83  I  helped  survey  out  the  Bradstreet  farm,  measuring 
carefully  from  south  to  the  north  side  and  from  the  Connecticut 
river  west  on  three  points,  and  found  it  slightly  in  excess  of 
250  rods,  perhaps  the  slight  curving  in  the  river  bank  would 
account  for  that,  yet  at  each  place  measured  it  was  slightly  in 
advance  of  250  rods.  We  will  give  an  extract  from  the  deed  of 
Josiah  Scott,  Sr.,  who  owned  the  uppermost  lot,  to  hisson,  Josiah, 
Jr.,  and  he  givesthe  boundaries  thus  :  "Weston  second  division 
of  Commons,  east  on  Great  river,  south  on  land  of  Dea.  Dickin- 
son and  north  on  the  second  division  of  Commons,  containing 
37^4  acres,  24  rods  wide,  250  rods  long  east  and  west  on  which 
I  now  live,  with  the  buildings  thereon,  d^ted  6  Nov.,  1745." 

Mr.  Scott  was  then  84  years  old  and  was  in  his  old  age 
cared  for  by  Josiah,  Jr.  But  he  had  formerly  lived  in  the  Straits, 
on  the  place  owned  by  the  heirs  of  Charles  F.  Pease,  as  will 
appear  from  these  votes  passed  by  the  proprietors  of  the  Brad- 
street farm.  "At  a  legal  meeting  16  May,  1718,  voted  by  said 
proprietors  to  allow  a  highway  to  run  from  the  upper  end  of  the 
first  (or  lower  mile)  mile,  three  rods  wide   to    Deerfield  road." 


56 

This  language  is  plain  and  explicit.  •  The  upper  end  of  the 
first  mile  was  near  the  paint  miJl  of  Elihu  Beldcn,  the  site, of 
Belden's  sawmill.  This  road  was  afterward  moved  to  accommo- 
date Mr.  Scott,  asshownbvthe  following  vote  ;  "\'oted,  1 1  May, 
1730,  by  the  proprietors  of  Bradstreet  farm.  That  they  allow 
Josiah  Scott,  Sr.,  the  use  and  pre-improvement  of  the  highway 
to  the  country  road,  Josiah  Scott,  Sr.,  binds  himself  and  his 
heirs  to  said  proprietors,  that  he  will  allow  them  a  good  'sofish- 
ant'  highway  from  time  to  time,  and  at  all  times,  for  the  use  and 
benefit,  and  also  to  provide  and  maintain  a  'sofishant'  great 
gate,  to  lead  out  to  Dt^erfield  road."  This  allowed  Mr.  Scott  to 
move  the  road  south  where  the  hill  was  less  difficult. 

At  the  meeting  held  16  May,  171S,  it  was  also  voted  by  said 
proprietors  "That  we  will  have  a  highway  to  run  through  the 
upper  mile  in  the  most  convenient  place."  And  now  we  find 
that  Josiah  Scott  and  Ebenezer  Bardwell  were  appointed  to 
make  and  set  up  great  gates,  convenient  for  carts  to  pass 
through.  Then  the  proprietors  voted:  "The  said  Scott  shall 
set  his  up  between  the  lower  and  upper  farm  (doubtless  mean- 
ing between  the  upper  and  lower  mile),  and  Ebenezer  Bardwell 
shall  set  his  up  at  the  upper  end  of  the  two  miles." 

Then  they  voted  to  complete  the  fencing  of  the  lower  mile. 
This  was  passed  by  vote  of  Nov.  27,  172 1,  and  was  to  be  suf- 
ficient to  secure  the  first  or  lower  mile  and,  when  completed, 
the  fence  between  the  lower  mile  and  the  Dennison  farm  could 
be  removed.  And  they  had  a  fence  at  the  upper  end  of  the  two 
miles,  as  they  voted  March  29,  1726,  to  maintain  their  propor- 
tion of  the  fence  between  said  farm  and  Canterbury  field  and 
that  tbey  in  fact  took  turns  in  fencing  down  the  river  banks. 

We  have  sought  to  show  by  these  extracts  that  a  road 
existed  through  the  Bradstreet  farm  two  miles,  connecting  it 
with  Canterbury  road  to  Sunderland,  and  was  practically  where 
it  now  runs.  And  also  that  houses  were  built  in  the  Straits 
sooner  by  some  years  than  has  been  generally  supposed.  To 
further  elucidate  this  last  point,  I  will  quote  from  a  deed  dated 
17  Jan.,  1728,  from  Samuel  Wells  to  Nathaniel  Coleman,  two 
lots  in  Bradstreet's  grant,  both  of  Hatfield.  After  describing 
the  boundaries  it  says:  "With  all  the  buildings  standing 
thereon."  These  buildings  sold  by  Samuel  Wells  probably  had 
been  the  home  of  Mr.  Wells  soon  after  his  marriage,  about  1710. 
He  removed  to  Connecticut  a  few  3'ears  later. 

It  seems  very  probable  that   these   buildings  were  occupied 


57 

before  1720,  as  houses  were  built  at  an  early  date  on  the  Den- 
nison  farm.  It  is  perhaps  proper  to  say  that  a  syndicate  of  seven 
Hatfield  men  bought  the  500  acre  Dennison  farm  about  1700, 
perhaps  a  little  earlier.  These  were  John  Field,  Joseph  Field, 
Robert  Bardwell,  William  Arms,  Samuel  Field,  Samuel  Gunn 
and  Andrew  Warner. 

They  laid  it  out  in  seven  divisions.  Each  proprietor  was 
given  a  lot  in  each  of  the  divisions  from  five  to  16  acres  and  19 
poles.  They  also  had  in  the  second  division,  seven  house  lots 
with  roads  or  streets  through  the  center,  on  the  east  side  and  the 
north  side.  There  were  four  house  lots  on  the  east  portion  and 
three  on  the  west.  The  west  lots  were  assigned  to  Robert 
Bardwell,  Samuel  Field  and  Joseph  Field.  The  four  east  ones 
were  to  S.  Jennings,  Samuel  Gunn,  William  Arms  and  Daniel 
Warner. 

Just  how  many  of  these  house  lots  had  farm  buildings  erect- 
ed upon  them  I  do  not  know,  but  several  of  them  did  as  within 
my  recollection  the  old  cellar  holes  and  debris  of  demolished 
buildings  remained  in  plain  view,  but  repeated  plowings  have 
wiped  out  all  remains  of  the  cellars.  It  was  and  is  valuable 
farm  land  and  found  ready  purchasers. 

Even  before  the  house  lots  were  assigned  we  find  that  John 
Field  had  sold  to  Stephen  Jennings.  Later  David  Graves  was 
found  here  and  perhaps  his  brother,  Abraham  Graves.  The 
settlement  was  compact,  as  our  ancestors  well  knew  that  in  case 
of  Indian  wars,  isolated  dwellings  were  sure  to  be  pillaged  and 
burned  and  the  occupants  murdered  or  dragged  into  a  terrible 
captivity. 

As  it  was  they  were  often  fired  upon  by  the  bands  of  ma- 
rauding Indians  and  many  a  bullet  hole  was  made  in  the  board 
covering  to  their  buildings — some  pieces  of  boards  were  pre- 
served for  a  long  time  —and  the  writer  was  shown  one  fully 
75  years  ago  as  taken  from  the  buildings  of  his  great-grand- 
father, David  Graves. 

The  people  of  the  present  day  have  but  a  slight  idea  of  the 
troublous  times  when  at  any  moment  they  might  be  called  upon 
to  defend  their  wives  a^nd  little  ones  from  the  assaults  of  prowl- 
ing Indians,  aside  from  attacks  of  wild  animals. 

Names  of  the  proprietors  of  Bradstreet  grant,   [719. 


First,  or  lower  half  mile. 
No.'   I,  Samuel  Gunn. 
No.     2,  Joseph  Smith. 
No.    3,  Ebenezer  Bardwell. 


Second  half  mile. 
No.     I,  John  Waite. 
No.     2,  Ebenezer  Morton, 
No.    3,  Joseph  Smith. 


58 


No. 

4. 

Samuel  Belden. 

No. 

5 

John  Belden. 

No. 

6 

John  Crafts. 

No. 

7^ 

Josiah  Scott. 

No. 

8, 

John  Waite. 

No. 

9. 

Ebenezer  Morton. 

No. 

lO, 

Nathaniel  Coleman 

No. 

1 1, 

Thomas  Field. 

No. 

12, 

Jonathan  Smith, 

No. 

13- 

Zachariah  Field. 

Third  half  mile. 

No. 

I, 

Jonathan  Cowles. 

No. 

2 

Zachariah  Field. 

No. 

3' 

Joseph  Smith. 

No. 

4. 

John  Crafts. 

No. 

5, 

John  White. 

No. 

6, 

John  Smith. 

No. 

/   » 

Ebenezer  Morton. 

No. 

8, 

John  Waite. 

No. 

9. 

Nathaniel  Croleman 

No. 

lO, 

Samuel  Belding. 

No. 

1 1, 

John  Belding. 

No. 

12, 

Ebenezer  Bardwell. 

No.    4,  Thomas  Field. 
^'^-     5.  John  Crafts. 
No.     6,  Zachariah  Field. 
No.     7,  Jonathan  Smith. 
No.     8,  Josiah  Scott. 
No.     9,  Nathaniel  Coleman. 
No.  lo,  Samuel  Gunn. 
No.  1 1 ,  John  Belden. 
No.  12,  Ebenezer  Bardwell. 
No.  13,  Samuel  Belden. 

Fourth  half  mile. 

No.     I,  Ebenezer  Bardwell. 
No.     2,  John  Belding. 
No.     3,  Samuel  Belding. 
No.    4,  Nathaniel  Coleman, 
No.     5,  John  Waite. 
No.    6,  Ebenezer  Morton. 
No.     7,  Jonathan  Smith. 
No.     8,  John  White. 
No.     9,  John  Crafts. 
No.  10,  Joseph  Smith. 
No.  II,  Zachariah  Field. 
No.  12.  Josiah  Scott. 

It  now  appears  satisfactorily  that  the  town  of  W^hately  was 
constituted,  or  made  up,  from  the  whole  of  the  second  and 
fourth  divisions  of  Hatfield  Commons  or  Woodlands,  as  they 
were  often  called,  together  with  nine  lots  from  the  north  side  of 
the  first  and  third  divisions. 

The  nine  lots  in  the  first  division  were  146  rods,  i  foot  and 
I  inch  wide  ;  and  the  nine  lots  in  the  third  division  measured 
147  rods,  16  feet  wide,  as  measured  on  Chestnut  Plain  street, 
which  was  the  dividing  line  between  the  divisions.  On  the 
west  end  it  measured  in  all  1025  rods,  i  foot  and  5  inches,  while 
at  the  east  end  on  the  Connecticut  river,  including  the  Gov. 
Bradstreet  grant  two  miles  up  the  river,  it  measured  ii57rods, 
4  feet  and  11  inches,  or  about  1243^  rods  on  the  east  end  more 
than  on  the  west  end,  and  the  same  diminishing  of  width  con- 
tinued in  the  fourth  division,  making  all  the  lots  wedging, 
while  in  the  first  and  third  divisions  no  such  discrepancy  appears. 

The  importance  of  retaining  the  numbers  of  the  lots  will 
appear  when  we  say  that  most  of  the  old  deeds  are  for  such  a  lot 
of  land  in  such  a  division  in  the  first,  second,  third  or  fourth 
half  mile,  as  the  land  conveyed  might  lay. 

Roads. — The  location  of  the  public  (in  distinction  from  the 
proprietors')  roads  properly  deserves  attention  in  connection  with 


59 

the  division  of  Commons,  as  both  were  parts  of  a  common  plan. 
Taken  together  the  system  devised  was  at  once  simple  and  con- 
venient, ofivino:  each  land  owner  the  readiest  access  to  his  several 
lots.  The  general  plan  was  roads  running  nearly  parallel  with 
the  river,  at  about  a  mile  distant  from  each  other,  intersected  at 
nearly  right  angles  by  cross  roads  at  convenient  distances.  All 
these  highways  were  originally  lo  rods  wide. 

The  "base  line"  of  all  the  roads  was  the  "Straits."  which 
followed  nearly  the  Indian  trail  from  Umpanchala's  Fort  to 
Pocumtuck.  This  was  practically  the  dividing  line  between 
the  meadows  on  the  one  hand  and  the  Commons  on  the  other. 
It  was  very  early  accepted  as  a  county  road. 

The  next  in  importance,  if  not  in  time,  was  the  read  over 
Chestnut  plain.  When  the  Commons  were  first  marked  off  into 
two  parallel  divisions  in  16S4  a  space  ten  rods  wide  was  left 
between  them  unappropriated,  to  be  used  when  occasion  should 
require.  This  is  recognized  as  a  road  in  the  records  of  April, 
1716.  The  vote  of  the  town  laying  a  public  highway  here  bears 
date  1756.  though  several  houses  had  been  built  on  the  line  some 
years  earlier.  And,  w^hat  is  worthy  of  note,  this  highway  was 
not  surveyed  and  definitely  located  till  it  was  done  by  Whately 
in  May,  1776. 

Probably  the  Poplar  hill  road,  the  road  from  Spruce  hill 
south  over  Chestnut  mountain,  and  the  Claverack  road,  were 
designated  early,  but  no  vote  laying  them  out  as  highways  has 
been  found  on  Hatfield  records.  The  highway  from  Deerfield 
line  by  Abraham  Parker's  (previously  a  "close  road,"  with 
bars),  to  the  Bradstreet  proprietors'  highway,  near  R.  T.  Mor- 
ton's corner,  was  laid  out  in  1756  and,  at  the  same  time,  the 
said  proprietors'  highway  was  accepted  as  a  public  road. 

This  ran  originally  south  of  the  cemetery  and  struck  the 
Straits  below  the  John  Waite  place.  In  1755  a  road  w^as  laid 
from  the  Straits  eastwardly  "byEbenezer  Morton's"  to  the  road 
dividing  Old  farms  and  West  farms,  thence  to  Dennison's  farm. 
Considerably  earlier  than  this  a  path  had  been  marked  out  and 
traveled  from  the  Straits,  near  "Mother  George,"  northwesterly 
through  "Egypt,"  to  Chestnut  plain.  This  had  several 
branches,  one  of  which  was  the  Conwpiy  path,  used  by  the  emi- 
grants from  the  Cape,  in  1763.  This  was  the  only  feasible  road 
for  teams  between  the  east  part  and  the  centre  of  Whately  till 
near  the  time  of  its  incorporation.  The  road  now  kno\v'n  as 
Christian  Lane  was  originally  a  reserved  lot  in  the  second  divi- 


6o 

sion  of  Commons  and  was  only    a    bridlepath,    or    at  best  a  log 
causeway,  for  many  years. 

Private  roads — or  proprietors'  highways — all  of  which  had 
bars  or  gates,  were  laid  when  needed.  Such  was  the  path  from 
Hatfield  street  to  Great  meadows,  and  later  to  Bashan,  and  later 
still  continued  northerly  through  Dennison  farm  by  the  "Old 
Orchard."  Such,  also,  was  the  road  from  the  county  road  near 
"Mother  George"  and  "Hopewell"  and  another,  further  north, 
from  Benjamin  Scott's  to  near  Joshua  Belden's. 

But  to  return  to  our  narrative.  The  tide  of  settlement 
which  started  northward  into  Bashan  in  16S2,  was  arrested  by 
the  breaking  out  of  King  William's  war  in  16SS.  Taught  by 
past  experience  the  Hatfield  settlers  had  not  neglected  prepara- 
tions for  a  possible  renewal  of  hostilities.  They  had  extended 
the  lines  of  palisades  so  that  they  reached  two  hundred  and 
twent3'-nine  rods  on  one  side  and  two  hundred  and  forty-six 
rods  on  the  other,  enclosing  the  greater  part  of  the  village. 
The  house  of  Mr.  Williams  was  fortified,  as  were  three  houses 
on  the  Hill  and  one  at  the  farms.  "Watches"  were  set  at  night 
and  "warders,"  or  day  watches,  were  employed  from  May  i.st  to 
the  time  of  "The  fall  of  the  leaves,"  the  Indians,  as  a  rule  mak- 
ing their  attacks  while  the  leaves  were  on  the  trees,  for  better 
concealment,  or  in  the  dead  of  winter.  A  guard  was  always 
stationed  in  or  near  the  meeting-house  upon  Lord's  days  and 
lecture  days  and  public  meeting  da^'s. 

All  males  from  sixteen  to  sixty,  except  those  exempted  by 
law,  were  required  to  train  four  days  in  a  year.  But  now  for  a 
time  stricter  watches,  and  wards  and  almost  daily  scoutings  were 
kept  up  and,  though  there  were  no  important  battles  in  the 
neighborhood,  small  skulking  parties  of  Indians  kept  the  people 
on  the  alert.  As  early  as  1687,  Hatfield  had  a  full  militia  com- 
pany of  sixty-four  men.  John  Allis  was  the  first  captain.  In 
1690,  Hatfield  had  eighty  soldiers. 

To  understand  the  care  and  cost  of  these  military  precau- 
tions it  may  be  stated  that  at  this  time  the  pay  of  a  private  sol- 
dier was  six  shillings  per  week  ;  drummer  and  corporal,  seven 
shillings;  clerk  and  sergeant,  nine  shillings ;  ensign,  twelve  shil- 
lings; lieutenant,  fifteen  shillings;  captain,  thirty  shillings;  the 
pay  of  mounted  men,  and  most  of  the  scouting  was  performed 
by  troopers,  was  twenty-five  per  cent,  higher.  For  subsistence, 
the  price  of  board  for  soldiers  on  the  march  was  eight  pence  per 
day,    soldiers  in    garrison,    three   shillings   and    six  pence  per 


6i 

week.  Many  were  billeted  in  families  and  fared  the  same  as 
their  hosts.  The  ordinary  rations  were  pork  or  beef,  bread  or 
dry  biscuit  and  peas.  When  on  expeditions  they  often  carried 
the  Indian  food  called  Nocake,  i.  e.,  Indian  corn  parched  and 
beaten  into  meal.  Sometimes  rum,  sugar,  pipes  and  tobacco 
were  furnished  the  troops.  When  horses  were  fed  at  grass  the 
price  per  full  day  was  three  pence ;  at  hay  and  provender,  six 
pence. 

Sept.  1 6,  1696,  the  Indians  came  suddenly  upon  Deerfield 
village  and  took  Daniel  Belding  and  two  children,  Nathaniel  and 
Esther.  They  killed  El'zabeth,  his  wife,  also  three  children, 
Daniel,  John  and  Thankful,  and  wounded  Samuel  and  Abigail 
who  recovered,  though  Samuel's  skull  was  fractured.  The 
remaining  children  hid  among  some  tobacco  which  had  been 
hung  to  dry  in  the  attic,  and  were  not  discovered. 

The  middle  of  July,  1698,  four  Indians  came  into  the  upper 
part  of  North  Meadow,  where  men  and  boys  were  hilling  corn, 
and  killed  John  Billings,  aged  twenty-four,  and  Nathaniel  Dick- 
inson, Jr.,  thirteen,  and  took  Samuel  Dickinson,  aged  eleven, 
and  a  lad  named  Charley.  They  shot  at  Nathaniel  Dickinson, 
Sr.,  and  killed  his  horse,  but  he  escaped.  This  war  lasted  ten 
years. 

Taxes. — The  burden  of  taxation,  on  account  of  the  Indian 
wars,  was  heavy  on  the  young  settlement.  The  "Country 
rates,"  nearly  the  same  as  our  state  taxes,  assessed  on  the. 
estates  and  polls  of  Hatfield  for  the  three  years,  1675-6-7, 
amounted  to  ^117.  In  1692  this  tax  was  ^184.  A  part  of  this 
was  payable  in  grain  and  part  was  a  money  tax.  The  latter 
was  regarded  as  especially  severe  for,  according  to  a  statement 
in  a  petition  sent  to  the  government,  "Not  one  in  ten  of  the 
inhabitants  df  the  county  have  any  income  of  money  in  any 
manner."  In  a  like  petition,  Hatfield  said  "Money  is  not  to  be 
had  here."  In  one  or  two  instances  the  Court  agreed  to  com- 
pound the  money  rates  by  receiving  "Corn  at  two-thirds  the 
country  pay  prices."  Sometimes  a  respite  or  abatement  was 
granted.  "In  ans'  to  them  of  Hattfeild.  it  is  ordered,  that  the 
rates  of  those  of  that  toune  who  have  bin  impoverished  by  the 
late  cruelty  of  the  innemy  burning  doune  their  habitations,  shall 
be  respitted  and  left  in  their  hands  untill  the  Court  shall  give 
further  order  therein."      [Colony  Rec,  30  Oct.,  1677]. 

A  single  "country  rate"  was  aa   assessment  of  one  shilling 
and  eight  pence  on  males  over  sixteen  years  old  and  one  penny 


62 

per  pound  on  real  and  personal  estate.  Once  only  a  tax  was 
levied  on  females.  In  June.  1695,  it  was  ordered  that  single, 
women  who  earn  a  livelihood  should  pay  two  shillings  each,  be- 
ing one-half  as  much  as  the  poll  tax  of  males  for  that  year. 

The  prices  at  which  "country- pay"  was  receivable  for  taxes 
were  from  time  to  time  fixed  by  law.  Oct.  15.  1650.  "Itt  is 
ordered  by  this  Courte  that  all  sortes  of  corn  shall  be  paid  into 
the  country  rate  at  these  prizes  following,  viz.:  Wheate  and  bar- 
ley at  five  shillings  pr.  bushell :  rye  and  pease  at  four  shillings; 
Indian,  at  three  shillings,  marchantable." 

The  payment  of  the  Province  tax  of  Hatfield  in  time  of  war 
required  no  transportation.  This  being  a  frontier  town,  sol- 
diers were  constantly  quartered  upon  the  inhabitants  who  were 
expected  to  charge  the  stipulated  price  for  subsistence,  etc.,  and 
this  amounted  to  a  much  larger  sum  than  the  town  tax.  The 
charges  allowed  Hatfield,  up  to  May  i,  1676,  for  feeding  men 
and  horses  and  supplies  for  various  expeditions,  footed  up  £788. 
In  October,  1680,  there  was  still  due  the  town  on  these  war 
charges  ;^400.  This  was  fully  paid  by  the  Govemm-ent  before 
1684. 

Besides  the  country'  rate  there  was  a  county  rate,  payable 
like  the  former,  and  at  the  same  prices,  in  grain;  the  minister's 
rate,  payable  in  grain  at  town  prices  (which  were  lower  than 
country-  prices)  ;  the  town  rate  to  discharge  town  debts ;  and 
various  others  of  special  character,  such  as  scholars'  rates,  herds- 
men's and  shepherds'  rates,  bridge  rates,  etc.  When  a  rate  was 
duly  assessed  by  the  rate-makers  the  list  and  the  whole  matter 
of  adjustment  was  put  in  the  hands  of  the  constable  who  settled 
with  each  individual  and  carried  the  balance  (of  grain)  due  to 
whomsoever  was  entitled  to  receive  it. 

To  show  how  accounts  with  the  town  were  balanced  some 
examples,  copied  from  the  constable's  book,  are  subjoined; 

Hatfield,  January  20,  1695. 
Ensign  Frary 

To  goeing  to  ye  Bay  deputy  29  days 
ditto,  goeing  to  ye  Bay  10  days  at  3s 
ditto,  goeing  to  ye  Bay  20  days  at  3s 
more  writeings  at  money 
To  keeping  ye  Bull  one  winter  | 
To  Assessing  3  days  at  2-9  j 


By  his  Money  Rate 


4 

07 

0 

I 

10 

0 

3 

00 

0 

0 

08 

0 

I 

05 

6 

/lO 

10 

6 

0 

04 

II 

«i3 

6y  his  Corne  Rate 

By  Dea.  Church  3-1 1  :  Wid.  Russell  pay  2-6 

By  Rich.  Morton  11-9 

By  Noah  Wells  13-7:  pd.  in  money  ^3     5 

By  John  Wells  6-2  ;  Wid.  Warner  3-9    | 

By  money  paid  him  at  ^i     49  ) 

By  money  paid  him  at 

By  payment  by  Sergt.  Belding 

By  Stephen  Belding,  Constable 


0 

08 

3 

0 

06 

5 

0 

II 

9 

3 

18 

10 

I 

14 

8 

I 

08 

0 

I 

00 

3 

0 

17 

5 

/lO  10 


Thomas  Nash 

To  bnrneing  woods  2  days  4s 

To  goeing  out  with  ye  Committee  1-6 

By  his  Come  Rate  3-8  :  Sam'l  Partrigg  i-io 

Deacon  Coleman 

To  assessing  4.  days  los  :  allow' ce  for  trooper  4d  £0 
By  Noah  a  trooper  4d  :  Part  of  Town  Rate  los     o 

Samuel  Graves,  Drummer, 

To  his  Saller\'  for  1695  £1  ;  Sam'l  Partrigg 

,  for  Mr.  Williams 
By  his  Corn  Rate  4-4 ;  Isaac  Graves  7s 
By  his  Money  Rate  2-7  :  Sergt  Belding  6-7 


lo 

05 

6 

£0 

05 

6 

£0 

10 

4 

0 

10 

4 

£r 

00 

6 

0 

I  r 

4 

0 

9 

2 

£1     00 


Doctor  Hastings 

To  make  up  his  Salary  ^12    18  6  ;  one 

Trooper  3d 
By  Sergeant  Hubbirt 
By  D.  Church  2-9  ;  B.  Hastings  2-9 
By  Dea.  Coleman  2-5  ;  Doctor's  Rate  2-6 
By  Joseph  Field  3-1 1 ;  Stephen  Taylor  1-9 
By  Sam.  Billing  5.6  ;  D.  Coleman  3-8 
By  Sergt.  Wait  6-11  ;  Jona.  Smith  6-2 
By  Jno.  Cowls  i8s  ;  N.  Wells  6-2,  Lt.  Wait  2- 
By  S.  Kellogg,  Jr.,  2-11  ;  Wm.  Gull  3-10 
By  Nath.  Foote  2-1  ;  Jno.  Field  13-9 
Bypd.  to  ye  Doctor  by  several 
By  pd.  to  ye  Doctor  by  several 


12 

18 

9 

0 

08 

0 

0 

05 

6 

0 

04 

1 1 

0 

05 

8 

0 

09 

2 

0 

13 

I 

I 

07 

3 

0 

06 

9 

0 

15 

10 

4 

16 

2 

3 

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5 

£12     18 


CHAPTER  V. 

SETTLEMENT    OF    THE    NORTH    PART    OF    HATFIELD. 

One  reason  why  the  north  part  of  Hatfield  remained  so  long 
unsettled  is  already  apparent.  The  Whately  plains,  Mill-river 
swamp  and  Hopewell  were  favorite  hunting  grounds  for  the 
Indians.  Bears,  deer  and  wild  turkeys,  as  well  as  smaller 
game,  were  plenty,  and  fur-bearing  animals  abounded  in  the 
brooks.  Both  deer  and  bears  were  found  here  till  1750,  and 
wild  turkeys  were  not  uncommon  in  1S25.  Till  1697,  eight  or 
ten  families  of  red  men,  known  as  Albany  Indians,  but  perhaps 
a  mixed  remnant  of  the  Norwottucks,  continued  to  come  yearly 
to  Hopewell  and,  in  one  or  two  instances,  they  remained  through 
the  winter.  One  of  their  camping  grounds  was  on  land  now  owned 
by  Stephen  Belden,  Esq.  They  roamed  the  woods  at  will  and 
often  came  to  the  village  to  beg  or  barter.  They  were  com- 
monly considered  peaceful  though  they  were  distrusted  and 
sometimes  watched. 

Two  years  before,  in  1695,  a  party  of  these  Indians,  while 
hunting  near  Ashuelot,  were  attacked  and  eight  or  nine  of  them 
killed.  The  English  charged  the  assault  upon  hostile  Indians, 
but  the  tribe  charged  it  upon  the  English.  From  this  date,  these 
visitors  became  more  unwelcome  and  some  restrictive  measures 
were  adopted.  The  number  of  Indians  in  the  Hopewell  camp 
at  this  time  was  twelve  men,  nine  squaws  and  twenty-three 
children.  Early  in  October,  1696,  four  of  them,  while  on  a 
hunting  excursion  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  shot  Richard 
Church  out  of  revenge  for  some  real  or  supposed  insult  received 
from    Hadley    men.      The   murderers   were   tracked,  captured, 


"55 

identified,  tried,  convicted  and  sentenced,  and  two  of  them, 
Mowenas  and  Mcqiirlas,  were  "shot  to  dtath"  at  Northampton. 
This  murder  led  to  the  disarming  of  all  the  Indians  then  resident 
in  the  immediate  neighborhood  and  to  such  stringent  measures 
as  induced  them  to  quit  the  valley  the  t.ext  spring. 

Another  reason  which  had  an  influence  to  discourage  settle- 
ment here  was  that  plain  lands,  such  as  the  tract  lying  next 
west  of  the  river  bottoms,  were  considered  worthless  for  all  pur- 
poses except  for  wood  and  pasturage. 

But  another,  and  of  itself  a  sufficient  reason,  was  that  Hat- 
field did  not  own  the  intervals  north  of  Bashan,  except  a  narrow 
strip  near  the  Deerfield  line.  The  Indian  deed  covered  the 
whole  territory,  but  this  conveyed  a  doubtful  title  as  against  the 
right  of  eminent  domain  vested  in  the  Government,  and  in  the 
act  of  incorporation  there  was  the  condition  "Reserving  propri- 
eties formerly  granted  to  any  person." 

For  the  first  forty  years  the  Colonial  Government  was  accus- 
tomed to  give  away  lands  in  large  tracts  to  individuals  of  high 
civil  and  ecclesiastical  rank,  often  as  an  acknowledgment  of, 
rather  than  in  payment  for,  services  rendered  the  Colony,  though 
in  some  cases  it  was  in  settlement  of  claims.  These  individual 
grants  were  often  made  arbitrarily,  with  little  regard  to  town 
lines,  or  even  existing  town  grants.  Sometimes  the  General 
Court  made  grants,  leaving  the  location  optional  to  the  grantee. 
Hence  a  clause  was  usually  inserted  in  township  grants  "Reserv- 
ing proprieties  formerly  granted  to  any  person."  Most  com- 
monly the  grantee  had  a  choice  in  the  selection  and  commonly 
chose  the  most  valuable  lands. 

As  an  instance  of  the  careless  way  in  which  the  General 
Court  disposed  of  territory  the  following  may  be  cited  :  A  grant 
of  eight  thousand  acres  was  made  to  Dedham  in  1665,  and  laid 
out  at  Pocumtuck.  But  when  Hatfield  was  incorporat'id,  five 
years  later,  its  north  line  was  placed  "Six  miles  from  Northamp- 
ton north  line,"  to  conform  to  the  line  specified  in  the  Indian 
deed,  which  carried  said  line  over  into  the  eight  thousand  acre 
grant  one  and  three-quarters  miles.  The  duplication  was  of 
course  unintentional,  and  was  remedied  by  granting  the  Dedham 
proprietors  an  equivalent  lying  northwardly  of  their  first  sur- 
veyed grant. 

Settlements. — Mr.  Temple  gives  several  reasons  why 
Whately  was  not  earlier  settled.  We  deem  one  or  two  reasons, 
not  mentioned  by  him,  as  more  potent  than  those  enumerated. 


66 

First.  The  population  of  Hatfield  had  not  become  suf- 
ficiently numerous  to  compel,  or  even  induce,  the  sparse  popula- 
tion to  leave  their  pleasant  homes,  where  each  additional  man 
served  to  add  to  the  feeling  of  securit> — that  could  not  be  found 
by  isolation.  Roaming  bands  of  Indians  were  liable  to  attack  any 
weak  or  comparatively  defenceless  position  or  habitation,  even 
as  late  as  1745,  and  so  in  the  war  at  a  later  period,  1750  to  1761, 
when  we  finally  captured  Canada. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  from  the  commencement  of  this  war 
our  forces  acted  upon  the  defensive.  In  1761  we  finally  stopped 
the  incursion  of  Indian  marauders  by  capturing  Canada.  Our 
forces  commenced  acting  on  the  aggressive  early  in  that  war. 
It  had  been  a  time  of  general  peace  fiom  1726  to  King  George's 
war  in  1744.  During  the  time  of  peace  settlements  had  been 
made  in  the  Straits,  which  Mr.  Temple  considered  worthless 
except  for  wood  and  pasturage.  Then  Hatfield  did  not  own  the 
meadows  north  of  Bashan,  not  as  a  town,  yet  Hatfield  people 
did,  having  purchased  the  Denuison  and  Bradstreet  grants.  So 
it  will  be  seen  his  reasons  assigned  are  fallacious. 

Second.  The  Commons  comprising  the  whole  town  of 
Whately  were  outlying  lands.  These  were  cut  into  narrow  strips 
extending  from  tn?  and  one-half  miles  to  two  or  three  and  a 
half  long,  some  of  them  were  not  over  four  or  five  rods.  Forty- 
nine  of  the  sixty-seven  lots  in  each  division  were  less  than  15  rods 
wide  with  several  less  than  five  rods.  Now,  while  these  lots 
were  held  by  persons  to  whom  they  were  granted,  the  idea  of 
settling  on  the  lot  for  the  purpose  of  making  a  farm  was  practi- 
cally out  of  the  question.  As  soon  as  these  lots  began  to  be 
sold  off,  we  find  that  settlements  were  made.  But  you  can  but 
notice  that  after  the  capture  of  Canada,  and  Safety  was  assured, 
settlers  came  in  with  rapidity  and  in  a  short  space  of  time,  only 
about  ten  years  later,  the  settlement  was  incorporated  as  a  dis- 
tinct town. 

As  an  illustration  of  the  method  taken  to  acquit  a  farm 
suitably  compact  to  warrant  a  location  and  the  erection  of  suita- 
ble tarm  buildings,  we  will  give  a  few  examples.  Deacon  Joel 
Dickinson  bought  a  part  of  lots  on  the  west  end,  extending  east 
one-half  mile,  Nos.  29,  30,  31,  32  and  33,  giving  him  a 
width  of  a  little  over  53  rods,  or  a  farm  of  53  acres.  Benoni 
Crafts  bought  on  the  east  side  of  the  road,  in  the  second  divi- 
sion, lots  57,  58,  59,  60  and  61,  extending  east  half  of  a  mile, 
giving  a  width  of  some  over  53  rods.     Here  were  lour  lots  from 


^7 

seven  to  nine  rods  each  and  only  one  lot  of  15  rods.  No  one  of 
these  would  have  sufficed  for  a  farm  alone.  So  until  the  owners 
were  willing  to  sell  so  as  to  make  a  compact  farm,  there  was  no 
attempt  to  build. 

We  think  the  owners  of  the  Gov.  Bradstreet  grant  were  dif- 
ferently situated  as  Samuel  Wells  built  on  his  lot  about  17 10  to 
1715,  as  near  as  we  can  now  get  at  it.  He  sold  in  1728  and  re- 
moved to  Hartford,  Ct.,  where  he  died.  Josiah  Scott,  Sr.,  built 
on  the  Deerfield  road,  yet  in  Bradstreet's,  probably  as  early  as 
1718.  Later,  about  1728,  he  built  farm  buildings  one  and  one- 
half  miles  north  for  his  son,  Josiah,  Jr.  After  the  death  of  his 
wife  he  went  to  live  with  Josiah,  Jr.,  March  6,  1745.  Deeded 
him  the  upper  farm,  located  at  the  extreme  north  part  of  Brad- 
street's,  for  400  pounds.  His  son,  Josiah,  Jr.,  was  a  man  46 
years  of  age  at  this  time,  and  was  living  on  land  that  his  father 
owned  and  buildings  that  he  had  built  for  his  son,  after  the  close 
of  Queen  Anne's  war.  in  17^3. 

Building  in  the  Straits  commenced  after  the  close  of  the 
war,  from  1722  to  1726,  and  quite  a  number  of  houses  were 
built,  but  you  will  notice  that  they  were  all  in  the  Bradstreet 
grant,  and  in  no  other  part  of  the  town  until  the  aggressive  war 
in  1754-61  against  Canada  was  commenced,  and  ended  in  its 
capture  from  the  French,  and  all  fear  of  Indian  raids  from  that 
prolific  source  had  ceased. 

Bradstreet's  Grant  and  Dennison's  Grant. — In 
1659,  about  the  time  the  township  of  Hadley  was  allowed  to  the 
petitioners  from  Connecticut,  a  grant  of  500  acres  was  made  to 
Mr.  Simon  Bradstreet,  one  of  the  magistrates  and  afterwards 
Governor  of  the  Colony,  and  five  hundred  acres  to  Maj.  Gen. 
Daniel  Dennison.  They  had  liberty  to  locate  these  lands  "At 
any  place  on  the  west  side  of  the  Connecticut  river,  provided  it 
be  full  six  miles  from  the  place  intended  for  Northampton  meet- 
ing-house, upon  a  straight  line."  Bradstreet,  who  had  the  first 
choice,  took  his  five  hundred  acres  in  Hatfield  North  meadow 
and  Dennison  took  his  north  of  Bashan.  Dennison's  farm  ran 
one  mile  north  and  south  on  the  river  and  west  two  hundred  and 
fifty  rods. 

As  the  North  meadow  included  nearly  one-fourth  part  of  the 
valuable  interval  granted  to  Hadley  and  was  not  "Six  miles 
from  Northampton  meeting-house,"  the  town  petitioned  to  have 
Bradstreet's  grant  vacated,  but  without  avail.  After  a  five 
years'  struggle   the   town,  out  of  justice  to   the  west  side  pro- 


68 

prietors.  was  obliged  to  purchase  of  Mr.  Bradstreet  the  North 
meadow,  for  which  he  exacted  200  pounds  and  one  thousand 
acres  of  land  elsewhere.  "In  answer  to  the  petition  of  Samuel 
Smith,  for  and  on  the  behalfe  of  the  toune  of  Hadley,  the  Courte 
judgeth  it  meete  to  grant  the  thousand  acres  of  land  mentioned 
in  their  petition,  next  to  Maj.  Gen.  Dennison's  land,  to  the 
toune  of  Hadley,  on  condition  that  they  make  agreement  with 
the  worshipful  Mr.  Bradstreete  for  the  five  hundred  acres  lying 
within  the  bounds  of  their  said  toune.      18  May,  1664." 

From  this  act  of  the  Court,  it  would  appear  that  Dennison's 
and  Bradstreet's  farms  adjoined,  though  Bradstreet's  west  line 
was  one  mile  from  the  river,  while  Dennison's  was  onl}'  two 
hundred  and  fifty  rods.  Bradstreet's  north  line  was  the  upper 
side  of  the  wood  lot  lying  northward  of  the  Elijah  Allis  farm 
and  his  west  line  was  a  little  to  the  westward  of  the  Straits  road. 
His  length  on  the  river  was  one  and  a  half  miles. 

Gen.  Dennison  died  in  1682,  and  some  years  after  his  farm 
is  found  in  possession  (probably  by  purchase)  of  John  Field, 
William  Arms,  Robert  Bardwell,  Daniel  Warner,  Samuel  Field, 
Samuel  Gunn,  Joseph  Field  and  Andrew  Warner,  who,  with 
their  successors,  held  and  managed  it  as  joint  proprietors  till 
after  1735,  and  is  all  in  Hatfield. 

Gov.  Bradstreet  died  in  1697.  His  farm,  like  Dennison's, 
was  purchased  and  held  in  joint  proprietorship,  though  each 
owner  had  his  specified  lots.  It  appears  from  the  proprietors' 
records,  that  this  farm  was  first  divided  into  two  parts,  the 
northern  part,  known  as  "The  upper  mile,"  the  southern  part, 
known  as  "The  lower  mile."  Each  of  these  was  cut  in  by  a 
road  running  north  and  south  where  the  present  river  road  runs. 

For  the  purpose  of  regulating  fences,  highways,  etc.,  the 
two  proprietaries  of  the  Dennison  and  Bradstreet  grants  united 
and  held  joint  meetings  and  kept  common  records. 

Hopewell. — The  original  name  of  this  tract  was  "Wet 
Swamp."  but  it  was  called  by  its  present  name  as  early  as  1700. 
The  name  appears  to  have  been  at  first  applied  to  the  swampy 
lands  li'ing  west  of  Dennison's  farm.  It  now  has  a  more  gen- 
eral and  indefinite  application. 

"1700.  J.nnuary  3.  A  record  of  eight  lots  in  the  Wet 
Swamp,  alias  Hopewell,  in  Hatfield:  To  Samuel  Partridge, 
Sen.,  the  first  lot,  being  fourscore  rods  in  length,  twenty-six 
rods  in  breadth,  the  lines  running  west  by  north  half  a  point, 
from  the  west,  H.  by  S.  half  a  point,  containing  thirteen  acres. 
To  Ensign  Eleazer  Frary,    second   lot;    Lt.  Dau'l  White,  third 


69 

lot;  To  Ensign  Eleazer  Frar}',  fourth  lot;  John  Graves,  Sen., 
fitth  lot;  To  Sa:nael  Gr.ives,  Sen.,  deceased,  his  heirs,  th.-  sixth 
lot;  To  John  Graves,  deciasad,  his  heirs,  the  seventli  lot;  To 
Samuel  Dickinson,  Senior,  the  eighth  lot  " 

All  projected  improvements  in  this  portion  of  the  town  were 
arrested  by  the  war  known  as  Queen    Anne's  war,  which  broke 
out  in  1703  and  lasted  till   17 13.      It  was  during    this  war,  Feb. 
29,  1704,  in  the  dead  of  winter,   that  the  combined  French  and 
Indians    made    the  memorable    assault    on    Deerfield,    where  a 
nominally  Christian   nation  outdid  in  cruelty  the  barbarities  of 
savage  warfare.     It  does  not  fall  within  the  sccpe  of  this  narra- 
tive to  depict  the  terrible  scenes  of  this  massacre,  as  they  have 
often  been  faithfully  portrayed.     Twenty-two  Hatfield  men  were 
in  this  fight,  three  of  whom,    Samuel    Focte,  Samuel    x\llis  and 
Sergt.    Benjamin  Wait,  were  killed.     Those  of  our    name  taken 
captive  were  :     Mary   AUis,    Hepzibah  Belding,    Sarah  Dickin- 
son, Mary  Field,  Mary  Field,   Jr.,  John  Field  and  Marv-  Frary. 
No    more    severe  battles   occurred    in    the    valley,   but  the 
Indians  in  small  parties  hung  around  all  the  towns  and  kept  the 
settlers  in  a  state  of  constant  alarm.     Ebenezer  Field  of  Hatfield 
was  slain  at  Bloody  Brook,  Oct.  26,  1708.      No  traveler  was  safe 
by  night  or  by  day.      Ordinary    business    was  transacted  only 
under  protection  of  the  militia. 

April  ir,  1709,  Mehuman  Hinsdale  of  Deerfield,  while  re- 
turning from  Northampton  with  his  team,  was  captured  by  two 
Indians  and  taken  to  Chamblee.  Probably  the  capture  took 
place  in  what  is  now  Whately.  He  had  no  apprehension  of 
danger  because  the  leaves  were  not  out.  In  the  ten  years  of  the 
war  the  number  slain  in  the  county  was  one  hundred  and  three. 
One  hundred  and  twenty-three  captives  were  taken,  of  whom 
twenty-four  were  killed  or  died  on  the  way  to  or  while  in 
Canada. 

As  it  was  determined  by  the  Colonial  Government  to  main- 
tain the  Deerfield  settlement  at  all  hazards,  this  became  the 
frontier  town  ;  and  consequently  Hatfield  was  less  exposed  than 
in  previous  wars  and  the  local  histor\-  has  less  of  public  interest 
for  record. 

« 

In  this  war  the  Government  paid  a  bounty  of  ^'10  for  Indian 
scalps,  when  taken  by  enlisted  soldiers,  and  ^100  for  each  scalp 
brought  in  by  the  volunteers. 

Massachusetts  passed  an  act  November,  1706,  "For  raising 
aud  increasing  dogs,  for  the  better  security  of  the  frontiers."     In 


7^ 

October,  170S,  Connecticut  appropriated  ^50,  "To  bring  up  and 
maintain  dogs  to  hunt  afcer  Indians."  It  does  not  appear,  how- 
ever, that  they  were  of  any  service  in  killing  or  capturing  armed 
Indians. 

Indians. — Indians  continued  to  reside  in  Whately  for 
many  years  after  its  incorporation  at  intervals,  at  least,  if  not 
permanently.  Three  families  or  "lodges"  were  in  the  west 
part  of  the  town,  as  within  the  distinct  recollection  of  Orange, 
Chester  and  Charles  Bardwell,  sons  of  Lieut.  Noah.  One  cabin 
was  north  of  where  Edwin  Bardwell  built  his  house. 

He — Edwin — told  me  that  he  had  often  heard  his  uncles 
relate  stories  regarding  them.  "The  old  brave  would  get 
bravely  under  the  influence  of  liquor  and  then  fall  to  abusing 
his  squaw  and  the  young  ones.  They  often  had  to  interfere  and 
calm  him  down."  The  land  west  of  Edwin's  house  contained 
large  quantities  of  black  ash  suitable  for  making  baskets  and 
they  made  and  peddled  these.  There  were  two  more  huts  or 
cabins  southwest  of  the  southwest  schoolhouse,  one  near  the 
peculiar  round  knoll,  and  another  east  of  the  house  of  Willis  F. 
Wait,  some  twenty-five  or  thirty  rods  just  under  the  hill  near 
the  Haydenville  road.  These  Indians  were  all  well  known  by 
the  Bardwell  brothers  after  they  were  men  grown. 

Then  just  north  of  the  land  known  as  "Old  Fields,"  west  of 
Wells  Dickinson's,  was  an  Indian  known  as  Samson  Johnson  or 
Johnson  Samson.  He  had  several  sons,  Eph,  Dave  and  Cyrus, 
the  last  named  being  half  negro.  The  boys  used  to  work  around 
in  Whately,  Conway  and  Deerfield  as  late  as  1835.  After  the 
birth  of  Cyrus,  the  old  brave  tied  up  his  squaw  and  whipped  her 
most  unmercifully  and  gave  her  a  lecture  that  I  have  often 
heard,  but  will  not  relate  here. 

An  anecdote  is  related  of  Josiah  Scott,  Sr.,  to  the  effect 
that  for  three  successive  nights  he  dreamed  that  a  family  of 
Indians,  li\dng  somewhere  about  a  mile  from  his  house,  were  in 
a  starving  condition.  He  was  profoundly  impressed  by  the 
vivid  recurrence  of  the  same  dream  that  something  was  wrong 
with  his  Indian  neighbors,  and,  after  eating  his  breakfast,  took 
his  gun  and  started  out  in  the  deep  snow.  On  the  way  to  the 
Indian's  cabin  he  shot  a  bear.  Upon  reaching  the  cabin  he 
found  them  sick  and  entirely  destitut-eof  food — really  in  a  starv- 
ing condition.  He  went  back,  dressed  the  bear  and  gave  them 
the  meat,  and  afterv\'ards  carried  them  other  things.  For  this 
kind  act,  it  is  said,  that  in  all  the  wars  between  the  settlers  and 


7^ 

Indians  there  never  was  one  bearin,^  the  name  of  Scott 
harmed  by  the  Indians..  These  or  other  Indians  lived  just  south 
of  Sugar  Loaf  mountain,  on  land  now  owned  by  John  N.  White, 
Esq.,  or  the  Fuller  place. 

One  more  story  is  related  of  Joseph  Scott.  One  Sabbath 
morning  a  deer  was  seen  eating  hay  where  he  had  fed  his  cows 
and  his  wife  urged  him  to  shoot  it,  but  he  said  no,  if  the  Lord 
intended  that  he  should  have  the  deer  he  would  send  him  again 
on  some  other  day.  This  proved  true  for  the  deer  came  and  he 
shot  him. 

Snowshoes. — These  were  Indian  inventions  to  enable 
them  to  travel  over  deep  snows  in  hunting.  Their  value  was 
demonstrated  in  the  attack  on  Deerfield,  as  the  country  was  then 
deemed  impassable  from  the  great  depth  of  snow  lying  on  the 
ground.  In  March,  rjo4,  the  General  Court  ordered  five  hun- 
dred pairs  of  snowshoes  and  as  many  moccasins,  for  use  on  the 
frontiers.  One-fourth  of  the  number  were  intended  for  Hamp- 
shire county. 

On  the  return  of  peace,  in  1713,  the  frontiers  were  pushed 
out  northerly  and  westerly.  A  permanent  settlement  was  effected 
on  the  Housatonic  river,  at  ShefReld.  Xorthfield,  after  being 
twice  abandoned,  was  permanently  occupied  in  17 14. 

From  this  time  to  the  close  of  the  fourth  Indian  war,  which 
lasted  from  1722  to  1726,  nothing  of  general  interest  occurred 
in  this  part  of  the  valley.  A  block  house,  named  Fort  Dummer. 
after  the  then  Governor  of  Massachusetts,  William  Dummer, 
was  erected  in  the  spring  of  1724,  about  two  miles  south  of 
the  present  village  of  Brattleboro,  where  a  garrison  was  main- 
tained which  served  a  valuable  purpose  in  protecting  the  lower 
towns. 

The  only  notice  extant  of  any  incursion  into  this  town  is 
the  following :  "June  18,  1724.  Benjamin  Smith,  son  of  Jo- 
seph of  Hatfield,  was  slain,  and  Aaron  Wells  and  Joseph  Allis 
taken  when  they  were  loading  hay,  about  three  miles  north 
from  Hatfield  street."  There  was  just  enough  of  danger  to 
make  people  cautious  and  put    them  constantly  on  their  guard. 

The  period  from  1726  to  1744  appears  to  have  been  one  of 
assured  peace.  The  out  lands  for  home  lots  were  now  more 
freely  taken,  houses  were  built  in  more  exposed  situations  and 
the  proprietors  of  Bradstreet's  farm  prepared  to  locate  nearer 
to  their  valuable  intervals.  One  house  in  each  neighborhood 
was  "picketed,"  and  the  settler  depended  upon  this  and  his  own 
vigilance  and  musket  for  defence. 


CHAPTER  VI. 

WHATELY    SETTLED. 

During  the  inten-als  of  peace  the  owners  of  the  lands  in  the 
north  part  of  Hatfield,  now  embraced  in  the  town  of  Whately. 
began  to  build  farm  buildings.  Before  Queen  Anne's  war  one 
house  was  built  within  our  town  bounds,  that  of  Samuel  Wells, 
in  1 710.  This  was  a  half  mile  or  more  north  of  the  cluster  of 
houses  on  the  Major  Dennison  farm.  This  was  afterwards  sold 
to  Nathaniel  Coleman  and  was  near  the  site  of  Jerry  Hafeys' 
present  house.  Later,  Josiah  Scott,  Sr.,  built  where  is  now  the 
house  of  the  late  Charles  F.  Pease.  As  early  as  1718  the  pro- 
prietors built  a  road  from  near  Frank  D.  Belden's  to  Deerfield, 
or  Straits  road,  and  the  said  Scott  was  to  erect  gates  to  prevent 
the  incursion  of  cattle. 

Next,  we  find  several  families  located  near  the  fortified 
house  of  Joseph  Belden,  probably  not  later  than  1730.  Joseph 
Belden's  house  was  on  the  site  of  the  present  Bartlett  house,  on 
what  we  term  Bartlett's  corner;  so  then,  we  have  south  of  Bel- 
den's, Josiah  Scott,  Sr.,  David  Graves,  John  Waite  and  Elisha 
Smith  while  at  the  north  we  have  Josiah  Scott,  Jr.,  Lieut. 
Ebenezer  Bardwell,  and  probably  Elijah  Scott  (perhaps  he  lived 
with  his  brother.  Josiah,  Jr.,)  and  Benjamin  Scott,  who  lived 
with  his  father.  Josiah.  Sr.  When  about  75  years  of  age  he 
lived,  or  was  li\'ing  with  his  son,  Josiah,  Jr.,  north  of  Bartlett's 
and  he  made  a  deed  of  that  portion  of  his  farm  to  his  son, 
Josiah,  Jr. 

Lieut.  Ebenezer  Bardwell,  and  perhaps  a  Mr.  Goss,  built 
north  of  Bartlett's  corner,  near  the  Scotts.     So  we  find  that  the 


73 

Joseph  Belden  house  was  central,  and  was  the  one  to  be  forti- 
fied, and  was  enclosed  with  palisades,  surrounding  from  a  half 
to  three-fourths  of  an  acre  of  land.  There  the  families  and  their 
stock  could  be  secure  from  molestation  by  predatory  bands  of 
Indians. 

We  will  only  mention  a  few  of  the  more  prominent  early 
settlers :  Abraham  Parker,  who  built  in  Canterbury',  on  the 
north  lots  in  Hatfield,  near  the  Deerfield  line,  in  1749,  Joseph  San- 
derson, 1752,  both  from  Groton,  and  brothers-in-law;  David 
Scott,  1752;  Thomas  Crafts  built  in  1751;  Benoni  Crafts,  in  1760 
or '61,  built  his  house:  Dea.  Joel  Dickinson  built  in  1750  or 
sooner,  perhaps  174S,  directly  east  of  the  stockade  monument; 
Moses  Frar^'  built  where  is  now  the  fine  residence  of  Georo:e  B. 
McClellan,  at  an  early  period:  Dea.  Simeon  Waite  built  on 
Christian  lane  in  1760;  Daniel  Morton  built  on  the  Rufus  Dick- 
inson place  in  1758  or  '59;  Samuel  Carley  built  on  the  R.  M. 
Swift  place,  from  1764  to  '66.  As  we  give  in  detail  all  of  these 
we  will  use  no  more  space  in  mentioning  others. 

Having  given  much  time  and  labor  to  the  subject  of  the 
place  of  location,  or  residence,  of  many  of  the  earlier  settlers  of 
Whately,  and  had  valuable  assistance  from  that  untiring  and 
persistent  antiquarian  student,  Chester  G.  Crafts,  Esq..  I  have 
endeavored  to  give  as  near  as  may  be  the  several  places  of  resi- 
dence of  those  who  first  occupied  the  premises,  with  lists,  more 
or  less  complete  of  those  who  have  succeeded  them,  to  near 
the  present  time.  Also  giving,  when  practicable,  the  original 
number  of  the  lots  in  the  several  divisions  and,  when  known,  the 
year  of  building  the  house,  or  as  close  an  estimate  as  we  are 
able  from  data  in  our  possession,  I  will  give  them  in  alphabet- 
ical, rather  than  in   chronological  order. 

Allis,  Elisha,  of  Hatfield  bought  of  Thomas  Crafts  the 
western  end  of  the  Crafts  farm,  beginning  190  rods  west  of 
Chestnut  Plain  street,  of  lots  number'  44  and  45,  in  1769,  and 
erected  farm  buildings  on  the  Easter  or  Mt.  Easter  road  to  Con- 
way. The  house  was  built  some  20  rods  north  of  the  present 
house  of  Irving  Allis.  This  was  first  occupied  by  Capt.  Lucius 
Allis  and  subsequently  by  his  son  Col.  Josiah  Allis,  who  came 
on  the  place  in  the  spring  of  1775,  then  by  his  son  Elijah  Allis. 
In  1826  Daniel  Dickinson  bought  the  farm  and  built  the  present 
commodious  house  and  seme  of  the  extensive  farm  buildings. 
The  Dickinson  heirs  sold  to  Elliot  C.  Allis,  and  it  is  now  owned 
by  his  son,  Irving  Allis. 


74 

Allis,  Elijah,  removed  to  the  center  of  the  town  and  was 
in  trade  several  years  where  William  Cahill  now  lives.  In  1820 
he  built  the  hotel  where  he  remained  until  1830  and  then  built 
on  the  farm,  in  Bradstreet's  grant,  where  Silas  W,  Allis,  his 
g-randson  now  lives.  This  farm  had  several  owners — two  houses 
were  upon  it.  The  hotel  property  was  sold  to  Levi  Bush  and 
has  had  mam-  owners,  among  them  being  Loren  Hayden,  Darius 
Stone  and  several  others. 

Allis,  Russell,  lived  several  years  where  now  is  the 
Alonzo  Crafts  house.  He  bought,  April  13,  1814,  the  place  first 
owned  by  Joseph  Belden,  now  known  as  Bartlett's  corner.  His 
son-in-law,  Zebina  Bartlett,  lived  with  Deacon  Allis  and  kindly 
cared  for  the  old  people  in  their  declining  years.  Then  Zebina 
W.  Bartlett  occupied  the  place  and  since  his  decease,  George 
D.  Bartlett  has  resided  there.  Before  Deacon  Allis  was  Joseph 
Belden,  Jr.,  then  x\aron  Pratt.  Deacon  Allis  built  the  small 
cottage  house  east  on  the  road  to  the  cemetery  for  his  son-in-law, 
Thomas  Marsh,  about  1816. 

Allis,  Daniel,  owned  and  lived  on  the  farm  since  owned 
by  David  Morton,  Capt.  Rufus  Smith  and  son,  Henrv'.  The 
house  was  removed  1855  or  thereabouts  and  the  farm  was  sold 
to  Hiram  Smith  and  E.  Smith  Munson.  The  farm  is  ofi"  the 
main  road  about  60  rods  north,  with  a  private  road  leading  to  it. 

Allis,  Austin,  a  son  of  Daniel,  lived  at  what  used  to  be 
called  "The  City,"  on  the  east  side  of  Poplar  Hill  road  next 
north  of  the  bridge  over  West  brook,  formerly  owned  by  James 
Cutter,  built  about  18 15.  The  place  has  since  been  owned  by 
Sumner  Smith  and  his  heirs.  There  was  an  old  house  on  this 
site,  torn  down  to  give  place  for  the  new  structure.  It  was  then 
an  old  house  and  no  clue  to  the  original  builders  can  be 
obtained. 

AsHCRAFT,  John,  lived  in  the  Straits,  about  opposite  the 
old  Gad.  Smith  place,  and  Ashcraft  built  the  cottage  house 
about  1848.  It  is  now  owned  by  Henry  C.  Pease.  There  had 
previously'  been  a  set  of  buildings  on  the  place  and  probably 
occupied  by  Nathan  Hastings  and  others  before  him.  This 
place  is  in  the  Bradstreet  grant. 

Ashcraft,  David,  lives  on  the  place  built  by  Chapman 
Smith  about  1S42.  This  is  also  in  Bradstreet's  grant,  and  is 
about  40  rods  south  of  the  road  leading  to  the  cemeterj\ 

Atkins,  Solomon,  Sr.,  lived  in  a  house  in  the  Straits  on 
the  east  side  of  the  road,  near  where  is  the  house  built  by  John 


75 

Woods  and  now  owned  by  the  heirs  of  Charles  F.  Pease.  The 
old  house,  torn  down,  was  built  probably  by  Josiah  Scott  and 
occupied  by  his  son.  Mr.  Atkins  came  from  Middletown,  Conn., 
about  1778. 

Atkins.  Solomon,  Jr.,  a  tanner  and  shoemaker,  bought 
the  place  where  Hubbard  S.  AUis  now  lives  and  built  the  house 
before  1788,  as  he  owned  the  place  before  Martin  Graves 
bought  it  in  1788.  As  near  as  I  can  learn  he  bought  in  1786. 
He  also  built  the  square  house,  now  the  Congregational  parson- 
age, for  one  of  his  sons,  probably  Enoch.  These  are  on  lot  t^o. 
34,  second  division  of  Commons,  on  the  east  side  of  Chestnut 
Plain  street.  Sold  to  Stalham  AUis,  March  20,  1826  and  the 
square  house  in  1S34. 

Abercrombie,  Robert,  about  1779,  built  a  house  on  the 
place  now  owned  by  William  H.  Atkins.  He  came  to  Whately 
in  1776.  He  married  a  daughter  of  Abiel  Bragg  and  bought  55 
acres  of  land  of  Mr.  Bragg  and  put  up  a  house.  This  has  been 
owned  by  many  people,  among  them  Pliny  Graves  and  E.  A. 
Atkins. 

Alexander,  Joseph,  lived  about  1795  or '96,  on  the  Ru- 
'  fus  Sanderson  place,  or  where  old  Peter  Train  and  his  son, 
Lemuel,  lived.  The  house  was  built  about  1761,  on  Poplar  Hill 
road,  fourth  division  of  Commons. 

Alexander,  Levi,  about  1831,  built  the  house  at  Canter- 
bury, since  owned  by  Alfred  Gray,  George  Bates,  William  H. 
Fuller  and  now  by  John  N.  White,  probably  on  lot  68  or  69, 
second  division  of  Commons. 

Allen,  Thomas,  came  from  Connecticut,  1770,  and  lived 
in  a  house  at  the  lower  end  of  the  Straits,  west  side  of  Deerfield 
road,  probably  on  lot  13,  second  division  of  Commons,  south  of 
Josiah  Gilbert's  some  few  rods.  Afterwards  occupied  by  Ben- 
jamin Bacon  and  was  sold  in  1791  to  Elijah  Smith.  The  house 
was  gone  at  least  seventy-five  years  ago,  when  I  was  a  boy. 

Bacon,  Benjamin,  came  from  Connecticut  in  1774  or  '75. 
Lived  in  the  Allen  house  at  the  south  end  of  the  Straits  and  sub- 
sequently removed  to  the  gamble-roofed  house,  afterwards 
vacated  by  Martin  Graves,  1788,  now  owned  by  the  Quinn  fam- 
ily. He  lived  with  his  son,  Philo,  and  died  in  18 14,  aged  87 
years. 

Bardwell,  Lieut.  Ebenezer.  As  early  as  1736,  he 
built  a  house  a  half  mile  or  more  above  Bartlett's  comer,  prob- 
ably on  land  that  was   owned    by   his   father,  in   the  upper  half 


76 

mile  in  the  Bradstreet  grant.  This  contained  50  acres.  His 
father  died  in  1732.  In  1752  he  sold  the  place  to  David  Scott 
and  built  in  the  fourth  division  of  Commons,  on  lot  No.  63. 
This  was  then  on  the  road  that  was  afterwards  built  across  the 
wet  land  north  of  G.  W.  and  A.J.  Crafts'  house,  where  it  was 
originally  laid.  This  he  sold  to  David  Scott  Dec.  30,  1760.  He 
then  built  what  is  generally  known  as  the  Dexter  Dickinson 
house.  This  he  sold  to  Gideon  Dickinson,  the  father  of  Dexter, 
and  it  is  now  owned  by  Jonathan  \V.  Dickinson,  Then  he  and 
his  son,  Ebenezer,  Jr.,  lived  at  first  in  a  log  house  in  Claverack 
about  two  and  one-half  rods  south  of  the  present  structure,  in 
T778,  then  built  the  farm  house  now  going  to  decay  (1899). 
This  is  on  lot  22,  second  division  of  Commons. 

Bardwell,  Samuel,  son  of  Lieut.  Ebenezer,  in  1766 
lived  on  lot  No.  68,  fourth  division  of  Commons,  at  the  place 
now  owned  by  Wells  Dickinson.  He  sold  in  1768  to  Nathaniel 
Hawks  and  removed  to  Ashfield.  He  bought  the  east  end  of 
lot  68,  fourth  division  of  Commons,  of  Joseph  Billings,  March 
5.  1760. 

Bardwell,  Ebenezer,  Jr.,  son  of  Lieut.  Ebenezer,  com- 
monly known  as  "Captain  George,"  lived  and  died  at  the  house- 
built  b}'  his    father  and    himself    in    Claverack,  as  did   his   son, 
Asa  and  grandson   Horace,  who   left   the  place   to    Walter  W. 
Bardwell. 

Bardwell,  Lieut.  Noah,  came  from  Hatfield  in  1762, 
bought  part  of  lot  20,  fourth  division  of  Commons,  and  built  a 
log  house  the  year  before  his  marriage.  At  a  later  period  he 
built  the  large  house  that  he  opened  as  a  hotel.  This  is  on  the 
Poplar  Hill  road.  When  he  came  out  to  Whately,  a  good  dis- 
tance from  West  brook,  there  was  no  road  and  travelers  had 
to  go  by  marked  trees.  The  large  house  has  had  many  owners 
and  is  now  owned  by  Samuel  Wills. 

Bard%vell,  Orange  and  Chester,  bought  the  farms  on 
"Dry  hill"  that  were  owned  b}' Capt.  Amasa  and  Jonathan  Edson, 
and  occupied  both  places.  I  do  not  know  whether  the  Edson 
brothers  built  the  farm  buildings  or  not.  The  Bardwells  bought 
the  two  farms  in  1797. 

Bardweli,  Charles,  built  an  addition  to  the  house 
where  George  W.  Moore  lives,  on  Poplar  Hill  road.  There 
was  a  small  house  or  shop  built  there  before,  but  for  or  by 
whom,  I  do  not  know. 

Bardwell,  Capt.  Seth,  built  the  house,  about  1833,  on 


77 

the  site  where  Ahram  Turner,  Jr.,  lived,  at  the  foot  of  the  hill 
from  the  Chester  Brown  place  and  next  above  the  Elder  Good- 
nough  house,  on  the  west  side  of  Poplar  Hill  road.  He  also 
built,  about  1S40,  on  the  new  road  near  the  woolen  factory  that 
was  burned,  the  house  occupied  by  Lyman  A.  Munson. 

Bardwell,  Edwin,  built,  about  1850,  a  house  and  farm 
buildings  nearly  opposite  his  grandfather's,  where  his  son, 
Charles  E.,  now  resides. 

Bardwell.  Otis,  built  a  house  and  farm  buildings  east  of 
the  southwest  schoolhouse  near  the  bridge  over  the  West  brook, 
in  1830.  The  place  is  now  occupied  by  his  son,  Henry  \V. 
Bardwell. 

Bardwell,  Dr.  Chester,  built  the  house,  recently  owned 
by  Dennis  Dickinson,  in  1816  or  '17.  It  is  now  occupied  by 
Mrs.  G.  W.  Reed. 

Bardwell,  Chester,  Jr.,  bought  the  Dea.  Daniel  Brown 
place  about  1859.      Now  owned  by  his  son,  Hiram  Bardwell. 

Bardwell,  Spencer,  bought  the  Elder  Goodnough  place. 
He  sold  that  and  bought  the  Dea.  Davis  Saunders  place  on 
Mill  hill,  opposite  the  mill  pond,  about  1S65.  Now  owned  by 
Dea.  Francis  G.  Bardwell,  his  son. 

Bardwell,  Chester  3D,  son  of  Asa,  built  the  house  and 
farm  buildings,  in  1840,  on  lot  50,  second  division  of  Commons. 
Since  owned  by  Charles  R.  Crafts,  then  by  Tiiomas  Flinn. 

Bardwell,  Sherman,  built  the  house  at  the  Straits,  since 
owned  by  Luther  G.  Stearns.  Now  occupied  by  Dwight  Dick- 
inson. 

Bragg,  Abial,  came  from  Watertown  and  bought  the 
Calvin  S.  Loomis  place  and  115  acres  of  land  of  Dea.  Simeon 
Waite  and  his  son.  Gad.  The  buildings  are  on  lot  No.  37,  but 
his  farm  included  parts  of  lots  37,  38  and  39,  on  the  north  side 
of  Christian  lane  and  south  of  the  road,  and  parts  of  lots  34,  35 
and  36.  Mr.  Bragg  sold  in  1787  to  Dr.  Benjamin  Dickinson. 
Eleazer  Frary  bought  of  Mr.  Bragg  five  acres,  now  known  as 
the  Alonzo  Crafts  place.  After  Mr.  Frary  came  Simeon  Graves, 
Luther  Wells,  Amasa  Lamson  and  Franklin  Graves  who  pulled 
down  the  old  house  and  built  the  present  one.  Alonzo  Crafts 
built  a  large  barn  and  tobacco  barn.  It  is  now  owned  by  Fred 
L.  Graves,  the  blacksmith. 

Bardwell,  Cotton,  bought  the  Wm.  Mitchell  place,  sold 
that  and  bought  the  Chester  Brown  farm  about  1870.  This 
place  is  now  owned  by  Victor  D.  Bardwell.  His  son,  Edward 
W.,  bought  the  John  and  David  Scott  place.' 


78 

Bartlett,  Zebixa,  bought  in  1S03,  the  Pliny  Graves 
place.  He  afterwards  bought  the  Dea.  Russell  Allis  place,  now 
known  as  Bartlett's  corner,  and  since  owned  b}-  Zebina  W,, 
and  now  by  his  son,  George  D.  Bartlett. 

Barnard,  Ebexezer,  perhaps  with  his  father.  Joseph 
Barnard,  bought  the  part  of  the  Capt.  Oliver  Shattuck  farm 
which  was  annexed  from  Deerfield,  in  1787.  They  came  from 
Sunderland,  and  were  succeeded  by  William,  and  another 
house  was  built  for  Ebenezer.  William  was  followed  by  his 
twin  sons,  William  and  Walter,  and  the  last  named  sold  to 
Noah  Dickinson.  It  is  now  owned  by  his  son,  Hiram  R.,  or  the 
heirs  of  Xoah. 

Beldex.  Joshua,  from  Hatfield,  built  near  Belden's  ferry 
where  Frank  D.  Belden  now  resides.  Joshua  was  succeeded 
by  his  sons,  Reuben  and  Aaron.  Aaron  removed  to  Amherst 
and  Reuben  to  North  Hatfield.  EHhu  took  the  old  farm  and 
now  Frank  D.  has  possession.  This  is  near  the  north  part  of 
the  second  half  mile  in  Bradstreet's  grant.  The  place  was 
bought  of  man}'  different  parties,  and  some  west  of  the  road,  as 
late  as  1806. 

Belden,  Dea.n  Elisha,  built  on  Chestnut  Plain  street 
about  the  time  of  his  marriage  in  1764.  The  house  is  on  lot  22, 
second  division  of  Commons.  Since  his  decease  it  has  been 
owned  by  Jacob  Walker,  ^Villiam  Mather,  Chester  Wells,  Luke 
B.  White,  J.  I'omeroy  Dickinson,  J.  A.  Elder,  and  now  by 
William  Cahill.  Deacon  Belden  sold  to  Jacob  Walker  in  1883, 
his  house  and  home  lot,  reserving  a  fine  farm  farther  east.  He 
built  the  house  on  lot  22,  second  division  of  Commons,  on  the 
Claverack  road,  where  he  died  in  1808.  His  son,  Elisha,  Jr., 
and  his  son,  Allen,  and  son,  Edwin  M.,  followed.  It  is  now 
owned  by  John  Halloran  and  son. 

Belden,  Joshua,  Jr.,  settled  near  the  south  line  of 
Whately  in  the  Bradstreet  grant.  He  bought  the  farm,  Feb.  5, 
1796,  including  the  buildings  thereon.  It  was  probably  on  this 
farm  that  the  first  set  of  farm  buildings  in  the  limits  of  Whately 
were  built,  by  Samuel  Wells,  about  1710  or  '12,  and  afterwards 
sold  to  Nathaniel  Coleman ;  most  likely  where  Jerry  Hafifey 
lives.  An  old  house  was  torn  down  by  Richard  Tower  Morton 
earl)-  in  his  married  life  and  the  present  structure  erected.  The 
old  Joshua  Belden  house  was  built  about  1787  or  '88,  now 
owned  by  Nicholas  Haffey. 

Belden,  Augustus,  built  a   house   that  stood  where  now 


79 

are  the   more    pretentious    premises   of    Stephen  Belden,  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Straits  road  in  the  Bradstreet  grant. 

Belden,  Seth,  built  the  house  that  stood  where  A.  W. 
Nash  built  his  nice  residence,  now  occupied  by  his  son,  Charles 
W.  Nash. 

Belden,  Francis,  built  first  a  small  house  and  afterwards 
put  up  a  brick  house.  This  was  burned  and  his  son,  Alfred. 
built  anew.  The  farm  was  partly  a  portion  of  his  father's  land 
and  the  first  house  was  built  in  1797.  This  was  all  in  Brad- 
street's  grant. 

Belden,  Shaylor  F.,  built  a  house  next  north  of  Jerry  Haf- 
fey's  about  1840.  This  has  been  occupied  by  his  son,  Alfred  S. 
Bird,  Enoch,  built  a  house  and  farm  buildings  on  "Grass 
hill,"  about  1790  to  '94.  His  farm  was  located  one  mile  from 
the  east  line  of  the  three-mile  addition  to  the  east  line  of  his 
farm,  on  the  road  from  the  Jonathan  Waite  house  and  the  Capt. 
Rufus  Smith  place  on  the  east  side  of  the  road,  probably  in  the 
fourth  division  of  Commons.  The  buildings  have  been  gone  a 
long  time. 

Brown,  Edward,  built  as  early  as  1761  on  the  west  side 
of  the  Poplar  Hill  road,  where  now  stands  the  barn  of  Austin 
Brown,  his  great-grandson.  He  bought  parts  of  lots  27,  28,  29 
and  30,  fourth  division  of  Commons.  Probably  his  house  was 
on  lot  28. 

Brown,  Isaiah,  son  of  Edward,  built  from  1795  to  iSco,  a 
hous'^  on  part  of  the  old  farm  of  his  father,  and  south  some  20 
rods  or  more.  The  house  was  built  on  the  west  side  and  barns 
on  the  east.  This  was  later  owned  by  Dea.  Daniel  Brown,  and 
now  by  Hiram  Bardwell. 

Brown,  Josiah,  son  of  Edward,  bought  the  Abraham 
Turner  farm,  116  acres  and  sixty-three  rods,  in  November,  17S2. 
for  ;i{^66o.  The  deed  describes  him  as  of  Colchester,  Ct.  Two 
exceptions  are  made  in  the  deed,  one  of  two  acres  sold  to  Ed- 
mond  Taylor,  and  forty  rods  sold  to  Nathan  Starks,  in  the 
southwest  corner,  where  is  the  house  known  as  the  Elijah  San- 
derson place  and  the  Austin  .\llis  place  now  owned  by  Sumner 
Smith's  heirs.  The  farm  contained  parts  of  lots  39,  40,  41  and 
4.2,  in  the  fourth  division  of  Commons,  bounded  west  by  Poplar 
Hill  road.     The  house  stood  north  of   the    Easter  road  and  has 

« 

been  gone  for  years,  but  the  barn  remains 

Brown,  Lieut.  John,  built  on  the  west  side  of  Poplar  Hill 
road  on  parts  of  lots  46  and  47,  fourth  division  of  Commons. 


8o 

He  bought  these  lots  in  1769  and  built  about  1772  or  '73,  but  I 
do  not  know  which  lot  he  built  upon.  He'  kept  house  here  be- 
fore his  marriage,  Dec.  5,  1776,  when  he  married  his  house- 
keeper. This  was  afterwards  owned  by  his  son,  Chester,  who 
built  a  new  house,  and  then  by  his  son,  Myron,  who  sold  to  Cot- 
ton Bardwell,  and  it  is  now  owned  by  \'ictor  D.  Bardwell. 

Brown,  William  Austin,  built  a  house  on  the  east  side 
of  Poplar  Hill  road  opposite  of  where  the  house  of  Edward 
Brown  stood,  and  on  part  of  the  old  farm,  about  1840  or  '41. 
Now  owned  by  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Elisha  L.  Grover. 

Brown,  Joseph,  about  iSio,  bought  a  house  about  twen- 
ty-five rods  south  of  the  house  built  by  Elijah  Allis  and  his  son, 
Josiah,  in  1S30.  This  house  was  probably  built  by  Abner  Xash, 
a  brother  of  Joseph,  who  had  a  house  a  little  north  of  Abner 's. 
Both  houses  are  gone,  the  one  vacated  by  Joseph  Brown  being 
pulled  down  about  1833.  These  two  houses  were  both  in  the 
Bradstreet  grant.  The  Nashes  were  here  some  time  before  1783. 
When  first  married  he  lived  in  the  Isaac  Smith  house,  in  the 
Straits. 

Bush,  Levi,  Jr.,  came  to  Whately  about  1S23.  He 
bought  the  Dr.  M.  Harwood  place  where  W'illiam  Loomis  lived. 
When  Loomis  removed  to  Haydenville  Mr.  Bush  bought  the 
place.  It  has  been  occupied  by  C.  R.  Chaffee  since  the  death 
of  Dr.  Harwood. 

Chapin,  Dr.  Pevez,  bought  the  Dea.  Joel  Dickinson 
place  east  of  Stockade  monument,  at  the  junction  of  the  "Mother 
George"  road.  It  is  probable  that  Dr.  Chapin  built  the  present 
house.  The  land  now  belongs  to  David  P.  Wells.  Dr.  Chapin 
bought  this  farm  in  1778.  It  was  made  up  by  parts  of  lots  29, 
30.  31.  32  and  33,  second  division  of  Commons,  fifty-three  rods, 
eight  feet.  This  extended  north  from  land  of  Rev.  Rufus 
Wells  to  land  of  Martin  Graves.  John  Lamson  bought  the  lot 
later  owned  b}'  John  Crafts,  where  Lamson  built  the  old  gable- 
roofed  house  that  was  for  many  years  a  hotel  kept  by  Lamson, 
and  later  by  John  Crafts.  It  was  destroyed  by  fire.  In  its 
dilapidated  condition  it  was  a  nest  for  gamblers  and  worse 
criminals,  and  was  doubtless  burned  by  general  consent  some- 
where in  the  40's  Thus  the  good  people  disposed  of  what  was 
an  intolerable  nuisance. 

Crafts,  Thomas,  from  Hatfield,  built  on  the  west  side  of 
Chestnut  Plain  street,  fourth  division  of  Commons.  He  bought 
parts  of  lots  44  and  45  and  built  his  house  in  1751,  as  the  book 


8i- 

account  of  his  brother,  Benoni,  charges  Thomas  for  labor,  a 
part  of  which  was  for  tending  mason  on  his  house.  After  his 
death  his  son,  Seth,  continued  on  the  homestead  then  his  sons, 
Dexter  and  Noah,  and  now  Seth  B.  Crafts  owns  the  place. 

Crafts.  Benoni,  brother  of  Thomas,  came  from  Hatfield, 
probably  with  Thomas  and  Gaius.  In  1760  or  '61  he  built  a 
house  on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street  in  the  fourth 
division  of  Commons,  having  bought  parts  of  lots  59,  60,  6r  and 
62,  running  west  one-half  mile,  and  built  a  house  in  1760  where 
now  stands  the  house  of  George  \V.  and  Asa  J.  Crafts.  It  is 
Supposed  that  his  brother,  Gaius,  was  a  half  owner  of  these  lots, 
as  he  built  a  house  a  little  farther  west,  but  for  some  reason 
failed  to  marry.  He  sold  out  his  interest  to  Joel  Graves,  and 
he  later  to  the  sons  of  Reuben  and  grandsons  of  Benoni'.  Eras- 
tus  lived  in  the  Joel  Graves  house  where  his  children  were  bom, 
while  Cotton  and  Caleb  lived  at  the  old  house.  The  Gaius 
Crafts  house,  which  was  never  plastered,  was  torn  down 
about  1837. 

Crafts,  John,  son  of  Thomas,  bought  the  gable-roofed 
house  of  Joel  Lamson,  about  1773.  This  was  near  the  site  of 
Samuel  Lesure's  house.  Justin  Morton  informed  me  that  the 
year  he  was  14  years  old  the  Lamson  house  and  Moses  Graves 
house  were  built.  The  Moses  Graves  house  was  built  by  John 
Waite.  Jr.,  before  his  marriage  and  his  first  son,  Solomon,  was 
bora  Oct.  15.  1768,  and  as  Uncle  Justin  was  boni  in  1760  the 
probabilities  are  that  he  got  two  stories  mixed,  as  he  told  me 
one  day  that  a  butternut  root  would  travel  as  fast  as  his  old 
black  mare  could  and  he  could  easily  drive  her  forty  miles  in  a 
day.     The  lots  were  No.  32  and  2)3- 

Crafts,  Moses,  built  a  log  house,  north  of  where  George 
Brown  lived,  on  the  north  part  of  his  father's  farm,  on  the  west 
side  of  the  road,  about  1778.  This  he  removed  to  Claverack, 
near  the  crossing  of  the  Northampton  Extension  railway,  on 
lots  of  No.  14  and  15  in  the  second  division  of  Commons. 
This  was  pulled  down  and  farm  buildings  erected  in  1806  by  his 
son,  Thomas.  This  is  now  the  ell  part  of  the  house  erected  by 
Thomas  and  Elbridge  G.  Crafts  in  1840.  John  M.  Crafts  now 
lives  there. 

Crafts,  Graves,  bought  in  1785,  of  Benjamin  Wait,  a 
log  house  where  nearly  all  of  his  great  family  were  born.  About 
the  time  that  his  son,  Israel,  was  married  he  built  a  frame  house 
which  has  been  remodeled,  raised  up  a  story  and  otherwise  im- 


82 

proved,  making  it  a  beautiful  residence.  The  place  contains 
parts  of  lots  51.  52  and  53,  fourth  division  of  Commons  and 
extends  west.  Graves  Crafts  was  succeeded  by  Israel  and  he 
by  his  son,  Charles  D.,  and  the  property  is  now  owned  by  Dan- 
iel Dickinson's  heirs. 

Crafts,  Joseph,  built  a  house  on  Mt.  Esther;  on  the  road 
to  West  Whately  known  as  Easter  road,  west  of  the  place  known 
as  "Coon  dens."  This  was  about  1785.  This  house  has  long 
been  gone  and  a  butternut  tree  is  growing  in  the  cellar  hole. 
A  large  family  was  raised  here,  and  some  strange  thoughts 
passed  through  my  mind  as  I  sat  upon  the  beautiful  grass  plot 
and  followed  in  my  mind  the  eight  or  nine  children  born  to 
them.  I  thought  of  their  childish  gambols  and  plays  more  than 
a  hundred  years  ago,  and  traced  their  active  and  useful  lives 
in  the  several  states  where  they  were  scattered.  Then  looking 
over  the  ground  where  never  more  will  a  house  exist,  I  won- 
dered why  a  man  of  common  sense  should  ever  locate  in  such 
an  out-of-  the-way,  as  well  as  unsuitable,  locality. 

Crafts,  Eli,  built  the  house  now  owned  by  Micajah 
Howes  about  1S55,  on  the  street  sometimes  called  "Lover's 
lane." 

Crafts,  Silas,  built  the  house  on  the  east  side  of  Chest- 
nut Plain  street  on  lot  55,  second  division  of  Commons,  now 
occupied  by  Dwight  L.  Crafts.  The  house  aud  farm  buildings 
were  erected  about  1847. 

Cutter,  James,  lived  in  a  house  on  the  east  side  of  Pop- 
lar Hill  road,  on  the  south  side  of  the  bridge,  several  years. 
This  he  sold,  with  an  acre  of  land,  in  1829  to  Reuben  Jenney 
for  $200.  Who  built  the  house,  or  when,  I  do  not  know,  and 
it  has  been  gone  more  than  fifty  years. 

Crafts,  Rufus,  built  a  house  in  Claverack,  on  the  east 
side  of  the  road,  in  18 10  or  '11.  This  was  afterwards  owned  by 
his  son,  Ralph  E.  Crafts,  and  now  by  his  son,  Bela  K.  Crafts. 

Crafts,  Chapman,  built  the  house  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  road  in  184.2.  He  moved  to  Wisconsin,  and  Prof.  Robert 
D.  Weeks  lived  on  the  place  several  years.  Then  Ralph  E. 
Crafts  bought  it. 

Crafts,  James  M.,  built  a  house  on  the  Daniel  Morton 
place  in  1866.  This  was  burned  in  1873,  with  most  of  the  other 
buildings,  together  with  over  100  cases  of  tobacco  and  most  of 
the  farming  implements  and  household  fixtures,  entailing  a  loss 
of  fully  $10,000  above  the  insurance. 


83 

Crafts,  Chester  G.,  built  the  house  east  of  the  depot  at 
East  Whately,  in  1867.  This  is  now  owned  by  John  H.  Pease 
and  is  on  lot  37,  second  division  of  Commons. 

Coleman,  Nathaniel,  lived  in  a  house  where  Jerrys  Haf- 
fey  now  lives.  This  was  probably  occupied  by  mmy  families, 
as  this  is  the  place  where  it  is  supposed  Samuel  Wells  built  not 
far  from  17 10.  In  a  few  years  he  sold  it  to  Nathaniel  Coleman, 
perhaps  after  he  removed  to  Hartford  somewhere  about  17 12  to 
'15.  The  deed,  dated  17  June,  1728,  conveys  the  property  to 
Mr.  Coleman  probably  removed  from  Whately,  and  it  is  quite 
probable  that  the  Nathaniel,  who  lived  and  died  in  Whately, 
springs  from  the  same  stock.  He  was  born  in  1742  and  died  in 
1816  and,  I  think,  this  was  the  first  house  built  in  our  town 
limits,  about  1820.  R.  Tower  Morton  tore  down  the  old  house 
and  built  the  present  structure.  Carlos  Swift  lived  there  some 
years  and  several  others,  including  George  Dane,  before  it  was 
bought  by  Mr.  Haflfey.  Nathaniel  Coleman  was  in  town  in  1771 
and  was  taxed. 

Coleman,  Noah,  came  from  Hatfield.  He  bought  of 
Moses  Frary  the  George  B.  McClellan  house  and  owned  the 
land  on  both  sides  of  the  road.  That  on  the  east  side  was  in 
the  Mill  swamp  division,  while  that  on  the  west  side  was  in  the 
third  division  of  Commons.  It  is  possible  that  the  first  house  on 
this  farm  was  built  by  Moses  Frar>'  as  he  owned  a  large  lot  in 
the  Mill  swamp  division,  but  he  only  remained  in  Whately  a 
very  few  years  when  he  sold  out  and  removed  to  Ashfield,  but  if 
he  sold  to  Noah  Coleman,  as  it  looks  as  though  he  did,  then  it 
is  sure  that  as  he  was  well  off  financially,  that  he  fitted  up  the 
place  in  good  shape,  had  no  children,  and  they  adopted  Seth 
Frary,  son  of  Eleazer  of  Hatfield,  and  he  inherited  the  entire 
estate. 

Coleman,  Niles,  came  from  Connecticut  in  1773  on  lot  No. 
21,  second  division  of  Commons.  The  house  was  a  little  north 
/of  Thomas  Flinn's.  At  that  time  the  land  belonged  to  Reuben 
Belden  who  owned  the  mills  at  West  brook,  and  it  was  this  farm 
that  Belden  gave  by  will  to  Whately  for  educational  purposes, 
but  his  conditions  were  such  that  the  town  felt  compelled  not  to 
accept  the  gift. 

Castwell,  Thomas,  built  a  house  about  1779  or '80  on 
"Grass  hill,"  about  a  third  of  a  mile  south  of  the  Jonathan 
Waite  place,  on  the  east  side  of  "Grass  hill"  road,  near  the 
house  of  Mr.  Bird.     This,  I  think,  was  burned. 


84 

Carley,  Samuel,  owned  a  house  as  early  as  1771.  He 
built,  as  early  as  1766,  where  now  stands  the  house  of  Rufus  M. 
Swift. 

Carey,  Richard,  was  a  son  of  Dea.  Joseph  Carey  of 
Williamsburg.  He  built  a  house,  probably  as  early  as  1788,  on 
the  road  leading  to  Williamsburg  some  thirty  rods  west  of  the 
house  of  Elihu  Harvey,  just  on  the  southwest  corner  of  the  lot 
where  the  Dry  hill  road  crosses  the  Williamsburg  road.  The 
house  has  been  gone  probably  fully  sixty  years. 

CooLEY,  Ben'Jamix,  was  born  in  Deerfield  in  1773.  His 
mother  died  in  1776  and  Benjamin  was  taken  by  Benjamin 
Scott,  Sr.,  and  brought  up  by  him  in  the  old  house  that  occu- 
pied the  site  of  the  present  one.  The  old  house  was  torn  down 
and  Mr.  Cooley  built  the  present  structure  which  he  sold  to 
Israel  Scott  about  1830.  This  lot  contained  twenty  acres,  twelve 
of  which  were  in  Bradstreet's  grant  and  eight  in  the  second  divi- 
sion of  Commons.  He  was  a  civil  engineer  and  manufactured 
sur\-e3'ors'  implements,  a  very  ingenious  man. 

CooLEV,  Lemuel,  lived  for  some  years  where  R.  M.  Swift 
resides,  when  he  removed  to  "Gillett's  island"  in  North  Hat- 
field, as  that  neighborhood  used  to  be  called.  He  was  succeed- 
ed by  Erastus  Graves  and  he  by  R.  M.  Swift.  The  old  house 
was  small  and  inconvenient  and  Mr.  Graves  built  the  present 
house. 

Cooley,  Dennis,  a  brother  of  Lemuel,  bought  the  house 
next  north  of  Ashley  G.  Dickinson,  on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut 
Plain  street,  and  it  is  in  the  fourth  division  of  Commons.  It 
was  built  by  Israel  Wells  about  18 10,  perhaps  a  few  years  ear- 
lier. Then  Thomas  Crafts  owned  it  and  sold  to  Mr.  Cooley, 
and  it  now  belongs  to  David  Callahan. 

Cooley,  Justin  Morton,  son  of  Dennis,  bought  the  store 
where  Morton  &  White  traded,  and  moved  it  from  near  the  site 
of  the  Town  house  to  just  below  the  Congregational  church. 
He  remodeled  it  for  a  house  and  it  is  now  owned  by  Horace 
Manning.  It  had  many  owners  before  Mr.  Manning,  Dr.  Phil- 
emon Stacey,  Giles  Barney,  (a  blacksmith)  Robert  and  Dexter 
Frary,  and  perhaps  others  have  lived  there.  Mr.  Cooley  moved 
to  Springfield  and  built  and  kept  the  famous  Cooley  house. 

Curtis,  Hosea,  was  here  before  1770.  Tradition  locates 
him  at  two  places,  one  on  what  has  been  known  as  the  Todd 
place,  west  of  Poplar  Hill,  and  again  at  the  Chapman  place 
where  James  Nolan  now  resides,  west  of  Mt.  Esther.  I  think 
he  lived  on  the  Chapman  place. 


85 

DrcKixsoN,  De'i..  Joel,  built  a  house  as  early  as  1751, 
perhaps  two  years  before,  directly  east  of  the  Stockade  monu- 
ment erected  by  James  M.  Crafts  in  1SS4.  His  farm  adjoined 
the  ''Mother  George"  road  and  was  parts  of  lots  29,  30,  31,  32 
and  33.  It  extended  east  to  the  "Island"  road  as  then  called, 
now  Claverack,  all  in  the  second  division.  In  1754  his  prem- 
ises was  surrounded  by  a  stockade.  The  land  enclosed  con- 
tained about  three-fourths  of  an  acre  and  in  times  of  danger 
from  Indians  the  inhabitants  resorted  to  this  place  for  safety, 
with  their  stock.  The  writer  well  recollects  of  hearing  his 
great  aunt,  Martha  (Crafts)  Rosevelt,  tell  the  story  '"That  she 
had  helped  milk  the  cows  there  a  fortnight  in  succession." 
Dea.  Dickinson  sold  and  removed  to  Conway,  and  in  his  old 
age  lived  at  Phelps,  N.  V.      He  and  his  sons  were  tories. 

Dickinson,  Samuel,  built  a  house,  about  1774,  where 
Samuel  and  Horace  Dickinson,  his  grandsons,  have  since  built 
a  fine  house.  Since  the.  decease  of  the  brothers  and  two  sisters, 
Mary  and  Irene,  all  unmarried,  it  has  been  sold  to  Robert  Dick- 
inson. Salmon  Dickinson  owned  parts  of  lots  4  and  5  in  the 
fourth  division.  He  built  a  dain'  house  about  forty  or  fifty  rods 
west  of  Chestnut  Plain  street.  This  constitutes  part  of  the  land 
on  the  east  side — was  parts  of  several  lots — conimencing  with 
No.  1,  an.i  contained  as  many  as  eight  lots  in  second  division  of 
Commons.  About  three  lots  were  set  off  to  Oliver,  his  son,  the 
rest  are  in  the  present  farm.     The  house  is  on  No.  4,  probably. 

Dickinson,  Oliver,  son  of  Samuel,  built  his  house  in 
1S09  or  '10,  on  lot  No.  2,  second  division  of  Commons,  perhaps 
on  No.  I,  as  that  lot  is  twenty-eight  rods,  five  feet,  two  inches 
wide,  while  No.  2  is  only  three  rods  and  tour  feet  wide,  and  No. 
3  is  eight  rods,  two  feet  and  one  inch  wide.  This  place  is  now 
owned  by  Cooley  B.  Dickinson,  a  son  of  Champion  B. 

Dickinson,  Gideon,  from  Hatfield,  bought  in  1770,  the 
farm  of  Lieut.  Ebenezer  Bardwell  who  built  the  house,  known 
as  the  Dexter  Dickin.son  house,  about  1766.  This  is  almost 
exactly  at  the  north  end  of  Chestnut  Plain  street.  The  land 
was  in  both  the  second  and  fourth  division  of  Commons,  and  by 
a  resurvev  of  the  lines  between  the  towns,  this  olace  was  thrown 
into  Deerfield,  but  came  back  when  that  portion  was  annexed 
to  Whately,  5  March,  18 10,  and  on  lot  No.  69,  whichever  divi- 
sion claims  it.  These  premises  were  owned  after  him  by  his 
sons.  Dexter  and  Giles.  Dexter  occupied  the  old  homestead 
now  owned  by  his  son,  Jonathan  W.  Dickinson,  who  has  erect- 


S6 

ed  a  new  and  commodious  house  in  the  second  division,  built  in 
1862.     His  new  barn  is  probably  on  lot  70,  second  division. 

Dickinson,  Giles,  built  a  house  about  1820,  on  lot  69, 
fourth  division  of  Commons.  After  his  death  it  was  occupied 
by  his  son,  Myron,  and  is  now  owned  by  the  heirs  of  Elon  San- 
derson. 

Dickinson,  Asa,  son  of  Gideon,  bought  the  Lemuel  and 
M'oah  Wells  property  and  the  Samuel  Bardwell  place  that  was 
sold  to  Nathaniel  Hawks  in  176S.  He  lived  there,  after  pulling 
down  the  Wells  house,  many  years  ago.  Since  Asa  died  his 
son,  Wflls,  has  owned  the  place. 

Dickinson,  D.\niel,  son  of  Gideon,  bought  the  place 
formerly  owned  by  Col.  Josiah  Allis,  built  a  new  house  in  1826 
and  died  in  1830.  His  sons,  Dennis,  Rufus  and  Daniel,  re- 
mained here  a  few  years  and  sold  the  farm  to  their  brother-in- 
law,  Elliott  C.  Allis,  and  it  is  now  owned  by  his  son,  Irving 
Allis. 

Dickinson,  Dennis,  bought  the  Dr.  Chester  Bardwell 
place,  just  across  "Lover's  lane"  from  the  hotel,  now  owned 
by  George  and  Frank  Dickinson,  sons  of  Rufus. 

Dickinson,  Rufus,  bought  the  Dea.  Levi  Morton  farm 
and  the  house  built  on  the  farm  by  Horace  Morton,  son  of  Dea. 
Levi,  about  1S44.  This  is  on  "Pleasant  hill."  After  the  death 
of  Arnold  Morton,  he  bought  the  old  Daniel  Morton  property, 
including  the  house  built  by  Capt.  Charles  Morton,  a  grandson 
of  Daniel  Morton,  who  died  in  1S60.  Mr.  Dickinson  bought  it 
soon  after  and  built  a  new  house  and  barn  in  modern  style.  It 
is  now  owned  by  his  heirs,  George  and  Frank  Dickinson.  The 
Capt.  Charles  Morton  house  was  built  in  1812.  They  were  all  in 
the  fourth  division  of  Commons.  The  south  line  is  at  the  cem- 
eter}'  and  extends  to  the  land  of  Seth  B.  Crafts,  which  is  lots 
44  and  45  so.  of  course,  43  is  the  north  lot.  It  quite  likelj' 
takes  parts  of  lots  39,  40,  41,  42  and  43  in  the  fourth  division. 
Perhaps  No.  39  should  not  be  included. 

Dickinson,  Daniel,  Jr.,  bought  the  Graves  Crafts  prop- 
erty, about  I  S60,  and  has  done  much  to  improve  it. 

Dickinson,  Abn^r,  came  from  Hatfield  about  1772.  He 
built  some  twentj'-five  rods  south  of  the  Lyman  Dickinson  place 
on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  and  of  course  in  the 
fourth  division  of  Commons.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son, 
Alpheus.  He  sold  (and  removed  to  New  York  state  and  later 
to  Sandusky,  O.,)  to  Eurotus  Dickinson.     The  house  was  pulled 


87 

down  after  1834,   as  Leander  Clark  lived  there,  as  did  George 
Brown,  probably  as  late  as  1S40  to  '45. 

Dickinson,  Jehu,  son  of  Abner,  built  the  house  where  his 
son,  Lyman,  lived  and  died,  now  owned  by  Ashley  G.  Dickin- 
son. This  was  in  the  fourth  division  of  Commons,  but  the  bulk 
of  the  farm  is  in  the  second  division,  next  south  of  Dea.  Hlisha 
Relden's  and  his  lot  was  No.  22.  It  includes  several  lots  then 
owned  by  Jehu  and  Capt  Henry  Stiles,  as  far  south  as  the  cross- 
road leading  to  Claverack. 

Dickinson,  Eurotus,  was  a  blacksmith  by  trade  but  was 
also  an  extensive  farmer.  About  1833  he  bought  the  house  built 
by  Reuben  Winchell.  postmaster  and  trader,  about  1809  or  '10. 
Bought  by  Rev.  Lemuel  P.  Bates  in  1S22.  It  is  now  owned  by 
the  heirs  of  Edmond  Donovan  with  the  bulk  of  the  Abner  Dick- 
inson estate. 

Dickinson,  Dr.  Benjamin,  bought  in  17S6  or'Sj  the  farm 
of  Abial  Bragg,  with  the  buildings  erected  by  Dea  Simeon 
Waite.  He  sold,  in  1804,  to  Asa  Frary  and  he  sold  to  Jonathan 
C.  Loomis.  It  is  now  owned  by  his  son,  Calvin  S.  This  is  on 
lot  No.  37  in  the  second  division  of  Commons. 

Dickinson,  Charles,  son  of  Dr.  Benjamin,  built  the 
house  next  east  of  his  father's  on  lot  No.  37,  second  division  of 
Commons,  and  kept  a  hotel  for  a  few  years.  He  then,  in  1S03, 
sold  to  Oliver  Graves,  Jr.,  a  Revolutionary  soldier  and  son  of 
Dea.  Oliver  Graves.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  sons,  Sylvester 
and  Horace,  and  they  by  their  sister,  Harriet  Graves,  who  was 
a  Daughter  of  the  Revolution,  of  the  Betty  Allen  chapter  at 
Northampton.  When  she  died  the  chapter  passed  these  resolu- 
tions to  her  memor}' : 

Whereas,  The  hand  of  Divine  Providence  has  removed 
Miss  Harriet  Graves,  daughter  of  a  Revolutionan,-  soldier,  from 
the  scene  of  her  temporal  labors.     Therefore,  be  it 

Resolved,  That  the  Betty  Allen  chapter  at  Northampton 
te.stify  to  its  respect  for  her  memory  and  to  its  sympathy  with 
the  relatives  and  friends  deprived  of  her  piesence. 

Resolved,  That  we  mourn  the  departure  of  our  respected 
member  and  Real  Daughter. 

Resolved.  That  we  offer  to  Mrs.  Crafts,  of  the  Betty 
Allen  chapter,  our  special  sympathy. 

Resolved.  That  these  resolutions  be  placed  upon  the 
records  of  the  Betty  Allen  chapter,  a  copy  sent  to  the  relatives 
and  to  the  American  Monthly  magazine. 

Signed  by  the  committee  and  by  the  regent,  9  March,  189S. 
Ella  Cleveland  Clark,  Mary  Cotton  Bas.sett,  Lucy  Wright 
Pearson  and  Louise  Stewart  Bartlett  Cable,  regent. 


88 

Dickinson,  J.  Pomkroy,  bought  the  Dea.  Elisha  Belden 
house,  on  Chestnut  Plain  street,  and  lived  there  from  1S40  until 
his  death  in  1S62.      N'ow  owned  by  William  Cahill. 

DouGHiiRTY,  Samuel,  lived  for  some  years  at  the  Straits, 
in  the  gambrel-roofed  house,  after  Martin  Graves  sold  in  1788. 
Perhaps  he  succeeded  "Wicked  Lige,"  as  they  used  to  call 
Elijah  Smith  who  was  a  great  trader  of  horses.  Dougherty 
removed  to  Belchertown  about  iSoo. 

DoNO\"AN'.  EroiOND.  bought  the  Dea.  Nathan  Graves  farm 
on  Chestnut  mountain,  in  184-.  Then  bought  the  Hiram  Smith 
place,  now  owned  by  tbe  heirs  of  E.  Smith  Munson.  This  he 
sold  and  bought  tlie  Eurotus  Dickinson  farm  and  the  Winchell- 
Bate.s  house  on  lot  26,  fourth  division  of  Commons.  The  farm 
is  now  owned  by  his  sons,  John  and  Peter. 

Dickinson,  Asa,  Jr.,  bought  the  Lyman  Harding  farm 
about  1850.  and  still  resi  les  there.  This  place  was  in  Deerfield 
until  1810,  and  was  formerly  owned  by  Samuel  Harding,  grand- 
father of  Lyman,  and  he  came  in  1776. 

Dickinson,  No.\h,  bought  the  Walter  Barnard  farm  about 
rS66.  This  was  in  Deerfield  until  18:0  when  it  was  annexed  to 
Whately.  Joseph  Barnard  and  his  son.  Ebenezer,  bought,  in 
17S7,  the  farm  of  Capt.  Oliver  Shattuck  and  William  Barnard. 
His  twin  sons,  Walter  and  William,  followed  him  and  now 
Hiram  R.  and   his  sisters  possess  this  fine  farm. 

Edson,  Lieut.  Jonathan,  built  a  house  on  lot  51,  second 
division  of  Commons,  as  early  as  1770,  about  thirty  or  forty  rods 
north  of  Cornelia  M.  White's  house,  on  the  east  side  of  Chest- 
nut Plain  street.  This  was  gone  years  before  I  could  remember. 
In  1 775  his  daughter,  Mehitabel.  married  Martin  Graves,  and  she 
told  ma  about  his  co.nii\^  to  S22  her,  ho.v  he  amt  and  how  he 
was  dressed,  and  I  give  it  here  to  sho  v  the  contrast  with  modern 
times.  Then  they  lived  on  "Great  Plain"  up  the  hill  beyond 
Aaron  Dickinson's  place  towards  W^iUiamsburg.  She  said  he 
had  a  good  horse,  with  a  breast-plate  harness  with  ropes  for 
traces  and  lines.  A  jumper,  made  of  two  shaved  and  bent 
birch  poles,  ivith  oak  poles  for  shafts  or  thi.ls,  a  board  across 
the  jumper  with  a  half-bushel  measure  bottom  up  and  on  this  a 
meal  bag  for  upholstery.  Instead  of  holdback  irons  a  knot  in 
each  thill  served  the  purpose.  There  was  no  breeching  to  the 
harness.  Graves  wore  a  good,  nice  woolen  coat  and  waistcoat 
that  his  mother  made  for  him,  leather  breeches  and  nice,  thick 
shoes  with  good  buckles,  and  a  cap  made  from  a  coon  skin  witli 


89 

the  tail  hanging  down  his  back.  Really,  he  was  a  noble  look- 
ing man  she  said.  They  were  well-to-do  people  at  that  time, 
stern  old  Congregationalists,  but  it  shows  the  change  wrought 
in  125  years.  Mr.  Graves  was  nearly  31  years  old  and  his  lady- 
love seven  years  younger.  This  she  told  me  while  enjoying  her 
after-dinner  pipe.  I  remember  well  that  the  muscular  old  gen- 
tleman at  75  was  as  trim  and  stalwart  as  a  modern  athlete.  On 
her  table  were  the  books  she  read — the  Bible,  Watt's  Psalms 
and  Hymns,  Guide  to  Christ,  Bunyan's  Pilgrim's  Progress  and 
the  Catechism,  These  she  read  regularly  every  day  until  a  few 
days  before  she  passed  ;iway  at  the  ripe  old  age  of  86  years. 

Edson,  Jonathan,  buiit  a  house  on  "Drv'  hill"  about 
1785.  Afterwards  Chester  Bardwell  bought  it  in  1797.  He 
sold  and  removed  to  Brookfield,  Vt.,  then  Dea.  John  M.  Bard- 
well lived  there.      I  think  the  house  is  gone  now. 

Edson.  Capt.  Amasa,  built  the  house,  in  1785,  where 
Orange  Bardwell  livt-d  and  died.  The  latter  bought  the  place 
in  1797  and  after  the  death  of  Orange  I  do  not  know  who  lived 
there.     This  house,  too,  has  gone. 

Elder,  James  Austin,  owns  the  house  built  by  J.  C. 
Loomis  about  1S55.  .\m  not  sure  as  to  the  date.  He  lived 
some  years  on  the  J.  Pomeroy  Dickinson  place,  about  [866. 

Fay,  Capt.  William,  bought,  in  1S09,  the  Israel  Scott 
place  in  the  Straits,  on  the  west  side  of  the  road,  and  in  the 
Bradstrtet  grant  and  a  portion  of  it  in  the  second  division  of 
Commons.  After  his  removal  it  was  bought  by  Phineas  Frary 
and  then  by  his  son,  George  W.  The  house  was  probably 
built  by  Benjamin  Scott,  Jr.,  about  1790. 

FiiiLD,  Zenas,  son  of  Eliakim.  probably  built  the  house 
where  John  Field  and.  his  son,  Paul  W.,  have  since  lived,  on 
lots  12  and  13,  fourth  division  of  Commons.  Tiie  first  purchase 
was  made  May  8,  1764.  The  house  was  probably  buiit  before 
his  marriage  in  1777  or  '78.  He  also  built  what  is  generally 
known  as  Osee  Munson  pi  ice,  in  18(5  or  '16.  After  his  decease 
the  original  farm  was  owned  by  his  son,  John,  and  now  by  Paul 
Warner  Field. 

Field,  Noah,  son  of  Moses  of  Northfield.  bought  parts  of 
lots  37,  T,S  and  39,  in  the  fourth  division  of  Commons  and  west 
of  Poplar  Hill  road.  1773,  and  sold  it  Feb.  17,  1780,  to  Asa  San- 
derson. The  house  was  built  by  Mr.  Field,  on  lot  37,  soon  after 
the  purchase.  The  farm  is  now  in  possession  of  Asa  T.  San- 
derson, grandson  of  Dr.  Asa. 


90 

F30TE,  Alden-  a.,  bau^lit  ths  Oliver  Morton  homestead 
after  the  decease  of  Mr.  Morton  in  1344.  He  bought  in  1849 
and  died  in  1S5S,  when  Horace  B.  Fox  bought  the  place. 

Ferguson,  Rev.  John,  bought  the  Asa  Smith  place. 
This  house  was  built  about  1S25  by  Asa  Smith.  There  were 
several  owners  before  Mr.  Ferguson  bought  in  1S37,  or  therea- 
bouts. George  \V.  Reed  bought  it.  and  now  Henrv  A.  Brown 
owns  it. 

Fox,  Selah  W..  bought  the  J.  C.  Loomis  house  on 
"Lover's  lane,"  west  of  the  hotel,  about  the  time  of  his  sec- 
ond marriage,  8  Nov.,  1877.     Now  owned  by  J.  A.  Elder. 

Fox,  Horace  B  ,  bought  the  Oliver  Morton  place,  after 
Mr.  Foote  died,  and  remodeled  it,  changing  its  whole  appear- 
ance and  it  is  now  as  nice  a  place  as  there  is  in  town.  The 
present  owner  is  W.  Irving  Fox  who  so  nobly  cared  for  his 
parents  in  their  declining  years. 

Frary,  Ele.\zer,  Jr.,  son  of  Eleazer,  built  the  house  on 
the  corner  of  Christian  bne  and  Claverack  road  to  South  Deer- 
field,  on  lot  37,  second  division  of  Commons,  in  1779,  where, 
since  his  removal  to  Conway,  have  lived  Dea.  Russell  Allis, 
Zebina  Bartlett.  Simeon  Graves,  Luther  Wells,  Amasa  Lamson, 
Franklin  Graves,  who  pulled  down  the  old  and  built  the  pres- 
ent house,  then  Alonzo  Crafts.  It  is  now  owned  by  Fred  L. 
Graves. 

Frary,  Lieut.  Elisha,  was  a  son  of  Isaac  of  Hatfield. 
In  January,  1770,  he  built  a  house  on  a  lot  of  sixty-five  acres 
that  he  had  bought,  2  D^c,  1759,  of  Silas  Smith.  It  is  proba- 
ble that  he  had  lived  with  his  brother,  Moses,  on  the  McClellan 
farm  before  he  moved  to  his  new  home. 

Frary,  Moses,  was  a  brother  of  Lieut.  Elisha.  In  a  plan 
made  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  in  1770,  the  house  of  Moses 
Frary  is  located  on  the  west  side  of  the  street.  He  sold  to  Noah 
Coleman  and  removed  to  Ashfield.  It  has  since  been  owned  by 
Capt.  Seth  Frary,  John  B.  Morton  andE.  B.  McClellan.  Capt. 
Seth  lived  with  Noah  Coleman  and  inherited  his  large  estate 
since  owned  by  John  Bardwell  Morton,  his  son,  Eurotus,  Elias 
B.  McClellan  and  now  by  his  sou,  George  B.  McClellan.  Mr. 
Frary  bought,  on  the  east  side  of  the  road,  thirty-seven  acres  in 
the  Mill  Swamp  division  and  twenty-four  acres  west  of  the  road, 
in  1790. 

Frary,  Thomas,  a  son  of  Capt.  Seth,  built  the  Gad  Crafts 
house  on  Claverack,  in  1887.  He  removed  to  Hatfield  and  Mr. 
Crafts  bought  it  in  1828.     It  is  now  owned  by  Thomas  Crafts, 


N 

Frary,  Isaac,  son  of  Lieut.  Elisha,  bought  the  Eleazer 
Frary  place  at  West  brook,  where  ^he  died  4  Feb.,  1850.  He 
also  bought  the  saw  and  grist  mill  near  Foster  Y.  Warner's. 
The  house  was  in  the  Mill  Swamp  division,  afterwards  owned 
by  Isaac  Frary,  Jr.,  then  by  his  son,  Solomon  Munson  Frary, 
and  then  by  his  sons,  Eugene  M.,  Ernest  A.  and  Edward  Frary. 
Owned  by  Lincoln  B.  Sanderson  since  1S86. 

Frary,  Maj.  Phineas,  son  of  Phineas  of  Hatfield,  bought 
forty-six  acres  20  Feb.,  1780,  the  southerly  side  of  the  house 
where  John  Smith  lived,  in  the  fourth  division  of  Commons. 
When  Capt.  Salmon  Graves  remo\'ed  from  the  center  his  son, 
Lyman,  took  the  place  and  now  his  son,  Chauncey  A.,  resides 
there. 

Frary,  Phineas.,  Jr.,  son  of  Maj.  Phineas,  lived  on  the 
John  Smith  place  and  it  has  since  been  occupied  by  Hiram 
Smith,  E.  Donovan,  and  it  is  now  owned  by  E.  S.  Munson's 
heirs,  Lyman  A.  and  Herbert  S.  Munson. 

Frary,  Silas,  son  of  Maj.  Phineas,  lived  at  the  foot  of 
Chestnut  mountain,  on  the  west  side  of  the  road.  I  do  not 
know  who  built  the  house,  probably  David  Ingram.  It  was  an 
old  house  75  years  ago,  as  long  as  I  recollect  it.  His  son,  Silas 
B.,  lived  here  until  he  died  in  1S51,  then  Cotton  Bardwell.  It 
was  torn  down  15  or  20  years  ago,  about  18S5. 

Frary,  Hokace,  lived  on  the  Spruce  Hill  road  some  fif- 
teen rods  or  so  north  from  the  E.  S.  Munson  place.  This  was 
built  by  him  about  the  time  of  his  marriage  1818.  I  should 
think  it  was  a  small  building  moved  there,  as  I  well  recall 
its  old  appearance  as  early  as  1825  or  '26. 

Frary,  Robert,  son  of  Dexter,  removed  the  upright  part 
of  the  Samuel  Grimes  house  to  the  lot  on  "Lovers  lane"  when 
Leonard  Loomis  built  the  new  part  to  his  house  between  the 
Martin  Woods  and  Eli  Crafts  places,  and  fixed  it  over  into  a 
dwelling.     Now  owned  by  Elisha  and  Elijah  Bardwell. 

Fuller,  William  Hkxry,  bought  and  remodeled  the 
house  in  Canterbury  now  owned  by  John  N.  White.  It  was 
built  by  Levi  Alexander,  about  1831,  on  lot  68  or  69,  second 
division  of  Comnions. 

Flavin,  Michael,  bought  of  Mr.  Twoigg  about  1870. 
This  was  formerly  the  site  of  the  house  of  Dickinson  Belden 
which  was  removed  from  Chestnut  Plain  street,  having  been  the 
house  of  Capt.  Henry  Stiles,  near  the  walnut  tree  in  Ashley  G. 
Dickinson's  east  lot  about  fifteen    rods    north  of  the    crossroad 


92 

leading  to  Claverack.  This  was  rebuilt  by  John  Callahan,  and 
there  have  resided  here  Willard  I\I.  Belden  and  Timothy  Two- 
igg,  before  Mr.  Flavin. 

Flynn,  Thomas,  bought  of  Charles  R.  Crafts,  in  1889,  the 
Chester  Bardwell  place,  built  in  1840  and  remodeled  by  Mr. 
Crafts. 

Fleming,  Thomas,  lives  on  the  place  built  by  Jeremiah 
Waite  in  1809,  since  owned  by  David  Belden,  Martin  Crafts, 
who  remodeled  it,  and  W.  M.  Belden.  Mr.  Fleming  has  added 
to  the  barn  and  built  a  large  tobacco  barn,  corn  house,  etc.  He 
is  an  excellent  farmer. 

Graves,  Uea.  Nathan,  bought  lots  No.  4  and  5,  in  the 
fourth  division  of  Commons,  20  March,  1761,  and  on  one  of 
these  lots  built  the  house  and  farm  buildings.  This  is  on 
Chestnut  mountain.  He  soon  bought  part  of  lots  3  and  6,  same 
division,  and  in  1762  twentj'-nine  acres  in  No.  7,  and  in  1780 
fifteen  acres  in  lot  No.  2,  making  his  whole  lot  sixty-eight  rods, 
ten  feet  wide.  After  his  decease,  in  1786,  the  place  was  owned 
by  his  son,  Reuben,  then  by  his  son,  Reuben,  Jr.,  and  then  by 
his  son,  Dwight.  who  sold  the  farm  to  J.  A.  Elder,  and  it  was 
sold  by  him  to  Edmond  Donovan.  The  original  house  was 
burned  about  1835  and  rebuilt  by  Reuben,  Jr.  The  buildings 
have  gone  down. 

Graves,  Dea.  Oliver,  from  Hatfield,  built  the  house 
now  known  as  the  Jerre  Graves  house,  probably  as  early  a.s 
1766,  possibly  earlier,  and  it  is  now  owned  by  Seth  B.  Crafts. 
This  is  on  lot  38  or  39,  probably  38,  second  division  of  Com- 
mons, extending  east  one-half  mile.  After  his  death  his  son, 
Elijah,  and  his  son,  Jerre,  lived  there. 

Graves,  Oliver,  Jr.,  bought  in  1803,  the  house  on  lot 
37,  second  di\ision  of  Commons,  in  Christian  lane  built  by 
Charles  Dickinson,  son  of  Dr.  Benjamin.  It  had  been  kept  as 
a  hotel.  After  Oliver's  decease  it  was  owned  by  Sylvester  and 
Horace  Graves,  and  after  their  death  by  their  sister,  Harriet 
Graves.     She  died  10  March,  1898,  in  her  92d  year. 

Graves,  Selah,  son  of  Dea.  Oliver,  built  about  1785,  on 
Spruce  hill.  He  bought  lots,  or  parts  of  lots,  22,  23,  24,  25  and 
26,  in  the  fourth  division  of  Commons,  beginning  one-half  mile 
west  of  Chestnut  Plain  street  and  extending  west  240  rods — 114 
acres  and  no  rods  of  land — for  which  he  paid  ;i^2i7,  i8s.  After 
his  death,  William  and  Justus  owned  the  place  and  after  them 
the  farm  was  cut  up.  Patrick  Dalton  now  owns  the  buildings 
and  part  of  the  home  lot. 


i:«y 


■•  i:iii  l-v 


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93 

Graves,  Capt.  Salmon,  bought  of  Lemuel  Clark.  14 
March,  1791,  the  place  where  David  P.  Wells  now  lives,  for  185 
pounds  sterling.  He  materially  altered  the  appearance  of  the 
house,  which  was  two  stories  in  front.  He  raised  the  rear  part 
to  the  same  height,  putting  the  ridgepole  in  the  cetiter,  and 
made  other  improvements.  It  is  supposed  that  Dr.  Perez  Cha- 
pin  built  the  house  and  tore  down  the  Joel  Dickinson  house, 
very  likely  built  of  logs  and  changad  its  location.  Mr.  Graves 
moved  to  the  place  where  Chauncey  A.  Graves  now  lives  in 
1827.  He  was  a  Free  Mason,  and,  as  it  was  when  the  Morgan 
excitement  was  high  and  their  place  of  meeting  at  Stockbridge 
hotel  was  discovered,  Capt.  Graves  finished  off  rooms  in  the  sec- 
ond story  to  accommodate  the  meetings,  and  I  have  often  seen 
the  insignia  which  was  painted  on  the  walls.  Here  the  breth- 
ren from  Northampton,  Greenfield  and  other  towns  gathered  to 
exchange  greetings. 

Graves,  Israel,  a  brother  of  Dea.  Oliver,  bought,  or 
rather  exchanged  property  with  Gains  Crafts,  taking  the  house 
and  land  owned  by  Gains  in  Whately.  The  house  was  fifteen 
or  twenty  rods  west  of  the  road,  in  the  fourth  division  of  Com- 
mons, a  little  north  of  west  from  Benoni  Crafts'  house.  It  was 
built  in  1765.  After  Israel's  dea1;h  his  son,  Joel,  and  then 
Erastus  Crafts  liyed  there  until  Erastus  bought  the  Martin 
Graves  place,  in  Christian  lane,  in  1S35.  The  old  house  was 
torn  down  soon  after  Erastus  moved  out,  about  1837. 

Graves,  Israel,  Jr.,  built  on  lot  No.  40,  second  division 
of  Commons,  north  of  Alonzo  Crafts'  corner,  about  1804.  After 
his  second  marriage  he  lived  and  died  in  a  house  built  by  Dan- 
iel Morton,  Jr.,  where  Edward  Holley  now  owns,  east  of  Ashley 
G.  Dickinson's. 

Graves,  David,  son  of  Samuel,  built  a  house  in  the  Straits 
on  the  place  afterwards  known  as  the  Stockbridge  tavern.  Mr. 
Graves  built  sometime  between  1730  and  '32.  It  is  safe  to  call 
it  1732.  He  was  one  of  the  earliest  settlers.  This  is  in  the 
Bradstreet  grant,  and  he  erected  at  that  time  a  portion  of  the 
present  house,  bringing  such  materials  as  he  could  use  from  the 
house  on  the  Dennison  farm  which  he  pulled  down.  The  house 
was  a  framed  house  and  not  of  logs.  He  had  a  large  family — 
five  sons — and  it  is  quite  probable  that  he  built  the  front  house 
later,  but  Mr.  Stockbridge  put  on  the  hall  and  raised  up  the 
middle  portion  a  story,  and  the  roof  of  the  main  part  to  corre- 
spond with  the  ell  part  after   it  was  raised.     The  hall  in  the 


94 

west  end  was  for  dancing  purposes,  and  here  the  Masons  of  that 
vicinity  used  to  meet  in  the  first  years  of  the  Morgan  episode. 
The  house  is  still  standing  and  we  hope  to  have  a  cut  of  it  for 
this  volume. 

Graves,  David,  Jr.,  built  on  lot  No.  36,  second  division 
of  Commons,  on  the  south  side  of  Christian  lane,  about  fifteen 
or  twenty  rods  east  of  the  Claverack  road,  about  176S,  having 
bought  this  part  of  lot  36  of  Nathaniel  Coleman  of  Amherst, 
formerly  of  Hatfield.  The  two  front  rooms  were  built  in  1769 
and  the  rear  portion  long  before,  probably  at  Bashan,  or  on 
Dennison's  farm,  and  then  moved  here.  This  was  probably  the 
second  house  built  in  the  lane.  After  his  death  his  son,  Levi, 
then  his  son,  Rufus,  lived  there  and  now  Lemuel  F.,  is  the 
owner.  ^ 

Graves,  Martin,  first  settled  in  the  Straits  on  a  portion 
of  th.t  Bradstreet  grant,  where  stands  the  house  now  owned  by 
Edmund  Quinn's  heirs.  This  he  sold  to  Elijah  Smith  in  1788. 
He  then  bought  of  Abial  Bragg  and  built  a  house  on  the  south 
side  of  Christian  lane  on  lot  No.  36,  second  division  of  Com- 
mons, extending  from  Chestnut  Plain  street  to  Claverack  road. 
His  purchase  included  several  other  lots,  with  the  exception  of 
the  house  lot  sold  by  Bragg  to  Solomon  Atkins,  where  Hubbard 
S.  Allis  lives,  and  the  parsonage.  He  bought  the  land  14  April, 
1758,  and  built  his  house  that  year.  The  front  part  was  built 
when  Capt.  Lucius  was  married,  or  just  before,  probably  in 
1808,  and  in  1835  Erastus  Crafts  bought  the  house  and  other 
buildings  and  two  and  one-half  acres  of  land.  The.  balance  was 
owned  by  J.  C.  Loomis,  excepting  ten  acres  owned  by  Leonard 
Loomis,  and  now  by  Hon  T.'  P.  Brown. 

Graves,  Simeon  and  Matthew,  brothers  of  David  and 
Martin,  and  sons  of  David,  removed  to  the  southeast  part  of 
Conway.  Simeon  died  there  6  April,  1 812,  at  92  years  of  age, 
while  Matthew  removed  to  Norwich,  N.  Y.,  where  he  died  at  a 
great  age. 

Gr.wes,  John,  son  of  Nathan,  built  on  Grass  hill  about 
as  earl}"  as  1775.  He  probably  sold  to  John  Monson  and  re- 
moved, about  1S18,  to  Ohio  with  his  son,  John,  Jr.,  where  he 
died.  Later  John,  Jr,  removed  to  Michigan  where  he  died 
in  1856. 

Graves,  Asa  and  Daniel,  removed  to  Vermont,  near 
Rutland,  while  Elihu  removed  to  the  northeast  part  of  Williams- 


95 

burg,  where  Caleb  Graves,  and  later  Hiram  Graves,  lived. 
Only  John  and  Reubeo  remained  in  Whately. 

Graves,  Moses,  bought  the  John  Waite  house  on  the 
north  side  of  Christian  lane,  on  lot  No.  37,  second  division  of 
Commons,  iS  Dec,  1794.  It  was  owned,  after  the  decease  of 
Moses  in  1827,  by  his  son,  Lucius,  and  now  by  his  son,  Fred 
L.  Graves. 

Gr.wes,  Pliny,  bought  the  house  built  by  Robert  Aber- 
crorabie  in  1779,  afterwards  owned  by  Jacob  Allen  Faxon,  Wil- 
liam Cone,  Zebina  Bartlett  then  by  Mr.  Graves,  and  after  his 
death  by  Edward  A.  Atkins,  and  now  by  W.  H.  Atkins.  Mr. 
Graves  bought  of  Mr.  Bartlett  five  acres,  in  1S12,  for  S350. 

Graves,  Erastus,  in  1S27,  bought  the  R.  M.  Swift  farm 
and  tore  down  the  old  house,  probably  built  by  Samuel  Carley, 
as  early  as  1766.  This  was  a  frame  house  but  very  small.  Mr. 
Graves  built  the  present  house  a  fine  cottage,  which  has  been 
much  improved  by  Mr.  Swift  by  the  addition  of  the  ell  part  and 
sheds,  carriage  house,  addition  to  the  barn  and  extensive 
tobacco  barns,  etc. 

Graves,  Randall,  owned  the  house  built  by  Abel  Scott 
and  sons,  before  the  marriage  of  ,-\bel  Scott,  Jr.,  in  1823.  Mr. 
Graves  bought  it  in  1^33  or  thereabouts,  and  lived  there  until 
he  died,  in  1874.  L.  F.  Crafts  lived  there  a  few  years  and  was 
followed  by  Fred  J.  Root  from  Westfield,  and  it  is  now  owned 
by  his  widow,  Mary  (Graves)  Root. 

Graves,  Spencer,  moved  to  Brookfield,  Vt.,  and  died 
there  at  nearly  99  years  of  age,  while  Levi  settled  at  North  Hat- 
field and  died  there,  aged  about  88  years. 

Graves,  Simeon,  a  wheelwright,  lived  on  the  Alonzo 
Crafts  corner  several  years,  then  he  and  his  brother,  David,  a 
blacksmith,  moved  to  Brookfield,  Vt.,  where  they  both  died. 

Graves,  Phineas,  son  of  David,  Jr.,  built  the  house  where 
Dr.  Myron  Harwood  lived  and  died,  on  the  west  side  of  Chest- 
nut Plain  street.  He  bought  the  lot,  which  contained  one 
acre  and  117  rods,  of  David  Morton  of  Hatfield,  in  1797.  West 
of  the  present  barn,  he  built  a  small  tanner}'.  Since  his  removal 
from  town  Joseph  Mather,  the  hatter,  William  Loomis,  the  car- 
penter, Levi  Bush,  the  merchant  and  Dr.  Harwood  have  lived 
there,  and  now  Chester  R.  Chaffee  is  the  occupant.  Mr.  Graves 
removed  to  Norwich,  N.  Y. 

Graves,  Franklin,  bought  the  five  acre  lot  and  the  house 
built  byEleazer  Frary.     He  tore  down  the  old  house  and  built 


the  present  commodious  house,  about  1843,  now  owned  by  Fred 
L.  Graves,  the  blacksmitli. 

Graves,  Justus,  son  of  John,  born  1784.  He  was  a  good 
hunter  and  a  fine  marksman  with  his  rifle.  He  was  a  soldier  in 
the  "Whately  Rifle  Greens,"  and  was  with  that  company  at 
Boston  in  the  war  of  1S12-14..  His  captain — Amos  Pratt — knew 
of  his  wonderful  skill  with  his  rifle,  and  one  day  he  and  the 
captain  of  another  rifle  company  were  talking  of  the  proficiency 
of  some  of  their  men,  when  the  other  captain  challenged  Capt. 
Pratt  for  a  trial  of  skill,  at  arms  end.  Capt.  Pratt  accepted  the 
challenge,  and  at  the  appointed  time  came  with  Justus  Graves 
as  his  man  and  a  great  crowd  of  lookers-on.  Capt.  Pratt  picked 
up  a  shingle  and  took  his  position  at  the  designated  distance 
and  held  it  in  his  hand,  while  Graves  fired  and  the  ball  pierced 
the  shingle. 

Capt.  Pratt  then  off'ered  the  shingle  to  his  friend,  but  he  de- 
clined the  honor  of  the  trial.  A  short  time  after  the  close  of  the 
war,  true  to  the  family  instincts  or  predilection  of  his  family,  he 
started  for  the  western  world  and  spent  his  life  hunting  and 
trapping  and  was  killed  by  the  Indians  near  the  Rocky  moun- 
tains. We  could  give  other  incidents,  but  space  forbids.  I 
will  only  say  that  one  of  his  cousins,  Erastus  Graves,  son  of 
Amasa,  went  with  dog  and  gun  into  the  great  West  trapping  and 
hunting  and  died  alone  in  his  hunting  camp  where  his  remains 
were  found,  and  thus  ends  our  story  of  the  Graves  families. 

Harding,  Samuel,  settled  where  Asa  Dickinson  now 
lives.  He  came  from  Woodstock,  Conn.,  about  1775  or  '76. 
It  is  probable  that  he  built  the  first  house  on  that  lot,  then  in 
Deerfield,  annexed  to  Whately  1810.  He  was  one  of  the  select- 
men in  T781,  a  man  of  some  prominence  in  Deerfield,  and  died 
in  1805,  aged  79  years.  After  him  Justin  Morton  lived  there 
some  \ears.  He  married,  E.'-ther,  a  daughter  of  Samuel  Hard- 
ing. After  him  came  Lyman  Harding,  his  grandson,  then 
Daniel  Dickinson,  and  now  Asa  Dickinson  lives  there. 

Hart,   Murray,  a  tinner,  lived  on  the  Joseph  Belden  place 
at  Bardstt's  corner,  and  plied  his  trade.      He  bought  the  place^ 
m  iSoS,  for  SSoo.      He  died  in  [S12  and  his  widow  married  John 
Gra\-es,  Jr.,  and  removed  to  Ohio.      Mr.   Hart  was  from  South- 
ington,  Conn. 

H.\RVEY,  Elihu,  built  the  house  about  1815,  where  he 
lived  and  died.  He  was  a  carpenter  and  familiarly  known  as 
"Lawyer  Harvey."     He  was  in  the  war  cf  181 2- 14,  in  the  place 


97 

of  his  "Boss,"  J.  C.  Loomis,  for  whom  he  was  at  work  upon  a 
house  in  Greenfield  and  Mr.  Loomis  could  not  conveniently 
leave.  The  place  is  on  the  road  from  Whately  to  Williams- 
burg. It  has  been  occupied  since  by  his  son,  Stephen  R., 
Nelson  H.  Damon,  and  now  by  Hiram  Graves. 

Harwood,  Dr.  Fr.-^ncis,  built  a  house  some  twenty  rods 
south  of  the  present  house,  in  1794.  This  was  moved  about 
18 1 8  to  the  present  site  and  the  front  house  added.  The  lots 
composing  the  farm  are  Nos.  54,  55,  56,  57  and  58.  The  house 
is  on  lot  58,  fourth  division  of  Commons.  It  has  since  been 
occupied  b}'  his  sons,  Col.  R.  B  and  Justus  F.  Harwood,  then 
by  Samuel  B.  White,  2d,  Samuel  W.  Steadman,  Charles  R. 
Crafts  and  now  by  Warren  P.  Crafts. 

Harwood,  Dr.  Myron,  bought  the  house  built  by  Phin- 
eas  Graves,  on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  in  the 
fourth  division  of  Commons.  He  remodeled  it,  changing  the 
roof  so  that  it  stands  gable  end  to  the  street,  adding  some  rooms 
in  an  ell  part  and  other  ways  much  improving  its  general 
appearance.  Now  owned  by  C.  R.  Chaffee  and  wife,  the  latter 
a  daughter  of  Dr.  Harwood. 

Hawley,  John,  settled  in  Whately  about  1772  or  "73,  but 
where  I  do  not  know. 

Hawley,  Fred  A.,  bought  the  Jabez  Pease  farm  in  the 
Straits  in  i860.  The  farm  is  a  part  of  the  Gov.  Bradstreet  grant. 
He  came  from  Amherst,  I  think,  or  the  east  part  of  Hadley. 
Pease  bought  of  Andrew  Scott  in  1842.  The  old  house  was 
pulled  down  and  the  present  one  built  in  1823.  The  old  house 
was  built  on  this  site  by  Joseph  Scott,  who  was  born  in  Hatfield 
1754,  and  built  about  1787. 

Hayes,  Dennis,  bought  the  Dexter  Clark  place,  formerly 
built  by  Benjamin  Scott,  Jr.,  about  1785.  The  house  was  prac- 
tically rebuilt  by  Mr.  Hayes  in  1879.  We  are  unable  to  trace 
the  other  occupants  of  this  place  after  the  death  of  Benjamin 
Scott,  Jr.,  in  1821.    • 

Haffey,  Jerre,  bought  the  old  Nathaniel  Coleman  place. 
The  present  house  was  built  on  the  site  of  the  house  probably 
erected  by  Samutl  Wells,  about  17 10.  This  was  the  first  house 
built  in  our  town  limits,  so  far  as  I  know.  The  old  house  was 
pulled  down  and  the  present  one  built,  about  18 17,  by  R.  T. 
Morton.  It  has  had  several  occupants,  among  them  Carlos 
Swift,  George  Dane  and  probably  others  that  I  cannot  recall. 
It  is  in  the  Gov.  Bradstreet  grant. 


98 

Haffey,  Nicholas,  lives  on  the  Joshua  "Belden,  Jr.,  farm. 
This  has  been  occupied  since  his  death  by  Bryant  Nutting, 
Benjamin  Dane  and  perhaps  others. 

HiGGiNS,  Henry,  S.,  bought,  in  1S79,  the  Levi  Morton 
farm,  including  the  house  built  by  Joseph  Lyman  Longley. 
This  place  was  formerly  owned  by  Tliomas  Wells,  son  of  Rev. 
Rufus  Wells,  who  bought  it  of  the  Marr^hes.  Asa  Marsh  bought 
the  land  of  Simeon  and  Gad  Waite,  in  178 1.  and  built  the  house 
on  lot  37,  second  division  of  Commons.  The  old  house  was 
bought  in  1886  or  '87  by  Clarence  E.  Crafts,  but  was  given  up 
to  Mr.  Higgins.     Now  owned  by  H.  S.  Higgins,  Jr. 

Hill,  Joseph,  built  a  house  on  the  farm  purchased  of 
Abram  Turner.  This  farm  was  parts  of  lots  40,  41  and  42,  fourth 
division  of  Commons.  One  John  Morey  had  built  a  log  house 
on  this  farm,  about  1778,  and  it  was  burned  one  Fast  da}^  He 
and  his  family  went  to  visit  a  friend,  and  while  absent  the 
house  burned.  It  was  considered  that  this  was  a  judgment 
upon  them  fcr  thus  desecrating  the  daj',  by  such  disregard  of  a 
holy  day  for  such  purposes.  The  lots  bought  by  Mr.  Hiil  began 
one-half  mile  west  of  Poplar  Hill  road  and  lay  on  both  sides  of 
Dry  Hill  road.  Mr.  Hill  bought  in  1783.  The  farm  has  since 
been  occupied  (Mr.  Hill  removed  to  Williamsburg)  by  Col. 
Nathan  Ames,  Moses  Morton,  Aaron  S.  Stearns  and  his  son, 
Luther  G.  Stearns.     The  house  is  torn  down. 

.Hill,  Kuggles,  son  of  Joseph,  lived  somewhere  in  West 
Whately,  but  where  I  do  not  know. 

Hill,  Moses,  built  the  house  on  the  Grass  Hill  road 
where  Samuel  Sanderson  used  to  live,  some  forty  rods  south  of 
Edward  Sanderson's  present  residence,  about  1810  or  '11,  torn 
down  now. 

Howes,  Micajah,  a  merchant,  bought  the  Eli  Crafts 
place  on  "Lover's  lane,"  about  1875.  (I  cannot  give  the  pre- 
cise date.)     Joseph  Mather  had  a  small  house  on  this  site  which 

was  pulled  dow'n  and  the   present  cottage   house  erected  by  Eli 
Crafts. 

Hunt,  &  Beckwith.  Josiah  Hunt  and  Messer  Beckwith 
were  clothiers  for  many  years,  from  1795  to  18 13.  They 
built  the  house  on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  now 
owned  by  Mrs.  E.  F.  Orcutt,  and  it  has  been  added  to  by  sub- 
sequent owners.  Justin  Morton,  Hannah  Tower,  Samuel  Lesure 
and   J.  A.  Crump  have  lived  there. 

Hallorran,    John,    bought   the   Allen   Belden   place   of 


99 

James  M.  Crafts,  assi.^nee  of  C.  H.  Manchester.  This  house 
was  built  by  Allen  Belden  and  his  son.  .Edwin  M.,  in  place  of 
the  old  one  built  by  Dea.  Elisha  Belden  in  1783. 

Handerhan,  Michael,  bought  a  place  in  the  Straits 
where  Samuel  R.  Lamb  used  to  live,  but  who  built  the  house  I 
do  not  know. 

HoLLEY,  Edward,  bought  the  place  formerly  known  as 
the  Uncle  Israel  Graves  place,  built  by  Daniel  Morton,  Jr., 
in  17S5. 

Hayden,  Loren,  came  to  Whately  in  the  spring  of  1851 
and  bought  the  hotel.  In  1S53  he  bought  the  Morton  farm 
(now  C.  K.  Waite's)  and  thoroughly  remodeled  the  buildings. 
In  1856  he  bought  the  Bloody  Brook  hotel  and  removed  there. 
Wherever  he  went  improvements  commenced. 

Ingram,  David,  came  in  1774.  The  place  of  his  resi- 
dence is  not  certainly  known,  but  it  is  supposed  to  be  the  house 
known  as  the  Esq.  Silas  Frary  place,  at  the  foot  of  Chestnut 
mountain,  now  torn  down.     It  was  an    old    house  75  years  ago. 

Jenney,  Reuben,  son  of  Job,  from  New  Bedford,  came 
with  his  son,  Reuben,  Jr.,  and  bought  the  land  of  Noah  Bard- 
well.  Asa  Sanderson  and  Dea.  James  Smith  9  March,  18:5,  and 
built  the  house  where  Reuben,  Jr.,  lived.  In  1823,  Reuben, 
Jr.,  bought  of  James  Cutter  a  house  and  lot  east  and  north  of 
the  store,  on  the  south  side  of  the  brook.  The  house  was  built 
just  west  of  the  sawmill  yard  recently  owned  by  Luther 
Sanderson. 

Jenney,  Reuben,  Sr.,  bought  and  built  a  house  as  early 
as  1819  in  Hopewell.  Since  he  died,  in  1836,  Daniel  Loveridge 
and  Erastus  Potter  have  owned  the  farm  and  lived  there.  It 
now  belongs  to  S.  W.  Allis,  Esq. 

Jenney,  Elisha  A.,  bought  the  house  built  by  Ashley 
Smith,  about  1827.  Since  Ashley  Smith  removed  West  it  has 
been  owned  by  Hiram  Smith,  Thomas  Nash  and  perhaps  others. 
It  is  on  the  road  to  Williamsburg,  the  south  side  of  the  road 
about  forty  rods  from  Poplar  Hill  road.  He  bought  a  fair-sized 
mill,  where  various  kinds  of  goods  have  been  made,  and  the 
water  power  connected  with  it.  Hiram  Smith  made  iron  and 
steel  goods,  Mr.  Nash,  satinets,  and  Jenney  was   a  wood  turner. 

Jefferson,  Amos,  and  his  son,  Amos,  Jr..  lived  on  the 
Deerfield  road,  west  of  Elijah  D.  Sanderson's.  He  lived  here 
as  early  as  1785.  For  a  cellar  for  his  vegetables  he  had  a  hole 
excavated  in  the   bank   of   Hopewell,  directly    west  of  William 


lOO 

H.  Fuller's  house.  Hopewell  hill  rises  somewhere  about  fifty 
feet  and  is  quite  steep.  This  kind  of  cellar  was  in  use  within 
m}^  recollection  and  was  seldom  opened  until  spring.  Apples 
kept  as  fresh  as  they  were  in  the  fall  apparently.  Amos.  Jr., 
moved  his  house  onto  the  River  road,  near  the  large  drain  south 
of  E.  D.  Sanderso.i's.  Ha  was  a  tanner  and  shoemiker,  working 
for  Dea.  Thomas  Sanderson  and  his  son,  Maj.  Sanderson. 

Jones,  Eli,  bought  the  farm  p nd  house  on  the  new  road  to 
Ha}'denviile.  under  Shingle  hill,  of  Chester  K.  Waite,  built 
about  the  time  of  Mr.  Waite's  marriage,  in  1S53  or  '54.  Now 
owned  by  Almeron  J.  Codding. 

JuDD,  Jonathan  S.,  Congregational  minister,  built  the 
house  on  the  east  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  about  1843  or 
'44.  Since  his  removal  from  Whately,  Rev.  Charles  Lord  has 
lived  there  a  few  years,  also  John  \Vells  and  owned  by  Matthew 
Farrell  since  1896. 

JUDD,  Ele.^zer,  brother  of  J.  S.,  bought  the  farm  of  E. 
Wilson  Sanderson.  The  buildings  were  built  by  Lieut.  Eli 
Sanderson,  in  1816,  and  since  enlarged  by  his  sons,  A.  W.  and 
E.  W.  Sanderson.  Mr.  Judd  sold  to  Silas  Crafts,  and  the  place 
is  now  owned  by  Charles  A.  Sanderson.  The  house  was  burned 
in  December,  i386.  and  has  not  been  rebuilt. 

Jewett,  Moses  William,  built  the  house  next  south  of 
Edmond  Donovan's,  on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street, 
on  the  site  of  a  house  built  by  Chester  Wells  in  1889.  He  died 
in  1890  without  children,  leaving  his  property  to  his  wife.  On 
his  lot  there  was  a  pottery,  but  it  was  moved  off. 

Kellogg,  Joseph,  came  in  1770  and  remained  some  years. 
I  do  not  know  where  he  lived,  but  think  at  the  Straits.  He 
was  taxed  in  1771.  He  may  have  owned  a  house,  but  I  fail  to 
find  the  evidence  of  it. 

Kellogg,  William,  was  taxed   in    1771,  only  a  poll  tax. 

Kellogg,  Joel,  came  from  Hadley,  and  he  and  his  wife 
died  in  town.  I  do  not  think  that  he  owned  any  real  estate  in 
Whately,  but  lived  either  on  rent  or  with  his  daughter. 

Knights,  Calvin,  from  Chesterfield,  bought  a  house  and 
lot  that  was  on  the  west  side  of  West  brook,  near  the  mill  of  H. 
L.  James,  that  was  burned.  He  bought  the  place  in  1865,  or 
thereabouts,  and  two  of  his  children  were  born  there.  Since  he 
died  the  place  has  been  bought  by  Charles  H.  Field,  son  of 
Paul  W. 

Knights,  Henry  S.,  bought  one  of  the  boarding  houses 


idi  ^ 

of  the  James  woolen  mill  about  1S85.      His  brother,  Charles  N. 
Knight,  also  bought  one  of  these  houses. 

Kennedy,  Michael,  bought  the  Benjamin  Cooley  place 
in  the  Straits.  A  blacksmith  remained  there  some  years,  but 
removed  from  town. 

Lamson,  John,  a  blacksmith,  built  the  gambrel-roofed 
house,  about  1772  or  '73,  near  where  Samuel  Lesure's  house 
stands,  on  the  east  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street  on  lot  32,  or  pos- 
sibly T,2,,  second  division  of  Commons.  Mr.  Lanison  opened  a 
hotel  and  sold  in  1774  to  John  Crafts  who  continued  the  hotel 
for  many  years.  Calvin  Wells  lived  there  with  his  father-in-law 
until  1827.  Many  families  lived  there  after  Wells  removed  to 
the  Capt.  Salmon  Graves  place.  Some  of  the  occupants  were 
no  better  than  they  ought  to  be  and  the  old  house  had  become 
dilapidated,  and  it  was  wiped  out  by  fire  and  no  eflfort  was  made 
to  save  it. 

Lamson,  Amasa,  a  shoemaker,  bought  the  house  on  the 
Alonzo  Crafts  corner,  in  Christian  lane,  in  1824  or  '25.  He 
sold  and  removed  to  Michigan. 

Lane,  Rev.  John  W.,  bought  the  house  next  north  of 
Rev.  Rufus  Wells'  place.  It  was  built  in  1834  or  '35  and  occu- 
pied as  a  store,  and  then  William  W.  Sanderson  kept  a  store 
there  some  years.  Mr.  Lane  remodeled  it  for  a  house  and,  after 
his  death,  James  Madison  Smith  bought  it.  It  was  purchased 
by  Dea.  Lucius  Meekins  about  1888. 

Lesure,  Samuel,  from  Warwick,  came  in  1828.  He 
built  the  house  and  his  store,  about  1850,  on  the  east  side  of 
Chestnut  Plain  street,  near  the  site  of  the  John  Crafts  house. 

LocKK,  John,  who  came  about  1773,  was  a  worker  in  stone 
and  made  headstones.  He  also  did  brick  work,  plastering,  etc. 
He  lived  for  .some  years  in  the  house  built  by  Daniel  Morton 
and  well  known  as  the  "Aunt  Phebe"  house,  uow  owned  by 
Ned  Holly. 

LooMis,  Jonathan  Colton,  a  carpenter  and  farmer, 
bought  the  Dea.  Simeon  Waite  house  in  Christian  lane.  This 
house  was  the  first  one  built  in  Christian  lane.  Before  1764  he 
settled  in  Whately,  probably  as  early  as  1762,  as  he  left  Athol 
about  1760.  The  place  now  belongs  to  Calvin  S.  Loomis.  J. 
C.  Loomis  was  an  active  business  man. 

Loomis,  Leonard,  brother  of  J.  C,  lived  with  and  cared 
for  Mrs.  Grimes,  widow  of  Samuel  Grimes  who  kept  a  store  on 
the  place  now  owned  by  Hon.  T.  P.  Brown,  of  Toledo,  O.,  for 
a  summer  residence. 


I02 

LoxGLEY,  Joseph  L.,  built  the  house,  where  Henry  S. 
Higgins  now  lives,  in  1S55  or  thereabouts.  ^ 

Lord,  Rev.  Charles,  bought  the  house  of-  Rev.  J.  S. 
Judd  and  lived  there  a  few  years.  He  came  in  1856  and  left 
in  1S60. 

Maxxixg,  Horace,  bought  the  house  next  south  of  the 
Con2:reo:ational  church  and  still  resides  there.  This  was 
remodeled  and  moved  there  by  Justin  M.  Cooley. 

Marsh,  Abijah,  owned  and  probably  built  a  house  on  the 
corner  of  the  Deerfield  road  and  the  road  leading  to  the  station, 
opposite  of  Bartlett's  corner,  about  17S0.  That  was  torn  down, 
and  Luther  S.  Wilcox  built  on  the  old  site  in  1858. 

Marsh,  Asa,  and  his  son,  Amos,  built,  or  rather  lived,  in 
a  house  on  the  Deerfield  road  a  mile  or  so  above  Bartlett's 
corner.  Probably  the  house  was  built  by  Lieut.  Ebenezer  Bard- 
well  in   1752. 

Marsh,  Asa,  Jr.,  lived  on  the  Levi  Morton  farm,  now 
owned  by  Henry  S.  Higgins,  Jr.  He  came  from  Douglas  and 
built  the  house  in  17S2. 

]\L\RSH,  Elijah,  bought  the  place  recently  owned  by  Sam- 
uel C.  Wood,  in  the  Straits,  about  1840,  and  his  son.  Joseph 
Marsh,  now  a  bookseller  al  Northampton,  remained  there  a  few 
5■ear^  and  then  sold.     The  place  is  in  the  Bradstreet  grant. 

Mastersox,  James,  bought  the  B.  G.  Aldtn  place.  The 
house  was  built  about  1S32. 

Mather.  Benjamin,  a  sea  captain,  came  in  1787  when 
about  60  years  of  age.  Ht-  built  a  small  log  house  on  the  south 
side  of  the  crossroad  on  land  now  owned  by  Thomas  Fleming. 
He  lived  there  summers  and  the  rest  of  the  time  with  his  son, 
Wil  iam  Mather.     Capt.  Mather  died  in  1821, 

Mather,  Samuel,  commenced  to  build  a  house  on  the 
south  side  of  his  brother,  William's,  land,  but  for  some  reason 
sold  it  after  the  roof  and  sides  were  boarded.  He  sold  it  to 
Oliver  Morton,  Jr.,  in  1816,  who  moved  it  to  where  W.  I.  Fox 
now  lives.     Mather  removed  to  Ashfield. 

^L\THER,  Joseph,  lived  for  sometime  in  the  Phineas 
Graves  house,  then  in  the  Martin  Woods  house  and,  later,  in  a 
house  that  stood  where  Eli  Crafts  built. 

Mather,  William,  bought  the  Dea.  Elisha  Belding  farm, 
on  Chestnut  Plain  strt-et,  but  removed  to  Gorham,  Ontario  Co., 
N.  Y.     He  was  town  clerk  several  years. 

Morton,  Oliver  Sr.,  came  from  Hatfield  and   built  his 


I03 

house  just  south  of  the  center  cemetery,  where  C.  K.  Waite 
lived,  as  early  as  1760  or  '6r,  on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain 
street,  on  lot  38  or  39,  fourth  division  of  Commons.  This?  after 
his  decease  in  1789,  was  occupied  by  his  son.  Samuel  G.  Mor- 
ton and,  later,  by  his  grandson,  Samuel  G.  Waite.  Loren  Hay- 
den,  Jerre  Graves  and  C.  K.  Waite,  and  now  by  his  son,  Charles 
H.  Waite. 

Morton",  Oliver,  Jr.,  bought  the  frame  of  the  house  of 
Samuel  Mather,  which  was  the  front  part  of  his  house,  in  kSi6. 
The  ell  part  was  his  first  house,  built  about  1800,  on  the  south 
part  of  his  father's  farm.  This  is  now  owned  by  W.  I.  Fox. 
It  has  been  greatly  improved  by  Horace  B.  Fox  and  his  son, 
the  present  owner. 

Morton,  D.\ntel,  from  Hatfield,  built  as  early  as  1759  on 
lot  No.  42,  tourth  division  of  Commons,  north  of  Gutter  brook. 
He  bought  part  of  lots,  possibly  39,  but  certainly  40,  41,  42  and 
43,  from  the  center  cemeter\'  to  Thomas  Crafts'  south  line. 
These  extended  west  one-half  mile.  His  house  was  a  two-story 
structure  and,  for  many  years,  this  was  kept  as  a  wayside 
tavern  as  it  was  on  the  route  for  the  stream  of  tra\'el  passing 
into  the  towns  north  and  west.  He  died  20  Jan.,  r7S6,  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Consider,  and  he  by  his  son,  Arnold, 
and  then  by  Rufus  Dickinson  and  his  heirs. 

Morton,  Daniel.  Jr.,  built  the  house  that  Edward 
Holley  now  owns,  in  1790.  He  sold  this  and  built  in  Claverack 
about  1800,  on  the  east  side  of  Claverack  road,  on  lot  11  or  12. 
Since  his  death  it  has  been  owned  by  Col.  Caleb  Crafts,  Thomas 
Crafts  and  James  M.  Crafts.  The  old  house  was  pulled  down 
in  1866  and  a  new  one  built.  This  last  was  burned  21  April, 
1873,     The  land  is  now  owned  by  John  M.  Crafts. 

Morton,  Simeon,  came  from  Hatfield  and  built  a  house 
between  1771  and  '74,  at  West  Whately,  on  the  Dry  Hill  road, 
since  owned  by  Reuben,  his  son,  and  Daniel  F.  and  Leander  L. 
Morton,  sons  of  Reuben.  It  is  now  owned  by  George  W. 
Moor.     The  house  was  long  ago  pulled  down. 

Morton,  Dexter,  son  of  Simeon,  built  on  the  Dry  Hill 
road,  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  north  of  his  father's,  on  the 
east  side  of  the  road,  in  1803.  A  few  years  after  hisdeath(  1859) 
the  land  was  sold  ofif  in  sections  to  suit  the  purchasers,  as  well 
as  the  buildings,  all  in  complete  condition.  Thus  a  very  good 
farm  was  placed  in  the  list  of  abandoned  farms. 

Morton,  Richard  Tower,  built  the  Jerre  Haffey  house 


I04 

in  1S20.  He  pulled  down  the  old  house,  built  probably  about 
1 710  by  Samuel  Wells  and  afterwards  owned  by  the  Colemans. 
He  owned  the  David  Stockbridge  new  hotel  property  at  his 
death  and  since  owned  by  his  son,  Frank  B.  Morton. 

Morton,  John  Lyman,  built  the  house  next  north  of  his 
father's  in  1842.  After  covering  the  outside  and  laying  the 
floors  it  was  used  for  several  months  by  the  Second  Congrega- 
tional Church  society  for  their  stated  meetings,  and  sold  later  to 
William  F.  Bardwell,  and  in  1886  to  Dr.  Tames  D.  Seymour. 
It  is  on  the  west  side  of  the  street,  a  fine,  pleasant  cottage. 

Morton,  Dea.  Levi,  came  from  Hatfield  and  built  on 
Pleasant  Hill  in  1783.  I  do  not  have  the  number  of  his  lots, 
but  the  old  house,  long  ago  taken  down,  stood  very  near  the 
present  residence  of  George  Dickinson.  The  house  of  Mr. 
Dickinson  was  built  for  his  son,  Horace,  and  moved  to  its  pres- 
ent commanding  position,  and  it  is  a  very  sightly  place. 

Morton,  David,  son  of  Dea.  Levi,  lived  on  the  Daniel 
Allis  place,  but  removed  to  Leicester  many  years  ago. 

Morton,  Levi,  Jr.,  bought  the  place  now  owned  by  H. 
S.  Higgins.  Two  other  sons  of  Levi,  Sr.,  Chester  and  Justus, 
removed  to  Hatfield  and  died  there. 

Morton,  John  Bardwell,  came  from  Hatfield  and 
bought  the  Capt.  Seth  Frary  place  at  West  brook  about  1825. 
After  his  death  his  son,  Eurotus,  owned  the  place,  but  sold  to 
Elias  B.  McClelan  and  bought  the  James  Scott  farm  at  North 
Hatfield. 

McClelan,  Elias  B.,  came  to  Whately  and  bought  of 
Eurotus  Morton  the  farm  formerly  owned  by  Moses  Frary, 
Noah  Coleman,  Capt.  Seth  Frary  and  John  B.  Morton.  He 
died  in  1882  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  George  B.,  who  has 
added  much  to  the  beauty  of  the  place  by  remodeling  the  house 
and  outbuildings. 

Mosher,  Jacob,  came  in  1806,  from  HoUis,  N.  H.,  and 
settled  in  the  Straits.  He  was  a  cooper  by  trade  and  built  a 
house,  about  1845,  where  Morris  Powers  now  lives.  Michael 
Conery  preceded  Mr.  Powers.  Mr.  Mosher  pulled  down  an  old 
house  that  was  built  by  Abraham  Scott,  I  think,  who  moved  it 
here  froni  Great  Plain. 

MuNSON,  Moses,  came  from  Farmington,  Conn.,  in  1784. 
He  lived  at  West  Whately.  perhaps  with  his  son,  Joel,  on  the 
Haster  road. 

MuNSON,  Moses,  Jr.,  built  a  gristmill  and  house  on  what 


o 

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pd 

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105 

is  now  known  as  the  Daa.  Jim  Smith  place,  north  of  the  West 
brook,  on  land  now  owned  by  Asa  T.  Sanderson,  in  1784.  He 
sold  to  Dea.  Smith  in  1S06.  Mr.  Munson  was  also  a  builder  of 
bridges  and  a  general  contractor. 

Munson,  Reuben,  came  from  Fai-mington,  Conn.,  in  1784. 
He  built  a  house  soon  after,  a  little  southeast  of  the  southwest 
schoolhouse,  where  he  lived,  and  died  in  1837.  After  him  was 
his  son,  John  Munson,  and  he  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Eras- 
tus  Smith  Munson.     The  buildings  were  all  burned  about  1880. 

Munson,  Osee,  lived  on  the  place  built  on  Grass  Hill  road 
about  one-third  of  a  mile  from  Paul  W.  Field's,  about  1800 
by  Zenas  Field.  It  was  afterwards  occupied  by  Stephen  Clark 
and  many  others,  including  Lyman  B.  Abbott.  Osee  was  a 
strong  abolitionist  and  run  the  underground  railway. 

Munson,  Joel,  was  usually  called  "Silver  Joel"  to  desig- 
nate him  from  Joel,  son  of  Reuben.  He  built  on  the  "Easter 
road,"  so  called,  leading  from  Whately  center  to  West  Whately 
over  Mt.  Esther.  He  had  a  mill  on  Poplar  Hill  brook  where  he 
turned  cider  mill  screws,  some  four  feet  long  or  more,  for  press- 
ing the  apple  pomace,  and  large  blocks  called  "nuts"  to  crush 
the  apples  and  a  variety  of  such  articles,  also  plows,  etc. 

Munson,  John,  bought  the  John  Graves  place  on  Grass 
Hill  and  lived  there  a  number  of  years,  then  occupied  his  father's 
old  homestead.  I  think  they  manufactured  hats  for  many  years 
as  I  recollect,  but  which  of  them  I  do  not  recall. 

Munson,  Erastus  Smith,  lived  with  his  father  and,  after 
the  burning  of  the  old  homestead,  bought  the  Hiram  Smith 
place  and  built  large  and  commodious  barns.  When  he  died 
he  left  his  large  estate  to  his  two  sons,  Lyman  A.  and 
Herbert  S. 

Nash,  Joseph,  was  here  sometime  before  1783,  as  at  that 
time  he  was  a  citizen  and  elected  to  a  town  office.  He  lived  in 
Bradstreet's  grant,  some  twelve  orfifteen  rods  south  of  the  house 
of  S.  W.  Allis.     The  house  has  been  gone  a  great  many  years. 

Nash,  Abner,  brother  of  Joseph,  came  with  Joseph.  He 
built  the  house,  near  Joseph's,  which  was  afterwards  owned  by 
Joseph  Brown,  on  what  is  S.  W.  Allis'  land,  torn  down 
about  1833. 

Nash,  Abel  Wells,  bought  the  cottage  house  built  for 
Seth  Belden,  and  built  the  present  house  on  the  farm,  about 
1855.  in  the  Bradstreet  grant.  Since  his  death  his  son,  Charles 
W.,  has  occupied  it. 


io6 

Nash,  Thomas,  came  about  1840,  furnished  the  mill 
vacated  by  Hiram  Smith  with  woolen  machinery,  and  lived  in 
the  Ashley  Smith  house.  The  mill  was  burned  and  he  returned 
to  Williamsburg. 

Nolan,  James,  bought  the  place  formerly  owned  by  Isaac 
Chapman,  about  i860.  It  is  probable  that  Ho.sea  Curtis  lived 
here  prior  to  living  on  the  Elder  Todd  place  west  of  Poplar  Hill, 
but  I  am  not  certain  about  it. 

Orcutt,  Stephen,  Jr.,  by  trade  a  tanner  and  shoemaker, 
built  a  house  at  West  brook,  just  north  of  the  brook,  on  lot  61, 
first  division  of  Commons,  about  1800,  better  known  as  the 
Lemuel  W' aite  place.     He  was  an  active  business  man. 

Orcutt,  Eleazer  F.,  a  hotel  keeper,  built  ov^r  the  house 
next  north  of  the  hotel,  in  1887,  making  it  a  beautiful  residence. 
He  was  a  man  of  great  abilit}'  and  died  in  1889.  The  place  is 
now  occupied  by  his  vvidow  and  son-in-law,  Geo.  A.  Elder.  Esq. 

Pakker,  Abraham,  built  a  house  on  lot  69  or  70,  at  Can- 
terbury, in  1749.  He  came  from  Groton,  Mass.  He  was 
drowned  12  March.  1757,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  energetic 
widow  and,  when  old  enough,  by  his  son,  Benjamin,  his  son. 
Captain  Asa.  and  he  b>  his  son,  Edwin  C.  In  1876  or  '77  it 
was  boui^ht  by  Otis  Hagar  and  is  now  owned  by  his  brother, 
Dexter  F.  Hagar. 

Parker,  Abel,  a  cousin  of  .\braham,  removed  to  Hawley. 
He  built  a  house  which  he  sold  in  April.  1775,  to  Dea.  Thomas 
Sanderson,  with  forty-five  acres  of  land,  lot  66,  second  division 
of  Commons. 

Pease,  Jabez,  came  from  New  York  state  about  1842  and 
bought  the  Andrew  Scott  farm  in  the  Bradstreet  grant.  The 
house  was  built  in  1823,  taking  the  place  of  an  old  one  built  by 
Joseph  Scott  and  occupied  by  his  sons,  Consider,  Leonard  and 
Andrew. 

Pease,  Henry  C,  bought  the  farm  and  house  built  by 
John  Ashcraft  in  1863.  Edward  A.  Scott  sold  to  Mr.  Pease. 
The  farm  is  part  of  the  Gov.  Bradstreet  grant. 

Pease,  Charles  F.,  bought  the  John  Wood  place,  for- 
merly owned  by  Solomon  Atkins  and  Benjamin  Scott,  Jr.,  in 
1789.  Mr.  Pease  bought  in  1847  and  it  is  now  occupied  by 
George  F.  Pease. 

Pease,  John  H.,  son  of  Charles  F.,  bought  the  place, 
about  1893,  that  was  built  by  Chester  G.  Crafts,  about  1873. 
This  is  on  lot  37,  second  division  of  Commons. 


I07 

Philips,  Richard,  bought  the  place  in  the  Straits  next 
south  of  Bartlett's  corner,  formerly  owned  by  A.  N.  Claghorn, 
Martin  Woods  and  others  too  numerous  to  mention.  This,  too, 
is  in  the  Bradstreet  grant. 

Pe.\se.  Solomon,  probably  lived  in  the  Straits,  but  soon 
removed  to  Heath.  In  1S03  he  built  the  house  torn  down  by 
John  Woods  who  put  up  the  present  house  owned  by  the  heirs 
of  Charles  F.  Pease.     Phineas  Graves  bought  it. 

Powers,  Mokris  J.,  lives  on  the  Jacob  Mosher  place, 
built  in  1S33.  The  house  torn  down  on  this  place  was  removed 
from  Great  Plain,  by  Abraham  Scott,  about  17S5  — the  Jonathan 
Edson  house.  This  is  in  the  Rradstreet  grant  and  it  was  drawn 
not  far  from  three  and  one-half  miles  by  strings  of  oxen,  by  Mr, 
Scott,  on  the  snow. 

Potter,  Erastus,  bought  the  place  in  Hopewell  built  by 
Reuben  Jenney,  in  1819,  perhaps  a  few  years  earlier.  It  is  now 
part  of  the  great  farm  of  S.  W.  Allis.  The  house  has  been 
occupied  by  many  families. 

QuiNN,  Edmoxd,  came  here  in  iS6[,  bought  the  ganibrel- 
roofud  house  in  the  Sti aits  and  the  land,  all  in  the  Bradstreet 
grant.  The  house  was  built  by  Benjamin  Scott  as  earl}-  as 
1740.  .Tiiere  have  been  n.an\-  owners.  Martin  Graves  sold  it 
in  1788,  and  Heman  Swift,  R.  T.  Mi)rlon  an-J  others  owned  it, 
and  now  the  heirs  of  Edmond  Quinn. 

Reed,  Simeon,  owned  the  house  and  lot  where  David 
Callahan  re>ides.  There  was  a  small  house  on  the  place,  con- 
taining one  room,  pantry  and  bedroom,  when  he  bought  it,  in 
1823.  He  built  a  nice  cottage  house.  He  was  a  wheelwright 
and  had  a  shop  on  the  place,  a  progressi\-e  man  and  good 
workman. 

Robinson,  Hiram,  from  Ware,  lived  on  the  Quinn  place 
and  removed  to  Oliio. 

Rogers,  Benjamin,  came  about  1779  and  settled  on  a 
place  in  the  west  part  of  the  town,  near  the  north  line  on  the 
road  from  "Hard  Scrabble,"  as  the  .southeast  part  of  Conway 
used  to  be  called,  leading  to  the  Baptist  meeting-house,  and 
probably  built  there.  After  his  death  the  place  was  owned  by 
his  son,  George,  and  then  by  his  son,  Daniel,  who  died  in  18 — . 
George  was  a  shoemaker  and  tanner  and,  doubtless,  run  the 
tannery  formerly  owned  by  Paul  Belden,  after  his  removal  to 
Brookfield,  Vt.  His  son,  Daniel,  was  often  called  "Pidgeon 
Rogers." 


io8 

KussELL,  Charles,  came  from  Hadley.  He  built  about 
1844  the  house,  later  owned  by  I  uther  W.  Clark,  in  Canter- 
bury, and  now  owned  bj^  Dr.  Charles  Shepard,  who  has  remod- 
eled the  house,  making  it  one  of  the  prettiest  places  in  town. 

Root,  Frederick  J.,  from  Westfield,  lived  on  the  Ran- 
dall Graves  place  now  owned  by  his  widow,  Mary  Elizabeth, 
who  married  Stephen  C.  Kingsley,  21  Dec,  jSqS.  They  reside 
on  the  place. 

Richardson,  Winslow,  came  from  Bridgewater  about 
1778.  He  is  supposed  to  have  lived  on  and  owned  the  farm 
where  tradition  says  Hosea  Curtis  lived,  east  of  the  Baptist 
meeting-house,  where  afterwards  Isaac  Chapman  lived.  It  is 
now^  owned  by  James  Nolan. 

Rosevelt,  Jacob,  one  of  the  Hessian  soldiers  under  Bur- 
goyne,  lived  in  the  house  opposite  Bartlett's  corner.  He  was  a 
wheelwright  and  carried  on  his  business  there. 

Sanderson,  Joseph,  came  from  Groton,  in  1751,  and  set- 
tled in  Canterbury,  just  south  of  his  townsman,  Abraham 
Parker.  His  first  house  was  built  just  north  of  William  H. 
Fuller's,  for  the  sake  of  protection  as  isolated  houses  were  lia- 
ble to  attacks  by  strolling  parties  of  Indians.  Later  he  built 
farther  south,  where  the  house  of  Rodolphus  Sanderson  was 
burned  a  few  years  ago  (1885).  After  his  death,  in  1772,  he 
was  succeeded  b}"  his  son,  Dea.  Thomas,  and  he  by  his  son, 
Maj.  Thomas,  and  he  by  his  sons,  John  C.  and  Rodolphus 
Sanderson,  and  John  C.  by  his  son,  Edward  C.  Then  by  Mrs. 
Jenny  Sanderson,  widow  of  Edward  A.  Scott  and  her  son,  and 
Rodolphus  was  succeeded  by  Thomas  Sanderson.  The  old 
farm  is  now  held  by  Mrs.  Scott  and  son,  Herbert  B. 

Sanderson,  JDea.  Thomas,  owned  a  great  amount  of  real 
estate,  more  than  any  other  man  in  Whately.  He  bought  the 
Taylor  property  on  Indian  Hill,  then  in  Deerfield,  annexed  to 
Whately  in  1810.  This  he  left  to  his  sons,  Silas  and  EU,  while 
Maj.  Thomas  remained  on  the  Canterbur}''  estate.  His  son, 
Elijah,  built  in  Canterbury,  and  Asa,  Alvin  and  Chester  re- 
moved to  Ashfield.  All  of  them  were  prominent  men.  Alvin 
died  unmarried,  was  a  clergyman,  and  founder  of  Sanderson 
academy  at  Ashfield. 

Sanderson,  Elijah,  son  of  Dea  Thomas,  built  in  1805  or 
'06,  the  house  since  occupied  by  his  son,  Elijah  Dwight  Sander- 
son, and  now  owned  by  Walter  W.  Sanderson.  He  was  a  pro- 
gressive and  thrifty  farmer. 


log 

Sanderson,  Isaac,  son  of  Joseph,  built  a  house  in  West 
Whately,  west  of  the  northwest  schoolhouse.  He  w^as  a  cooper 
by  trade,  and  built  in  17S2  or  '83,  and  the  old  house  has  been 
torn  down.  His  sons,  xA.llen  and  Horace,  lived  with  him. 
Allen  removed  to  Ohio  and  Horace  died  in  1S52,  and  the  land, 
part  of  lots  37,  38  and  39,  was  added  to  the  farm  of  Mr.  Harvey. 
So  another  farm  was  wiped  out. 

Sanderson,  Asa,  (a  seventh  son)  widely  known  as  "Doc- 
tor Asa,"  was  a  tanner  and  shoemaker.  He  bought  the  farm 
of  Noah  Field,  17  Feb.,  17S0,  which  was  parts  of  lots  37,  38 
and  39,  lying  on  the  west  side  of  Poplar  Hill  road.  The  house 
was  built  by  Xoah  Field  in  1773.  A  front  house  was  built  by 
Dr.  Sanderson  about  the  time  of  Asa,  Jr.'s,  marriage  in  1S19. 
Now  owned  bv  his  grandson,  Asa  T.  Sanderson. 

Sanderson,  Rufus.  bought  the  farm  where  Peter  Train 
settled  and  built  the  present  house  in  176 1.  After  Peter  died, 
his  son,  Oliver  Train,  lived  there  until  Rufus  bought  it  and  it  is 
now  owned  by  Rufus  D.  Sanderson  of  Springfield. 

Sanderson,  Moses  M.,  bought  a  portion  of  the  farm  of 
his  father,  Rufus,  and  built  on  the  east  side  of  Poplar  Hill  road 
opposite  of  his  father's,  in  1S52,  where  he  has  since  lived.  His 
brother,  Charles  S.,  took  a  portion  of  the  old  farm  and  built  a 
house  just  south  of  his  father's,  about  1S60,  on  the  west  side  of 
the  road. 

Sanderson,  Samuel,  lived  on  the  road  leading  to  Grass 
Hill,  where  Moses  Hill  built,  about  18 10.  His  son,  Edward  E., 
built  a  new  house  on  the  new  road  to  Williamsburg,  about  1S65, 
and  tore  down  the  old  house. 

Sanderson,  John  Chapman,  built  the  house  just  north 
of  his  great-grandfather,  Joseph's,  house,  but  on  part  of  the 
farm.  The  date  is  unknown  to  me.  His  daughter,  Mrs.  E.  A. 
Scott,  and  her  son.  Herbert,  now  live  on  the  place. 

Sanderson,  Lyman  M.,  son  of  Moses  M.,  bought  the 
house  and  land  where  Ralph  Warner  built,  just  north  of  the 
Elder  Goodnough  place,  on  the  west  side  of  Poplar  Hill  road, 
just  above  the  Baptist  meeting-house,  probably  on  lot  41,  fourth 
division  of  Commons. 

Sanderson,  Thomas,  was  a  son  of  John  C.  After  the 
house  burned  on  the  site  of  Joseph  Sanderson's  house,  he  sold 
the  farm  and  purchased  the  Leonard  Loomis  property  on  Chest- 
nut Plain  street.  It  has  been  owned  since  1896  by  Hon.  T.  P. 
Brown  of  Toledo,  O.,  and  is  nicely  arranged  for  a  summer 
residence. 


no 

Sanderson.  Eli,  built  a  house  on  Indian  Hill  west  of  his 
father's,  about  1816,  since  owned  by  his  sons,  Asahel  and  Eli 
Wilson  Sanderson,  Eleazer  Judd  and  Charles  A.  Sanderson.  It 
was  burned  about  1SS5. 

Sanderson,  Silas,  lived  with  his  father  and  succeeded 
him  on  the  homestead,  after  dividing  with  his  brother,  Eli. 
The  place  was  next  owned  by  his  son,  Elon  C,  and  now  by  his 
son.  George  E.,  who  has  recently  remodeled  the  large  house, 
making  it  a  splendid  residence. 

Sartwell,  Nathaniel,  from  Charlestown,  X.  H.,  built 
or  owned  a  house  in  Canterbury,  in  1758,  probably  near  the 
houses  of  Joseph  Sanderson  and  Philip  Smith,  as  the  three  peti- 
tioned the  General  Court  that  they  might  be  released  from  pay- 
ing a  minister  and  school  taxes  in  Hatfield,  as  they  we^e  li\dng 
within  a  mile  of  Sunderland  where  they  attended  church  and 
their  children  went  to  school.  As  the  distance  was  fully  five 
miles  to  Hatfield,  this  was  granted,  but  he  removed  later. 

Scott,  Josiah  Sr.,  was  born  in  Hatfield  in  1671.  and 
probably  settled  on  the  Bradstreet  farm  as  earty  as  1730,  or 
earlier,  as  at  that  time  he  had  the  road  that  was  voted  to  be  laid 
16  May,  1718,  from  the  upper  end  of  the  lower  mile,  three  rods 
wide,  to  Deerfield  road.  He  afterwards  had  it  changed  to  run 
further  south,  and  he  was  to  keep  a  good  gate  at  the  west  end. 
So,  from  all  the  evidence,  I  think  that  he  lived  where  now  is 
the  house  of  Charles  F.  Pease.  When  he  was  an  old  man  he 
lived  on  the  north  plain  yet  on  the  Bradstreet  farm.  He  deeded 
the  northernmost  lot  in  Bradstreet's  to  his  son,  Josiah  Scott, 
Jr.,  "With  all  of  the  buildings  where  I  now  live,"  in  1745. 

Scott,  Benjamin,  son  of  Josiah,  Sr.,  born  1708,  lived 
in  Whately  and  died  there  i  Aug.,  1782,  at  74  years  of  age. 
He  doubtless  lived  where  now  is  the  Quinn  house  which  was 
built  as  early  as  1740  to  '45.  In  the  time  of  the  Revolutionary 
war  he  was  often  called  on  by  the  town  for  loans  of  silver  money 
to  keep  up  the  quota  of  men  in  the  army.  He  lived  in  a  house 
that  Benjamin  Coole}'  tore  down  when  he  built  the  present 
structure. 

Scott,  Benjamin,  Jr.,  lived  where  is  now  the  house  of 
Dennis  Hayes.  He  was  an  ardent  patriot,  and  he  and  his  father 
loaned  silver  money  to  the  town  to  procure  substitutes  for  the 
army  in  the  Revolutionary  war.  His  land  was  in  the  Bradstreet 
grant.  Seth  Belden  lived  on  the  place  awhile,  also  several 
others.     Perhaps  Mr.  Scott  built  the  original  house.     Benjamin 


rrr 

Cooley  was  brought  up  by  Mr.  Scott,  and  doubtless  the  latter 
gave  or  sold  the  farm  of  twenty  acres  to  him  about  1798. 

Scott,  Joseph,  (3)  Joseph,  (2)  William,  (i)  bom  at 
Hatfield  in  [722,  was  a  brother  of  Master  Da\'id  Scott.  He  set- 
tled first  on  the  Deerfield  road  on  a  lot  that  is  now  the  northern 
lot  in  Hatfield,  some  twenty-five  rods  south  of  where  the 
"Mother  George'"  road  unites  with  the  Deerfield  road.  He 
lived  there  until  about  1758  or  '60,  then  removed  to  the  Straits, 
a  mile  and  one-half  north  on  the  same  road,  and  built  a  house 
on  the  farm  now  owned  by  Fred  A.  Hawley.  The  old  house 
was  replaced  by  the  present  structure,  erected  by  Mr.  Jabez 
Pease  in  1S42.  The  place  where  Mr.  Scott  first  settled  is  known 
as  the  Elijah  Belden  place,  on  the  west  side  of  Deerfield  road, 
directly  east  of  the  R.  M.  Swift  farm,  whose  land  abuts.  The 
old  house  was  pulled  down  about  1830  and  Belden  built  in 
Hopewell.  Joseph,  3d,  was  followed  by  his  son,  Joseph,  4th,  and 
by  his  grandsons.  Consider,  Lamed  and  Andrew,  the  tinners, 
who  sold  to  Jabez  Pease.  The  tin  shop  has  been  gone  many 
years.  They  manufactured  the  ware  and  then,  with  two-horse 
teams,  transported  it  to  Maryland  and  Virginia.  Consider  died 
in  Virginia,  when  on  one  of  his  trips,  in  1815. 

Scott,  Joseph,  Jr.,  lived  in  the  house  on  the  farm  where 
F.  A.  Hawley  now  lives,  before  1785.  He  and  his  sons  carried 
on  the  tinning  business  at  that  place  a  number  of  years. 

Scott,  Dayid,  or  as  usually  called,  "Master"  Scott,  was 
a  carpenter,  born  in  Hatfield  in  1777.  He  settled  early — about 
1750  to  '51 — on  the  North  Plain.  He  bought  the  house  of 
Lieut.  Ebenezer  Bardwell.  Mr.  Bardwell  then  built  another 
house  on  Chestnut  Plain  street,  or  where  it  ran  to  avoid  the 
wet,  mucky  land  from  Benoni  Crafts'  house  to  where  Noah 
Wells  lived,  near  Randall  Graves'  place.  This  house  "Master" 
Scott  also  bought,  after  Bardwell's  death,  7  April,  1812,  and 
then  subsequently  built  on  his  lot.  No.  68,  second  division  of 
Commons,  on  the  east  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street.  He  was  a 
great  hunter.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son.  Lieut.  Abel,  then 
his  son,  Abel,  then  his  son,  Ambrose,  and  now  his  sons,  Frank 
O.  and  Lewis,  live  on  the  old  farm. 

Scott,  Selah,  built  a  house  on  the  north  part  of  his 
father's  farm  about  1783.  He  died  in  [826  and  his  son,  Hor- 
ace, and  his  son,  Luther  G.,  followed,  and  now  Lewis  A.  Scott 
lives  there. 

Scott,  Abraham,  lived  on  the  place  where  Jacob  Mosher 


112 

lived.  He  moved  the  house  that  he  bought  on  Great  Plain, 
built  by  Jonathan  Edson.  It  was  moved  on  shoes,  by  strings  of 
oxen,  three  and  one-half  miles,  when  the  snow  was  just  right. 
The  house  was  quite  long,  but  only  one  story  and  he  cut  it  in 
halves  to  move.  This  was  pulled  down  when  the  present  cot- 
tage was  built,  in  1845,  in  Bradstreet's  grant,  on  the  east  side  of 
the  road. 

Scott,  Isr.iel,  a  blacksmith,  lived  in  the  Straits,  on  the 
^Captain  W'illiam  Fa}'  place.  The  bulk  of  this  was  in  the  Brad- 
street  grant. 

Shattuck,  Captain  Oliver,  a  Revolutionary  ofBcer, 
owned  the  Ebenezer  Barnard  place  in  1774.  He  sold  to  Bar- 
nard in  17S7  and  removed  to  Hawley.  I  do  not  know  who 
built  the  house,  but  hardly  think  it  was  Capt.  Shattuck.  He 
died  27  Aug.,  1797. 

Seymour,  Rev.  Charles  N.,  came  from  Hartford,  Conn., 
and  settled  over  the  Congregational  church  in  Whately.  He 
was  installed  9  March,  1853,  dismissed  27  April,  1859.  During 
his  stay  in  town  he  made  many  friends  among  people  of  liberal 
thought,  but  rather  antagonized  the  over-zealous. 

Seymour,  Dr.  James  Dwight,  came  to  Whately  in  1878 
and  resided  first  in  the  Ferguson  house,  but  has  since  bought 
the  house  built  by  John  Lyman  Morton  in  1842,  on  the  west 
side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street.    He  has  a  beautiful  cottage  house. 

Smith,  Elisha,  was  one  of  the  original  settlers  in  the 
Straits,  and  was  uniformly  called  "Goodman  Smith."  He 
came  in  1732,  perhaps  earlier.  He  built  near  w^here  his  de- 
scendant, Israel  S.  Smith,  now  lives.  It  was  in  the  Bradstreet 
grant,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Straits.  After  him  his  son,  Gad 
Smith,  not  only  run  the  farm,  but  kept  a  hotel  and  store, 
and  slaughtered  beef  which  he  sent  to  the  West  Indies.  In  his 
old  age  he  sold  out  to  David  Stockbridge,  and  Chester  Stock- 
bridge  lived  there  many  years.  The  house,  or  a  portion  of  it, 
was  sold  to  E.  H.  Woods  and  constitutes  a  good  share  of  the 
Woods  house,  near  the  railroad  station. 

Smith,  Philip,  son  of  Elisha,  built  the  old  house  where 
William  Cutler  Smith  now  lives.  He  was  succeeded  by  Beza- 
liel  and  then  his  son,  Osee,  and  then  William  Cutler  Smith,  who 
built  the  present  house  about  1867. 

Smith,  Paul,  son  of  Elisha,  built  the  house  on  Grass  Hill 
about  1760.  The  house  and  farm  was  afterwards  occupied  by 
his  son.  Capt.  Rufus  Smith.     After  that  the  house  was  removed 


113 

to  James  Factory  and  owned  some  years  by  Calvin  Knig'.ts  n:  d 
then  purchased  by  C.  H.  Field.  It  is  claimed  that  the; e  wtie 
twenty-five  children  born  to  Paul  and  Rufus  in  the  eld  !:•  v.^e  ; 
that  not  a  room  was  plastered  ;  that  they  brought  the  \.:.Ler  in 
barrels  some  thirty  rods,  and  that  they  went  into  their  upper 
rooms  on  a  ladder.  This  house  was  deserted  in  iSjS  by  the 
Smiths,  who  bought  the  AUis  place  of  David  Morton. 

Smith,  Jonathan,  built  west  of  Mt.  Esther,  where  h's 
son,  Seth,  afterwards  Hved.  He  bought  lot  No.  52,  fourth  di\:- 
sion  of  Commons.  13  Aug.,  17S9.  The  house  was  torn  down 
and  removed  about  1858. 

Smith,  Silas,  lived  west  of  Poplar  Hill  on  the  place  after- 
wards known  as  the  Elder  Todd  place.  Mr.  Smith  built  as 
early  as  1770,  probably  earlier.  He  afterwards  lived  on  Poplar 
Hill,  just  south  of  the  Consider  Waite  place.  After  him  came 
Anthony  Waite  and  then  Emmons  Meekins. 

Smith,  Benjamin,  Esq.,  was  a  justice  of  the  peace  and 
quite  a  prominent  man  in  town.  I  have  never  known  where  he 
lived,  but  think  about  1775  he  occupied  a  large  house,  (painted 
red)  on  the  east  side  of  the  Straits,  which  was  long  kept  as  a 
hotel.  Old  Mrs.  Samuel  Bartlett.  who  was  a  daughter  of  Gad 
Smith,  (his  brother)  said  that  at  one  time  several  officers  of  the 
British  navy  or  army,  who  were  prisoners  in  the  time  of  the 
Revolution,  were  quartered  "In  a  large  red  house  that  was 
formerly  a  hotel,"  and  that  one  of  them  put  his  name  on  a  pane 
of  ^lass  ^A-ith  a  diamond,  and  that  she  had  often  seen  it  when  a 
small  girl.  Mrs.  Bartlett  was  born  in  1790.  She  said  she  did 
not  know  who  kept  the  hotel,  nor  could  she  tell  where  Esquire 
Smith  lived.  When  she  was  married,  in  iSio,  there  were  three 
hotels  in  the  Straits,  and  her  father.  Gad  Smith,  Joel  Waite  and 
David  Stockbridge  were  the  proprietors. 

Smith,  Asa,  son  of  Philip,  born  in  1770,  was  a  carpenter. 
He  bought  of  Rev.  Rufus  Wells,  in  1S26,  lot  Xo.  28.  second 
divisionof  Commons,  on  the  east  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  "Mother  George"  road,  that  was  on  >the 
north  side  of  this  lot,  but  then  unused  for  travel.  The  house 
was  not  finished  until  purchased  by  Eurotus  Morton.  He  sold 
to  Rev.  John  Ferguson  and  it  has  since  been  owned  by  G.  W. 
Reed,  and  now  b}-  Henry  A.  Brown. 

Smith,  Elijah,  bought  19  Jan.,  179S,  of  Martin  Graves, 
the  gambrel-roofed  house  on  the  east  side  of  the  Straits,  all  in 
the  Bradstreet  grant.     This  was  built  by  Benjamin  Scott,  Sr.,  very 


114 

early,  possibl}-  as  soon  as  1735  to  '40,  thus  making  it  the  oldest 
house  in  town,  except  a  portion  of  the  David  Graves  house  now 
owned  by  Wells  T.  Smith.  The  house  and  farm  is  now  owned 
by  the  Quinn  family.  The  farm  contained  thirty-seven  and  one- 
half  acres,  all  tillage  land. 

Smith,  Dea.  Jaimes,  came  in  1806.  He  bought  the  mills 
and  house  of  Isloses  Munson,  Jr.  There  were  some  ten  or 
twelve  acres  of  land.  The  gristmill  was  run  until  about  1830, 
and  then  changed  into  a  factory  for  making  bits,  saw-sets, 
gimlets,  and  other  products.  The  last  miller  that  I  recall  was 
Caleb  Beals.  The  place  was  afterwards  owned  by  his  son, 
Justin  R.  Smith,  and  now  it  is  owned  by  Asa  T.  Sanderson. 

Smith,  Henry,  son  of  Capt.  Rufus,  lived  on  and  owned 
the  Daniel  Allis  farm.  Who  built  the  house  I  have  no  positive 
information,  but  it  is  probable  that  it  was  Daniel  Allis,  as  he 
was  on  the  farm  as  early  as  1782. 

Smith,  Hiram,  son  of  Capt.  Rufus,  bought  the  Phineas 
Frary  place.  The  old  house  was  removed  and  the  present  cot- 
tage house  built  by  Mr.  Smith  about  1840.  It  is  now  owned  by 
Lyman  A.  and  Herbert  S.  Monson. 

Smith,  Ashley,  son  of  Capt.  Rufus,  built  the  house  oppo- 
site the  northwest  schoolhouse  about  1827,  now  owned  by  E. 
A.  Jenney's  heirs. 

Smith,  Isaac,  son  of  Esquire  Benjamin,  built  a  two-stor}' 
house  on  land  south  of  Stephen  Belden's  in  the  Straits,  in  the 
Gov.  Bradstreet  grant,  about  1795.  This  house  had  several 
occupants,  among  them  being  Joseph  Brown.  It  passed  into 
the  hands  of  David  Stockbridge,  Esq.,  and  when  he  built  his 
new  hotel  on  the  River  road,  he  moved  this  house  there  and  it 
is  the  ell  part  of  that  house,  and  now  owned  by  Frank  B.  Mor- 
ton's heirs. 

Smith,  Jonathan,  Jr.,  lived  near  his  father's,  perhaps  in 
the  Frary  house. 

Smith,  David,  probably  built  a  house,  but  I  have  no  defi- 
nite information  concerning  it.  His  widow,  Betsey,  I  well 
recollect.     She  lived  near  Esquire  Seth  Smith's. 

Smith,  Roswell,  son  of  Esquire  Benjamin,  married  Mary 
Pratt  of  Deerfield.  Their  son,  Elihu,  married  Anna  Belden  of 
Whately  and  removed  to  Hadley. 

Taylor,  Lieut.  Adonijah,  bought  about  200  acres  of 
land  and  built  a  house  and  mills,  on  Indian  Hill,  in  1760.  His 
purchase  included   the   famous    "Whately  Glen."     He  sold  to 


115 

Dea.  Thomas  Sanderson  and  removed  to  Hawley.  The  farm  is 
still  owned  by  the  great-grandsons,  Charles  A.  and  George  E. — 
the  latter  owns  the  bulk  of  it. 

Train,   Peter,    from   Watertown,  Mass.,  built  the  house 
generally  known  as  the  Rufus  Sanderson   place,  on  Poplar  Hill, 
road,  about  1761  or  '62,   afterwards    owned    by    his  son,  Oliver, 
and  after  his  death,  in  1820,  by  different  ones,  including  Rufus 
Sanderson,  and  it  is  now  owmed  by  Rufus  D,  Sanderson. 

Train,  Roswell,  a  blacksmith,  built  on  a  portion  of  the 
old  farm,  about  1829,  since  owned  by  his  son,  Horace. 

Todd,  Rev.  Asa,  bought  the  farm  of  Silas  Smith.  This 
was  purchased  for  him  by  a  committee  of  the  new  Baptist 
church,  \dz. :  John  Brown,  Isaiah  Brown,  John  Graves  and  Joel 
Waite  of  Whately,  Jesse  Warner  and  Elisha  Smith  of  Conway, 
18  Oct.,  1790.  It  was  sold  15  April,  1803,  to  Zebulon  Robinson 
of  Chesterfield,  for  ^450,  or  more  likely,  dollars.  The  house 
has  long  since  been  gone. 

An  extract  from  the  will  of  John  Waite,  dated  21  March, 
1743,  gives  his  son,  John  Waite,  Jr.,  who  settled  in  the  Straits, 
"My  fift>'-acre  lot,  right  in  the  Bradstreet  grant,  bought  of 
Zachariah  Field,  with  edifices  thereon,  near  the  west  end  of  the 
lot,  whereon  be  now  dwells,  and  /^i5o  in  bills  of  the  old  tenor, 
besides  what  I  have  heretofore  given  him."  The  Waite  house 
was  on  the  west  side  of  the  Straits  road,  and  was  also  in  the 
Bradstreet  grant,  but  within  about  forty  rods  of  the  west  bound- 
ary. The  fifty  acres  given  by  the  will  were  all  east  of  the  road 
and  extend  east  to  the  river.  The  subsequent  owners  have 
been  his  son,  Joel,  widely  known  as  "Landlord  Waite,"  as  he 
kept  a  hotel  here  for  many  years,  next  by  his  son,  John,  usually 
called  "Little  Johnnie  Waite,"  Rufus  Smith,  Emerson  C.  War- 
ner, and  in  1899  it  was  bought  by  Charles  H,  Pease. 

Waite,  Dea.  Simeon,  built  in  1760,  on  lot  37,  second 
division  of  Commons,  in  Christian  lane,  sold  to  Abial  Bragg  115 
acres  in  1776,  and  Mr.  Bragg  sold  in  1787  to  Dr.  Benjamin 
Dickinson,  and  then  to  Jonathan  Colton  Loomis  and  it  is  now 
owned  by  his  son,  Calvin  S.  Loomis.  The  land  consisted  of 
parts  of  lots  37,  2)^^  and  39,  on  the  north  side  and  parts  of  lots 
36,  35  and  34,  south  of  Christian  lane  road.  For  further  par- 
ticulars see  account  of  Abial  Bragg's  sales. 

Waite,  Elihu,  built  on  one  of  the  lots  owned  by  him. 
He  owned  the  west  end  of  lots  66,  67,  68  and  69,  fourth  division 
of  Commons,  extending  from  Todd  brook  to  Williamsburg  line. 


ii6 

The  iiouse,  Iniilt  about  177S,  is  probably  on  lot  No.  66.  There 
v/as  a  log  house  on  the  lots  formerly  owned  b}-  Isaac  Marsh, 
generally  known  as  "Cider  Marsh,"  as  he  had  an  awful  capacity 
for  cider.  It  is  related  that  cider  distillers  used  to  call  their 
•30-liarrel  tanks  "Marsh's  tumblers,"  and  they  said  that  he 
could  at  a  single  trial  settle  the  fluid  about  a  foot  at  a  draught. 
What  became  of  Marsh,  or  why  he  built  on  those  lots  I  do  not 
know. 

Waite,  Consider,  brother  of  Elihu,  built  on  parts  of  lots 
66.  67.  6S  and  69,  abutting  abreast  the  east  end  of  Elihu's  lots, 
and  extending  east  half  a  mile  or  thereabouts.  It  seems  that 
these  lots  were  owned  before  this  by  Elisha  Waite,  of  Hatfield, 
and  l>y  him  deeded  to  these  parties — Elihu  and  Consider.  He 
built  on  lot  ()7,  probably  earlier  than  177S.  The  succeeding 
occupants  are  unknown,  except  his  son,  Capt.  Enos,  or  John 
Waite. 

Waite.  Jonathan,  brother  of  Elihu  and  Consider,  was  a 
clothier.  He  lived  some  years  where  Mrs.  Sumner  Smith  re- 
sides. Then  he  bought  a  house  in  Conway  and  removed  to  the 
north  part  of  Grass  Hill,  now  occupied  by  his  granddaughter, 
]Mrs.  Oscar  \^'.  Grant. 

\^'aite.  Alpha,  son  of  .Jonathan,  built  a  house  north  of 
his  father's.  Since  his  death  it  has  been  occupied  by  his 
widow.     His  son  died  in  the  army. 

Waite,  Thomas,  son  of  Nathan,  built  the  house  now 
occupied  by  his  nephew,  John  Edward  Waite,  about  1822, 
where  he  died. 

"Waite,  Jeremiah,  built  the  house  on  the  crossroad  from 
Claverack.  about  18 15,  now  owned  b}'  Thomas  Fleming. 

Waite,  Chester  K.,  built  the  house  sold  to  Eli  Jones, 
under  Shingle  Hill. 

Waite,  Jeremiah,  Sr.,  with  his  father,  Nathan,  then  an 
eld  man.  came  to  Whately  in  1782  or  '83,  and  bought  a  house 
r:nd  land  on  Shingle  Hill.  Later,  (in  1793)  they  bought  the 
]  lace  at  West  Whately  since  occupied  b}-  Nathan,  son  of  Jere- 
!:iiah.  then  by  John  Bement,  son  of  Nathan,  and  now  by  Willis 
F.  Waite.  The  father  of  Jeremiah  died  here  in  17SS,  aged  87 
years,  thus  making  six  generations,  counting  the  child  of 
Willis  F.  This  was  probably  on  lot  No.  18,  fourth  division  of 
Comr.icns,  on  the  road  leading  to  Grass  Hill,  although  there 
migr.t  have  been  more  than  one  lot. 

Waite,  John  Jr.,  built  the  Moses  Graves  house,    about 


117 

rjTO  or  'jr,  ou  the  north  side  of  Christian  lane,  on  lot  37,  second 
division  of  Commons.  It  has  since  been  owned  b)'  Moses 
Graves,  his  son,  Lucius,  and  now  by  Fred  L.  Graves. 

Waite.  Joel,  built  on  the  site  of  an  old  house  erected 
by  Joseph  Belden,  which  he  tore  down,  and  built  the  new  one  in 
1830.  This  is  near  the  Stockbridge  hotel  and  was  in  the  Brad- 
street  grant. 

Waite,  Calvin,  son  of  Elihu,  built  a  house  near  his  fath- 
er's, in  18 ro  or  ' 1 1,  on  the  Dn,'  Hill  road,  now  owned  by  E.  A. 
Warner. 

Waite,  Justin,  built  a  house  near  the  mill,  about  1854, 
now  owned  by  Samuel  Wilder  who  also  owns  the  mill. 

Warner,  Luther,  built  the  house  and  mill  on  the  new 
road  up  the  W^est  brook,  about  1828  or  '30.  It  is  now  owned 
by  Charles  A.  Covill. 

Warner,  Ralph,  built  a  house  on  Poplar  Hill  road,  or, 
perhaps,  bought  the  house  built  by  Capt.  Seth  Bardwell,  now 
owned  by  Lyman  M.  Sanderson. 

Warner,  Foster,  Y.,  built  a  fine  house  on  Mill  Hill, 
where  he  lived  and  died.  After  his  death  his  widow  resided 
there  until  she  died,  in  189S.  He  also  built  a  cottage  house, 
which  was  aften\'ards  occupied  by  his  son,  Emerson  C. 

Wells,  Noah,  came  to  Whately  in  1758  and  built  a  house 
on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  about  fifteen  rods 
south  ot  the  house  of  the  late  Wells  Dickinson.  It  was  torn 
down  a  great  many  years  ago.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son, 
Lemuel,  and  for  a  time  by  Israel  Wells. 

Wells,  Perez,  built  a  house  on  lot  13,  second  division  of 
Commons.  This  was  torn  down  after  his  decease  in  1852,  and  a 
new  house  was  built  in  1854  by  his  son,  Lewis  Wells.  After  him 
his  son,  Isaac  N.,  lived  there,  then  W,  N.  Beals,  then  Warren 
E.  Wells,  and  now  owned  by  Patrick  Conolly. 

Wells,  Israel,  built  the  hou.se  next  north  of  Ashley  G. 
Dickinson's,  on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  now  owned 
by  David  Callahan. 

Wells,  Calvin,  bought  the  Capt.  Salmon  Graves  place, 
in  Chestnut  Plain  street,  after  1826,  probably  in  1827.  This  has 
since  been  occupied  by  his  son.  Porter  Wells,  and  now  by  his 
son,  David  P.  Wells. 

Wells,  Perez  Milton,  built  a  house  on  Mill  Hill  be- 
tween the  houses  of  E.  C.  Warner  and  Francis  G.  Bardwell. 

Wells,  Rev.  Rufus,  built  his  house  in  1772,  on  the  west 


ii8 

side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  on  lot  28,  fourth  division  of  Com- 
mons. Since  occupied  b}'  his  son,  Capt.  Luke  Wells,  then 
opened  for  a  hotel  and  so  used  for  quite  a  number  of  )"?ars.  It 
was  then  occupied  by  Dr.  Chester  Bardwell,  after^vards  burned. 
Then  a  new  house  was  built  on  the  site  by  Ernest  A.  AUis,  and 
since  he  died  it  has  been  occupied  by  a  family  from  Boston  by 
the  name  of  Clapp.  Mr.  Wells  commenced  to  build  his  house 
early  after  his  settlement.  The  cellar  was  dug  and  stoned  up 
in  1772,  as  Dea.  Thomas  Sanderson'.^  books  show,  dated  May, 
1772  :  "To  Avork  digging  the  cellar  and  drawing  stone  for  the 
same  by  myself  and  brothers,  Asa  and  John,  eighteen  days  with 
team."  After  the  house  was  completed  his  mother,  Sarah 
Wells,  lived  with  him  until  she  died,  in  17S3,  and  kept  his 
house  until  he  was  married. 

Wells.  Elisha,  son  of  Noah,  built  a  house  on  Dn,'  Hill 
road,  south  of  Elihu  Waite's,  just  before  descending  the  hill  to 
the  Dexter  Morton  sawmill  on  West  brook.  The  old  well  was- 
in  existence  as  late  as  1S80.  He  removed  to  Hawley  where 
he  died. 

White,  Capt.  Salmon,  settled  in  Whately  in  1762,  and 
built  a  house  on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  probably 
on  lot  No.  13  or  14,  fourth  division  of  Commons.  He  was  very 
prominent  in  all  town  affairs,  and  died  in  1815.  After  his  de- 
cease his  son,  John,  succeeded  him,  then  Luke  B.,  then  Henry 
K.,  and  the  place  is    now    occupied    by    Mrs.  Henry  K.  White. 

White,  Salmon.  Jr..  built  opposite,  on  the  east  side  of 
Chestnut  Plain  street,  in  the  second  division  of  Commons,  about 
1785  or  1786.  He  died  in  1822,  and  was  succeeded  by  Dea. 
Justus,  and  he  by  Dea.  John  White,  and  he  by  Salmon  P. 
White,  and  it  is  now  owned  by  Cornelia  M.  White. 

White,  Samuel  B.,  son  of  Esquire  John,  built  the  house 
now  owned  b}'  John  W.  Beers,  and  his  son.  Arthur  H.,  also  the 
house  owned  by  Dea.  Meekins.  He  kept  a  store  in  a  portion  of 
the  house.     The  house  was   remodeled  by  Rev.  John  W.  Lane. 

White,  John  M.,  son  of  Luke  B.,  now  owns  the  house 
formerly  owned  by  William  H.  Fuller  at  Canterbury.  He  has 
a  beautiful  home. 

Wilcox,  Luther  S.,  a  carpenter,  built  a  house  opposite 
Bartlett's  corner,  on  the  road  to  the  railroad  station,  in  1858. 
He  afterwards  rebuilt  the  house  owned  by  William  Bardwell,  in 
1883,  where  he  died.  I^he  previous  occupants  were  Dea.  David 
Saunders,  Widow  Phelps  and  her  son,  Edward.  The  first 
house  was  built  by  Landlord  Joel  Waite,  in  1809. 


119 

I 

Wilder,  Dea.  Samuel,  a  miller  and  dealer  in  flour, 
grain,  etc.,  came  to  Whately  about  1S82  to  '83.  He  bought  the 
mills  of  the  Wells  brothers — Charles  and  Perez  M. — also  the 
house  and  land  of  Justin  Waite's  estate,  and  in  company  with 
his  son,  Henry  A.,  does  a  large  business. 

WiNCHELL,  Reuben,  built  the  brick  house  now  owned  by 
the  Donovan  brothers,  about  iSio.  It  has  since  been  owned  by 
Mr.  Bates  and  Eurotus  Dickinson. 

Woods,  William  and  Josiah,  about  1S40  built  the  house 
now  owned  by  Aaron  E.  Waite,  in  the  Straits. 

Woods,  Ellipaz  H.,  built  the  house  where  he  lived  at 
East  Whately,  in  1850.  or  he  bought  the  old  Gad  Smith  house, 
or  the  upright  portion  of  it,  and  moved  it  and  built  the  ell  part, 
barns,  etc.,  now  owned  by  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Sarah  E.  Morton. 
The  house  is  on  lot  36,  second  division  of  Commons. 

Woods,  John,  built  the  house   now^  owned  by  the  heirs  of 
Charles  F.  Pease,  in  the   Straits,  tearing  down  the  old  house  in 
1S47,  3-11  i"  the  Rradstreet  grant.      Probably  the  first  house  was 
built  by  Josiah  Scott,    Sr.,    about    1728,    perhaps  earlier  by  ten 
years. 

Woods,  Sa^iuel  A.,  built  his  houce  about  1S70,  on  lot  ^6, 
second  division  of  Commons.  George  E.  Woods  also  built  a 
house  on  the  same  lot.  This  last  is  now  owned  by  the  heirs  of 
Samuel  W.  Steadman. 


CHAPTER   VII. 

WHATELY    EARLY   SETTLERS. 

The  preceding  pages  indicate  whence  many  of  the  first 
settlers  on  our  territory'  came.  Other  early  settlers,  as  Parker, 
Sanderson,  Shattuck  and  Sartle  came  from  Groton,  Mass.,  and 
vicinit}'.  The  families  of  Train,  Bragg  and  Carley  were  from 
Watertown  and  came  through  Marlboro,  Shrewsbury  and 
Petersham.  Edward  Brown  was  from  Colchester,  Ct.  The 
later  settlers  as  Edson,  Carey,  Snow,  Faxon,  Byram,  Richard- 
son and,  perhaps.  Turner  and  Allen,  were  from  Bridgewater, 
Mass.,  and  vicinity.  Jonathan  Edson  came  by  way  of  Stafford, 
Conn.,  and  Ashfield.  These  Bridgewater  families  were  all  con- 
nected b}'  marriage,  and  most  of  them,  as  also  Carley,  from 
Petersham,  became  acquainted  with  the  valley  while  marching 
to  and  fro  as  soldiers  during  the  French  war. 

The  line  of  forts,  including  Fort  Dummer,  already  named, 
Fort  Shirley  in  Heath,  Fort  Pelham  in  Rowe,  Fort  Massachu- 
setts at  East  Hoosac,  (now  Adams)  and  some  minor  works 
established  in  1744  and  '45,  formed  a  barrier  against  the  Indians 
and  gave  a  sense  of  security  to  the  settlers  in  this  part  of  the 
valley.  But  the  struggle  between  England  and  France  for  the 
possession  of  Canada  and  the  line  of  lakes  westward  to  the 
Mississippi — in  which  Hampshire  county  (then  covering  the 
entire  western  part  of  the  State)  from  its  frontier  position,  would 
naturally  become  involved — kept  up  the  war  spirit  and  drew  oflf 
many  of  the  young  men,  who  were  thus  subtracted  from  the 
labor  and  productive  efiBciency  of  the  settlement,  just  when  such 
labor  and  productive   efficiency   were   most   needed.     Many  of 


121 

these  young  men  were  slain  or  disabled,  while  others  acquired 
habits  which  unfitted  them  for  the  patient  toil  and  economy- 
necessary  to  success  in  an  agricultural  community. 

Land  was  plenty.  The  Hatfield  emigrants  had,  either  in 
their  own  right  or  by  inheritance,  their  lots  in  the  fourth  divi- 
sion of  Commons,  in  the  three-mile  addition  and  in  the  Hatfield 
equivalent.  Several  of  them,  as  has  been  stated,  were  proprie- 
tors in  the  Bradstreet  farm.  Land  was  cheap,  and  many  lots  in 
the  Commons  hereabouts  had  been  forfeited  by  neglect  to  fence 
or  refusal  to  pay  rates  and  charges  and  could  be  had  of  the 
town  for  the  asking,  or  bought  for  seven  shillings,  six  pence  per 
acre.  The  price  of  an  acre  of  land  and  a  pair  of  shoes  was  the 
same  for  a  number  of  years,  from  1765  to  '80.  It  would  be  in- 
teresting to  give  the  exact  location  and  boundaries  of  the  farms, 
as  first  taken  up. 

Farming,  to  all  except  those  who  owned  river  lots,  was 
more  laborious  than  they  liad  been  accustomed  to  in  Hatfield. 
Their  fields  were  smaller  and  harder  to  break  up  and  till,  and 
the  yield  of  grain  less.  But  ia  the  matter  of  pasturage  they 
were  gainers.  The  hillsides,  especially  where  the  numerous 
springs  coursed  their  way  down,  afforded  the  sweetest  feed,  both 
early  and  late,  and  they  seem  to  have  depended  largely  upon 
stock  raising,  as  will  appear  from  the  large  number  of  cows  and 
sheep  found  in  1771. 

But  they  met  serious  inconveniences  and  drawbacks,  espe- 
cially those  living  on  Chestnut  Plain,  and  west  of  Mount  Esther. 
The  highways  had  not  been  worked  nor  the  bridges  built.  Mill 
river  and  West  brook  could  be  crossed  only  at  the  fording 
places.  The  only  traveled  way  to  Hatfield  village  was  over 
"The  island,"  by  way  of  "Mother  George."  They  had  no 
school  privileges  for  their  children.  The  nearest  corn  mill  was 
five  miles  distant. 

But  the  evil  which  they  felt  most  deeply  was  the  distance 
from  Sabbath  ordinances.  The  Sabbath  was  a  sacred  day  then, 
and  it  was  believed  to  be  a  duty  to  go  to  meeting  on  the  Sab- 
bath, and  children,  as  well  as  parents,  were  expected  to  regu- 
larly attend  church.  The  common  means  of  conveyance  then 
was  on  horseback,  and  this  continued  to  be  the  ordinary  mode 
of  traveling  till  18 10  or  later.  The  usual  charge  for  a  horse  and 
saddle  from  Whately  to  Hatfield  was,  for  a  man,  nine  pence,  for 
a  woman,  eight  pence.  When  a  man  took  his  wife  on  the  pil- 
lion behind  him,  the  charge  was  ten  pence.     They  might  have 


•     122 

rode  in  ox  carts,  but  oxen  were  "cattle,"  specified  in  the  com- 
mandment, and  the  Sabbath  was  as  sacred  to  them  as  to  their 
owners. 

With  the  muhiplied  churches  (then  called  meeting-houses) 
and  multiplied  means  of  conveyance,  and  changed  habits  of 
thought  of  the  present,  it  is  difficult  for  us  to  realize  the  state 
of  things  at  that  day.  Probable  the  change  of  sentiment  is  as 
great  as  the  change  of  circumstances.  The  Sabbath  morning,  in 
this  remote  settlement,  dawned  on  a  quiet,  altogether  peculiar. 
Secular  labor  had  been  carefully  finished,  in-doors  and  out,  at 
sunset  the  preceding  evening.  All  were  required  to  rise  early, 
that  the  necessary  chores  might  be  seasonably  done.  The  cattle 
seemed  to  understand  that  their  day  of  rest  had  come.  Even 
the  dog  kept  the  reckoning  correctly. 

It  is  still  a  tradition  in  the  family,  that  Deacon  Sanderson's 
dog,  "Cudjoe,"  was  never  known  to  leave  his  place  under  the 
table  on  the  Sabbath,  unless  specially  called.  The  baked 
beans  were  in  the  oven,  still  warm,  and  ready  for  both  the 
morning  and  evening  meal.  The  good  wife  had  her  hands  full 
to  get  all  the  children  and  herself  ready,  and  stir  up  the  Indian 
pudding  for  the  noon  lunch.  [The  uniform  custom  was  to  mix 
up  a  pudding,  put  it  in  a  bag  or  pudding  pot,  which  could  be 
stowed  in  the  saddlebags  or  slung  to  the  saddle.  When  they 
got  to  Hatfield  street,  which  was  always  early,  they  stopped  at 
one  of  their  cousin's  or  nephew's  houses,  when  the  pudding  was 
put  in  the  family  pot,  and  was  found  ready  boiled  when  meeting 
was  out  at  noon.] 

The  five  or  six  miles  to  be  traveled  required  an  early  start, 
and  each  Sabbath  during  the  warm  season  witnessed  nearly  the 
same  scene.  For  a  time  Noah  Wells  was  the  farthest  from 
meeting.  Himself  and  wife  and  the  two  youngest  children 
mounted  the  old  horse,  the  six  older  children  had  started  ahead 
on  foot;  next  Master  Scott,  his  wife  and  ten  children,  joined 
successively  by  Benoni  Crafts  and  his  family  of  six,  by  Thomas 
Crafts  and  his  family  of  ten,  by  Daniel  Morton  and  his  family 
of  ten,  by  Oliver  Graves  and  his  family  of  eleven,  by  Oliver 
Morton  and  his  family  of  seven,  bj'  Deacon  Dickinson  and  his 
family  of  eight.  These  formed  a  goodly  cavalcade  as  they  left 
the  street,  at  the  point  where  afterwards  the  first  meeting-house 
was  built,  to  go  over  the  fording  place,  and  down  through 
"Egypt."  All  were  clad  in  homespun,  yet  were  as  proud  of 
their  clean  linen,  felt  hats  and  high  crowned  bonnets  as  the  city 


123 

belle  of  her  silks  and  satins,  for  pride  has  nothing  to  do  with  the 
quality  or  cut  of  the  cloth  one  wears. 

The  boys  and  girls  were  bare-footed,  carrying  their  shoes 
in  their  hands,  to  be  put  on  when  they  reached  the  pine  grove, 
a  half  mile  this  side  of  Hatfield  meeting-house,  and  worn  till 
they  should  reach  the  same  grove  on  their  return.  Each  recur- 
ring Sabbath  morning  witnessed  this — a  strange  sight  to  us,  and 
yet,  as  seen  then,  it  had  nothing  about  it  remarkable,  nothing 
offensive  to  good  taste  and  propriety,  nothing  inconsistent  with 
self-respect  and  competence,  nothing  derogatory  to  the  purest 
and  noblest  type  of  girlhood  and  boyhood,  womanhood  and 
manhood,  nothing  but  what  God  approved  and  smiled  lipon. 

It  had  its  personal  discomforts  and  petty  trials;  it  was  a 
long  "Sabbath  day's  journey,"  but  all  this  was  anticipated. 
And  their  love  for  the  sanctuar>'  and  the  hope  of  better  days, 
when  they  should  have  their  own  meeting-house  and  minister, 
kept  them  in  good  heart.  Neither  in  this  matter  nor  in  the 
inconveniences  of  ever%'-day  life,  did  they  show  disappointment 
or  indulge  regrets.  They  had  chosen  their  home  and  had 
settled  here  to  stay,  and  at  once  set  about  securing  the  means 
of  comfort  and  independence. 

Beyond  the  prime  necessities  of  food,  clothing  and  shelter, 
the  wants  of  daily  life  are  affected  very  much  by  contrast  and 
comparison.  Envy  springs  from  disparity  of  condition.  Repin- 
ing as  often  follows  the  bettered  lot  of  another  as  the  straitened 
lot  of  ourselves;  and  as  all  here  had  so  many  wants  in  common, 
for  a  time  all  appear  to  have  been  substantially  contented.  In 
their  circumscribed  sphere  they  found  solid  comfort,  and  were 
as  independent  as  we  are.  Most  of  the  men  could  fell  the  for- 
ests, rift  the  timber  for  clapboards,  fit  a  frame,  mend  a  cart  and 
hoop  a  barrel.  Most  of  the  women  were  skilled  in  all  the  mys- 
teries of  preparing  flax  and  wool  for  cloth,  in  weaving  and  in 
cutting  and  making  clothing. 

David  Scott,  Sr.,  appears  to  have  been  the  first  professed 
carpenter  in  the  place.  But  he  laid  out  his  work  by  the  "Try 
rule,"  or  the  rule  of  six,  eight  and  ten,  i.  e.,  the  sills,  posts  and 
beams  were  framed  and  tried,  and  the  braces  were  laid  on  to 
mark  their  bevels  and  length.  Master  Scott's  prime  precept 
was,  "Make  great  mortises  and  'leetle'  tenons,  and  your  work 
will  go  together  charming  easy  !  ' '  He,  as  well  as  his  son,  Abel, 
made  plows,  ox  yokes,  carts,  etc.  Thomas  and  Benoni  Crafts 
did  most  of  the  coopering. 


124 

As  a  part  of  the  design  of  this  book  is  to  preserve  a  record 
of  the  manners  and  cusioms  of  our  fathers,  and  as  the  genera- 
tion that  saw  these  early  homes  is  now  so  nearly  gone — with 
whom  will  perish  the  first-hand  knowledge — it  will  not  be  out  of 
place  here  to  draw  a  rough  sketch  of  one  of  those  houses  and 
the  family  within.  Perhaps  our  grandchildren  may  be  inter- 
ested in  looking  at  it.  As  we  open  the  outside  door  we  are 
confronted  by  a  large  pile  of  fiat  stones,  carefully  laid,  which 
runs  up  slightly  tapering  to  and  through  the  roof  and  which  we 
shall  presently  learn  is  the  end  of  the  fireplace  and  chimney. 
Beside  this  stands  a  ladder,  or  rough  stairway,  leading  into  the 
open  attic.  The  next  and  only  remaining  door  leads  directly 
into  the  large  living  room,  which  is  both  kitchen,  sitting  room 
and  parlor.  We  notice  that  the  walls  and  ceiling  of  this  room 
are  not  plastered  and  the  bare  timbers  are  not  very  smoothly 
hewed.  But  what  strikes  us  most  forcibly  is  the  fireplace,  or 
inside  of  that  huge  pile  of  stones  which  takes  up  not  less  than 
half  the  end  of  the  room,  and  into  which  we  can  walk  without 
much  stooping.  Inside  the  jambs  stands  the  '  'settle, ' '  on  which 
five  persons  can  comfortably  sit.  Inside  the  settle  stands  the 
"dye  pot."  Down  from  the  cavernous  chimney  hang  the  hooks 
and  trammels  on  which  the  big  iron  pot  is  suspended,  and  handy 
by  hangs  the  flip  iron.  In  the  comer  of  the  room  opposite  the 
fireplace  is  the  bed,  with  its  white  linen,  or  dingy  tow  sheets 
and  pillow-biers,  and  its  striped  outside  blanket,  and  under  it 
the  trundle-bed.  In  the  next  corner  stands  the  cupboard,  with 
Its  wooden  and  pewter  sets  neatly  arranged.  Near  by  are  the 
"swifts"  and  the  "great  wheel,"  if  it  is  autumn,  or  the  "little 
wheel,"  if  it  is  spring.  Then  there  is  the  pine  table  in  its  place, 
the  four-legged  stools,  the  flag-bottomed,  high-backed  chairs 
and  the  cradle.  Under  the  looking-glass  is  a  small  stand  on 
which  lies  the  family  Bible.  The  catechism  and  hymn  book,  if 
our  call  is  at  the  deacon's  house,  are  put  in  one  corner  of  the 
cupboard.  On  a  pair  of  deer's  horns  are  suspended  the  gun, 
powderhom  and  ball-pouch.  Overhead  are  poles  laid  on  hooks 
for  drj'ing  pumpkins  or  herbs  and  airing  clothes.  The  family 
chest  is  at  the  foot  of  the  bed.  On  two  nails  driven  into  the 
plate  over  the  fireplace  is  laid  a  birch  rod  about  three  feet  long, 
the  use  of  which  the  children  then  perfectly  understood,  but 
which  is  now  among  the  lost  arts. 

As  we  met  the  boy  nearest   ten    years  old,  just  starting  for 
the  mill,  with  two  bags  of  grain  on   the   old   horse,  and  himself 


125- 

perched.on  tlie  top  of  the  bags,    and    saw    the    father  and  older 
boys  at  work  with. the  oxen,    we    find    only    the  mother  and  the: 
girlsand  the- younger  children  at  home.      If  it  is-early  morning, 
we  find  them  in    their   woolen    short  gowns  and  busy  at  work-; 
perhaps- it  is  dain'  work,  perhaps  common    housework,  perhaps- 
getting, on  the  great  pot  for  dinner,  for  the  pudding  needs  .three- 
good  hours'  boiling.      \'er}'    likely    the    mother  is  carding  wool, 
or  tow,  or  perhaps  she    is  spinning    on   the    great    wheel  if  it  is-j 
wool. or  tow,  on  the  little  wheel  if    it  is  flax.     Or.  perhaps,  from, 
a-peculiar  thwacking  noise,  we  know  she  is  working  at  the  loom- 
overhead. 

If  we  stop  to  dinner,  as  we  had  better  do  if  invited,  we  shall 
have  a;  most    savory    platter   of  "boiled    victuals,"  corned  beef, 
and  pork,  with  turnips,  green  corn    and  beans,  and  a  full-sized. 
Indian  pudding.     The  pudding    will    be    served    first,  or  rather 
we  shall  becalled  upon  "To  help  ourselves,"  as  they  all  do.     A^ 
mug  of'  homemade  beer  is  ready  to  go  from  mouth  to  mouth,  as. 
required,  and  the    "tapster,"    the   boy   who   got    up  last  in  the 
morning,  is- ready  to  fill  it  up  again  when  empty. 

If. our  call  is    made   of    a   winter's    evening,    even  if  we  ga- 
early,  there  will  be  a  roaring  fire,  for    the  evening    backlog    is 
always  of  extra  size,  as  the  boys  don't  want  to  put  in  a  new  one 
before  going  to  bed  and  all  want  a  good  bed  of  coals  when  they 
get  up  in  the  morning.      With  the  great  forestick. and  an  armful. 
of:wood  well  going,  the  room  is  warm,  and  almost. as- light  with- 
out.thepine  knot  or  tallow  candle  as  with  it.     The  trundle-bed, 
ia-out.and.  the  three  little  ones  are  snugly  asleep.     Their  mother 
ia--busy  mending,  for  do  what  she  can  the  children  will. tear. and. 
wear  their  clothes,  and  "It  is   so   much   handier,"  so  she  says, 
"Mending, them  when  the  children  are  out  of  the  way."     Later. 
iUithe  evening  she  will  be  knitting,  as  this  is  never  finished,  for. 
"grandpa"  wants  his  stockings  full,  and  so  long  that  they  will 
garter. over  the  knee,  and  eleven  pairs  of  feet,  the  average  num^ 
ber  in  a  family  then,  can  try  both  mother's  and  grandmother's 
nimble  needles.     The  girls    are    sewing,    perhaps  the  youngest 
i&- playing  hull-gull    or   checkers   with    the    brother  next  her  in 
ag.e.     The.  boys  are  shelling  corn,  or  splintering,  candle  wood  or. 
ciphering.     The  father  is  peeling    Indian   brooms,  or  bottoming, 
chairs,  or  braiding  a  whip,  or,  when  he  feels  Like  it  and  the-yarn 
is  knit  up  close,  he  holds   the   skein   for  the   mother  to  wind  a. 
new  ball,  "The  girls  do  make  such   work,  when  they  and.thet 
boys-wind^it ! ' ' 


126 

You  are  struck  with  the  deference,  amounting  almost  to 
reverence,  which  is  paid  to  the  aged  grandparents.  They  are 
expected  to  take  the  lead  in  conversation  and  the  younger  ones 
do  not  even  whisper  when  they  are  talking.  Grandmother  is 
privileged  to  sa\"  what  she  pleases  and  to  whom  she  pleases  and 
when  she  pleases.  If  conversation  should  seem  to  flag,  the  wife 
is  ready  to  tell,  with  just  a  little  of  pride,  how  many  "runs"  she 
has  spun  in  a  week  besides  taking  the  whole  care  of  the  milk  ; 
what  extra  luck  she  has  had  in  "dyeing"  ;  and  the  new  style  of 
check  she  wove  in  that  best  blanket;  and  how  much  linen  she 
put  in  the  last  web  of  linsey. 

Perhaps  a  neighbor  drops  in.  and  then  for  some  good  sto- 
ries. If  it  is  Master  Scott  or  Benoni  Crafts,  he  can  tell  of  hunt- 
ing exploits  with  bears  and  deer  most  marvelous  and  fascinat- 
ing. He  does  not  seem  to  be  so  very  old,  but  you  wonder  how 
a  man  can  go  through  in  one  lifetime  all  that  he  recounts.  If  it 
is  old  Mr.  Parker,  he  loves  to  tell  how  the  wntch  flew  from  the 
top  of  Sugar  Loaf  and  lighted  on  a  large  oak  that  stood  close 
by  the  highway  near  Joseph  Sanderson's.,  and  broke  or  bent  the 
top  into  a  curious  shape,  and  then  disappeared  in  the  ground, 
leaving  a  hole  which,  to  his  certain  knowledge,  could  never  be 
plowed  up  !  And  which,  he  might  have  added,  the  children 
always  passed  on  a  run  and  upon  "The  other  side!"  If  the 
visitor  be  a  Belding  or  a  Waite,  he  is  full  of  reminiscences  of 
King  Philip's  war,  when  his  ancestors  were  scalped  by  the  Indi- 
ans or  taken  ofi"  to  Canada.  And,  after  the  flip  has  been  passed 
round,  Lieut.  Ebenezer  Bardwell  will  give  his  own  experience 
in  the  French  wars,  which  are  so  fresh  and  full  of  incidents  of 
Indian  cruelty  and  torture,  and  told  with  such  minuteness  and 
graphic  power  as  to  make  the  younger  girls  crouch  behind  their 
mother's  chair,  and  tremble  when  they  go  to  bed.  But  all  is 
hearty  and  sincere,  and  "without  offence."  And  the  evening 
prayer  that  comes  before  the  last  good  night  is  "sweet  incense," 
because  offered  from  grateful  and  confiding  hearts. 

Such    were  the  homes  of  the    olden    time,    then    common  ■ 
throughout  this  valley.     And  "home"    was   then  a  word  with  a 
real    meaning,    for   home   occupations,    home   pleasures,  home 
associations  and  relationships   filled   up   the  round  of  daily  life. 

The  want  of  commodities  creates  a  demand,  and  a  supply 
soon  follows.  A  gristmill  was  built  at  Indian  Hill  by  Lieut. 
Adonij ah  Taylor  about  1763,  and  a  sawmill  only  two  or  three 
years  later.     The   sawmill    stood   where   the    Sandersons'  mills 


127 

now  are,  but  the  gristmill  was  some  distance  below.  Afterwards 
a  gristmill  was  built  farther  up  the  glen.  About  the  same  time 
a  sawmill  was  built  by  Edward  Brown  at  West  street,  on  the 
site  of  the  present  mill  owned  by  Rufus  Sanderson  &  Son.  And 
somewhat  later,  but  before  1770,  a  gristmill  and  sawmill  were 
set  up  by  Reuben  Belding  on  the  site  known  as  the  Isaac  Frary 
privilege.  A  tan  house  was  built,  probably  in  1763  or  '64,  by 
Paul  Belden. 

For  the  raw  material  of  a  new  supply  of  clothing  they  had 
only  to  wait  till  the  first  clip  of  wool  and  the  first  crop  of  flax 
could  be  prepared.  The  working  up  into  cloth  was  all  done  at 
home.  As  early  as  1709  Hatfield  voted  that  Jeremiah  Waite 
have  liberty  to  set  up  a  fulling  mill  at  West  brook,  reserving 
the  right  to  build  a  sawmill  there,  should  occasion  ever  require, 
but  it  wasn't  done. 

Cotton  from  the  West  Indies  began  to  be  used  in  the  valley 
quite  early.  It  was  spun  upon  a  large  wheel,  like  wool. 
Checks  and  stripes  of  all  cotton,  or  cotton  and  wool,  were  not 
uncommon.  Checked  shirts  were  all  the  fashion  for  men  and 
boys  in  this  neighborhood  for  sometime  before  the  Revolution. 
Checked  aprons  and  striped  bedticks  were  in  use.  But  the 
largest  part  of  the  cloth  for  ordinary  wearing  apparel  and  bed- 
ding was  made  of  wool  or  linen  or  a  mixture  of  the  tvvo,  called 
linsey-woolsey. 

Tow,  which  is  the  refuse  combings  of  flax,  was  used  fOr 
coarse  stuff.  Homemade  tow  cloth  was  of  ready  sale  to  the 
country  merchants,  who  sent  it  to  Hartford  and  other  centres  of 
trade  where  it  was  in  demand.  Many  a  young  wife,  or  older 
daughter  who  expected  scon  to  become  a  wife,  has  got  out  a 
web  of  fine  tow  cloth  and  exchanged  it  for  calico  or  silk,  or  other 
coveted  articles  of  dress  or  household  luxur\'.  The  price  of  tow- 
was  about  three  pence  per  pound,  and  the  common  price  for 
weaving  it  was  six  pence  per  yard.  Yard-wide  tow  cloth  sold 
at  two  shillings  a  yard,  though  the  price  varied  according  to 
circumstances.  Checked  cloths  of  linen  and  woolen  were  also 
an  article  of  traffic  and  were  sometimes  made  in  excess  of  the 
household  wants  and  exchanged  for  such  things  as  the  house- 
wife needed.  Flaxen  yarn  was  quite  commonly  prepared  for 
market  by  such  families  as  had  an  extra  crop,  and  after  the 
Scotch  emigrants,  who  excelled  in  spinning  and  weaving,  set- 
tled in  Pelham,  a  lively  competition  sprang  up  in  both  the  yarn 
and  cloth  trade,  [perhaps   it   would    be   hardly    fair  to  say  that 


128 

■there  'vs'as  a  jealousy  of  the  foreigners]   but  it  is  believed  that  the 
-Scotch  women  carried  the  day,  both  in  fineness  and  evenness  of 
thread  and  cloth. 

When  the  daughters  of  the  first  settlers  were  grown  some 
of  them  became  adepts  at  spinning  and  made  it  a  specialty. 
-Theodora  Scott,  daughter  of  Benjamin,  was  a  noted  spinster, 
both  before  and  after  her  marriage  with  Stephen  Orcutt.  As  a 
matter  partly  of  curiosity  and  partly  characteristic  of  the  time, 
and  showing  how  much  3'arn  of  dififerent  kinds  a  young  family 
•needed  in  a  year,  and  how  much  a  woman  could  do  with  her 
Avheel  for  the  support  of  her  family,  A  single  year's  account  is 
copied  in  full  from  Parson  Wells'  account  book: 

1781.  Theodora   Orcutt,  Cr. 

"Sept.         By  spinning  11  Runs  at  7s  4d,  3  Runs  at  7d  /^o     9     i 

Feb.  II.   By  spinning  4  Runs  for  handkerchiefs,  02     4 

Mar.    2.   By  spinning  8  Runs  linen  yarn  at  7d  048 

Mar.    2.   By  spinning  5  Runs  tow  yarn  o     2     8 

-Mar.    6.   By  spinning  i  Run  fine  tow  yarn  at  7.d  o     o    -7 

Mar.  13.  By  spinning  2  Runs  woolen  yarn,  014 

Apr.    8.   By  spinning  13  Runs  tow  yarn  "  o     6   11 

By  spinning  14  Runs  linen  yam  at  8d  094 

-Apr.  29.  By  spinning  9,^2  Runs  fine  tow  yarn  at  8d  06     .4 

May  13.  By  spinning  2  Runs  thread  for  stockings  at  8d  o     i    ..4 

By  spinning  4  Runs  fine  tow  yarn  at  8d  028 

B}'  spinning  3  Runs  coarse  tow  yarn  at  4  old 

tenor  o     i     7 

By  spinning  3  Runs  coarse  linen  yam  at  6d  016 

June  19.  By  spinning  8  Runs  fine  yarn  for  lawn  080 

By  spinning  22  Runs  coarse  linen  yam  at  6d  one 

June  24.  By  spinning  2  Runs  linen  yarn  at  8d  01    .4 

July    5.  By  spinning  10  Runs  tow  yarn  at  4  old  tenor  054 

9.  By  spinning  3^  Runs  tow  yarn  at  4  old  tenor  o     i   10 

II.  By  spinning  10  Runs  tow  yam  at  6d  05     o 

.25.  By  spinning  3  Runs  fine  linen  yarn  at  8d  020 

By  spinning  2  Runs  coar.se  linen  yarn  at  6d  010 

By  spinning  2  Runs  fine  tow  yam  at  8d  014 

31.  By  spinning  i  Run  fine  tow  yarn  at  8d  008 

Aug.  24.  By  spinning  19  Runs  coarse  linen  chain  096 

•Sept.  1 1.  By  spinning  9  Runs  coarse  tow  yarn 

By  spinning  2  Runs  sent  to  Miss  Graves  o     i      i 
By  spinning  4  Runs  tow  sent  to  Miss  Graves 

8  Runs  low  065 


/  5     4  10 
1781.                       Theodora  Orcutt,                        Dr. 

Sept.  27.  To  4  lbs  9  oz  cheese  at  5d                                  ^o     i  11 

To  cheese  2  lbs  13  oz— Do.  i  lb  14  oz  at  4d      o     i  7 


Sept. 

27 

Oct. 

17- 

Jan. 

10. 

Feb. 

1 1 , 

Mar. 

5- 

April 

:  2. 

8. 

8. 

17. 

xMay 

4- 

30. 

J'ne" 

12. 

July 

5. 

-Aug. 

2. 

129 

To  one  pound  old  tobacco  at  5d  £0     o     5 

To  2;^4  lbs  cheese  at  5d — Do  6  lbs  14  oz  at  4d  o     3     4 

To  3  lbs  9  oz  salt  pork  at  8d  024 

To   r  lb  13  oz  cheese  at  6d  00    10 

Xo  .'2  bushel  of  parsnips  at  2  ore 
To  2   lbs  5  oz  tobacco  at  4d,4  lbs  2  oz  salt  pork  034 

To  9  lbs  10  oz  salt  pork  o     5     9 

To  4  lbs  3  oz  rolled  tobacco  o      i      5 

8.   To  7  lbs  10  oz  salt  pork,  2  lbs  suet  at  6d  061 

To  6  lbs  9  oz  flax  044 

To  6  lbs  fresh  offal,  beef,  i  bushel  parsnips  o     3      i 
To  5  lbs  5  oz  salt  pork;  17th,  8/4  lbs  do.,  2 

lbs  sugar  at  7d  o   10    .2 

To  I  lb  I  oz  rolled  tobacco,  good  o     o   .4 

To  I  lb  do.,  4  Ibn  15  oz  salt  pork  o     3     7 

To  5  lbs  9  oz  salt  pork,  7  lbs  cheese  064 
To  5  lbs  10  oz  salt  pork  at  8d,  one  cheese 

4  lbs  9  oz  055 

24.  To  6  lbs  12  oz  cheese,  7  lbs  10  oz  salt  pork  3  7  3 
To  2  lbs  sheep's  wool  at  is  6d,  i  lb  tow  at  4d  o  3  .4 
To  4^:4!  lbs  salt  pork,  4  lbs  10  oz  cheese  at  4d     o     411 

To  7  pounds  12  ounces  flour  at  is  010 

To  i2s  of  Mr.  Marsh,  old  way  los  o   10     o 

To  I  bushel  Indian  corn  3s  of  Mr.  Graves  030 

23.  To  cash  delivered  your  brother  Elijah  is  id  o     i      i 

To  I  oz  indigo  of  Dr.  Chapin  o     o   10 

To  6  shillings  received  of  Martin  Graves  060 

To  2  bushels  of  rye  of  Mr.  Adkins  at  3s  060 


£5  4  ro 
A  "run"  of  yarn  consisted  of  twenty  knots,  a  knot  was 
composed  of  forty  threads  and  a  thread  was  seventy-four  inches 
in  length,  or  once  round  the  reel.  A  "skein"  of  yarn  consisted 
of  seven  knots.  An  ordinary  day's  work  was  four  skeins,  when 
the  spinner  carded  her  own  wool ;  when  the  wool  was  carded  by 
a  machine,  she  could  as  easily  spin  six  skeins  in  a  day. 

Dyes.  Logwood  and  indigo  were  the  common  dj'es  in  use 
early;  later,  madder  was  sometimes  obtained.  Cloth  made  of 
lamb's  wool  and  of  the  finer  grades  of  sheep's  wool,  as  well  as 
linsey-woolsey  took  a  beautiful  shade  of  color  and  was  much 
prized  by  the  young  ladies  A  red  riding  hood  set  off  to  good 
advantage  the  plump  face  and  natural  tresses  of  the  girls  of  that 
day,  as  did  also  the  white  sunbonnet. 

Many  families  did  all  their  own  tailoring  and  dressmaking. 
Others  employed  some  woman  who  had  special  taste  and  skill 
in  these  arts,  who  would  come  to  the  house  twice  a  year  and  in 
a  week  or  so  cut  and  make,  with  the  help  of  the  inmates,  the 
supply  for  the  season. 


I30 

The  first  professional  weavers  in  town  were  Robert  Aber- 
crombie  in  1779,  Abijah  Marsh  in  '82  and  William  Henderson 
in  '89,  but  they  had  to  depend  for  a  living  in  considerable  part 
on  jobbing  wnth  the  farmers.  Perez  Myrick,  the  clothier,  was 
here  in  1796,  Capt.  Amos  Pratt  in  1800. 

Values  and  Prices.  At  this  date  all  values  were  reck- 
oned in  pounds,  shillings  and  pence.  A  pound  was  equal  to 
three  dollars,  thirty-three  and  one-third  cents,  and  prices  were 
estimated  in  currency  instead  of  grain.  There  was,  however, 
the  "cash  price"  and  the  "barter  price,"  the  latter  one-third 
higher  than  the  former,  and  ordinary  business  was  largely  car- 
ried on  by  exchange  of  produce  and  homemade  manufactures 
and  labor.  The  wages  of  labor  for  an  able-bodied  man  was 
three  shillings  (50  cents)  a  day  in  haying  time,  and  two  shillings 
for  ordinary  farm  work.  The  common  price  of  wheat  was  four 
shillings  per  bushel  ;  rye,  3s;  meslin,  3,s  lod  ;  corn,  2s ;  barley, 
3s;  malt,  2s  5d  ;  flax  seed,  4s  6d  ;  turnips,  8d  ;  parsnips,  2s ; 
good  cheese,  5d  per  pound  ;  salt  pork,  8d  ;  flax,  8d  ;  tow,  4d ; 
sheep's  wool,  6d  ;  hops,  is  ;  indigo,  lod  per  ounce. 

Agriculture.  The  lands  in  the  valley  were  found  well 
adapted  to  wheat  and  this,  with  peas  and  flax,  was  the  first 
crop  raised  on  the  intervals.  When  these  became  exhausted 
wheat  was  raised  on  the  newly  cleared  uplands.  Peas  were  at 
first  a  favorite  and  profitable  crop,  but  the  yield  soon  diminished, 
or  was  kept  up  only  by  manuring,  and  the  pea  bug  made  its 
appearance  and  the  crop  was  neglected.  After  a  while,  beans 
took  the  place  of  peas  as  an  article  of  food,  though  not  of  traflSc. 
Rye  was  not  much  raised  till  the  wheat  crop  began  to  fail  when 
it  became,  and  long  continued  to  be,  an  important  crop.  Barley 
was  raised  chiefly  for  the  purpose  of  malting.  Meslin,  or  mixt- 
ling,  which  was  a  mixture  of  wheat  and  rye,  was  pretty  generally 
raised  and  used  both  for  flour  and  malt.  Indian  com  was, 
however,  the  staple  product  of  this  as  of  all  other  parts  of  the 
country. 

The  season  opened  in  spring  quite  as  early  as  at  the  present 
day.  Plowing  began  commonly  the  second  or  third  week  in 
April.  Peas,  oats  and  rye  were  sowed  by  the  middle  of  the 
month,  barley  and  flax  by  the  first  of  May,  and  corn  planting 
frequently  began  by  May  5th.  This  crop  was  hoed  three  times, 
the  hilling  coming  in  July,  as  soon  as  the  farmers  had  finished 
gathering  the  first  crop  of  English  hay.  The  corn  was  picked 
the    last    week  in    September   and   the   first   week  in  October. 


131 

The}'  comtnenced  to  mow  upland  English  grass  the  last  of  June, 
and  the  meadows  the  second  week  in  Jul\'.  Roweu  was  cut  the 
last  of  August.  Rye.  wheat  and'meslin  were  ready  for  harvest- 
ing about  the  25th  of  July,  barley  a  week  later,  and  oats  still 
later,  though  before  August  15th.  Peas  were  gathered  the  last 
of  August.  Flax  was  commonly  pulled  the  first  week  in  August, 
spread  and  turned  in  September  and  was  ready  to  be  taken  up 
for  "breaking"  the  last  of  October. 

Food.  Early  in  winter  ever>'  family  of  considerable  means 
killed  fatted  hogs  and  later  a  cow,  the  tender  parts  of  which 
were  used  fresh  and  the  balance  dry-salted,  or  put  in  brine  for 
summer  use.  This  salted  meat  was  the  basis  of  the  "boiled 
dish, ' '  which  was  the  common  dinner  of  the  farmers.  \"ery  little 
fresh  meat  was  used  in  the  warm  season.  Next  in  importance, 
perhaps,  came  the  boiled  Indian  pudding,  which  was  regarded 
an  almost  indispensable  part  of  a  good  dinner.  Many  families 
could  say  that  they  had  as  many  puddings  as  there  w^ere  days  in 
the  year.  Indian  was  also  commonly  used  for  hasty  puddings 
and  Johnny,  or  journey  cakes  and  samp. 

Josselyn,  1674,  says  of  Indian  corn  :  "It  is  light  of  diges- 
tion, and  the  English  make  a  kind  of  loblolly  of  it  to  eat  with 
milk,  which  they  call  sampe  ;  they  beat  it  in  a  mortar,  and  sift 
the  flour  out  of  it ;  the  remainder  they  call  homminey,  which 
they  put  in  a  pot  of  two  or  three  gallons,  with  water,  and  boil  it 
over  a  gentle  fire  till  it  is  like  a  hasty-pudding  ;  they  put  this 
into  milk,  and  so  eat  it.  Their  bread,  also,  they  make  of  the 
homminey  so  boiled,  and  mix  their  flour  with  it,  cast  it  into  a 
deep  basin,  in  which  they  form  the  loaf,  and  then  turn  it  out 
upon  the  Peel,  and  presently  put  it  in  the  oven  before  it  spreads 
abroad  ;  the  flour  make  excellent  puddens." 

Milk  and  bread  or  hasty  pudding  and  milk,  was  a  common 
breakfast  and  supper  dish  for  children  and  old  people.  Pea 
soup  or  porridge  and  stewed  peas  had  not  gone  out  of  date, 
though  beans  had  largely  taken  their  place.  Baked  beans,  as 
a  regular  weekly  dish,  came  into  use  as  early  as  this  town  was 
first  settled,  though  it  was  a  dish  unknown  to  our  early  English 
ancestors. 

The  bread  commonly  used  was  made  of  rye  or  meslin  flour, 
and  pie  crust  was  sometimes  made  of  this  flour.  Wheat  flour  was 
used  to  a  considerable  extent  especially  among  the  well-to-do 
farmers.  Bolts  to  run  b}'  water  power  were  set  up  in  the  mills 
and  some  families  had  hand  bolts.     The  flour  was  not  so  fine  as 


132 

that  now  in  use  and,  consequently,  was  much  more  healthful. 
Cakes  and  pastry  made  of  wheat  flour  were  kept  on  hand  for 
"company"  and  for  all  extra  occasions.  Turnips  were  in  uni-- 
Vcrsal  esteem  and  use  as  an  essential  part  of  the  "boiled  dish." 
By  early  sowing  a  summer  vegetable  was  secured,  and  b}'  sow- 
ing a  second  crop  to  succeed  barley,  or  on  new  land  burned 
over,  they  were  tender  and  juic}'  through  the  winter.  Parsnips- 
were  more  rare. 

Pumpkins.  Josselyn  in  his  New  England  Rarities,  pub- 
lished in  1674,  speaks  of  pumpkins,  squashes  and  watermelons- 
as  grown  by  the  Indians  and  also  by  the  English.  He  mentions 
a  peculiar  sort  of  round  yellow  squash  which,  when  cooked  and 
prepared  with  butter,  spice  and  vinegar,  was  "The  ancient  New 
England  standing  dish."  This  is  believed  to  refer  to  our 
pumpkin.  In  his  Wonder  Working  Providence,  written  165T. 
Johnson  says,  "Let  no  man  make  a  jest  of  pumpkins,  for  with- 
this  fruit  the  Lord  was  pleased  to  feed  his  people  till  corn  and 
cattle  were  increased."  Baked  pumpkin  and  milk  was  a  dish 
much  relished  by  many.  The  art  of  drying  pumpkins  seems- to ■ 
have  been  learned  of  the  Indians.  In  spring  and  summer  this 
could  be  soaked  and  used  for  sauce  as  well  as  for  pies.  In  those 
early  days  "pumpkin  parings"  were  as  common  in  the  fall  as- 
"apple  parings"  have  been  since,  and  made  as  merry  an 
evening. 

Apples.     A  few  apples  were   brought    from   Hatfield    and 
Hadley  as  a  luxury,  but  they  did  not,  of  course,  come  into  gen-- 
eral  use  till  the  trees  had  time  to    grow.     The  first   orchards  in 
our  limits  were  planted  bj'  Abraham  Parker  whose  widow  made 
five  barrels  of  cider  in  1771,  by  Joseph  Belding,  who  made  that 
year  four  barrels  of  cider,    by  Benjamin  Scott,  wlio  made  three 
barrels,  and  Martin    Graves,   who   made   five   barrels.     Lieut. 
Ebenezer  Bardwell  probably  set  an  orchard  where  he  first  built 
on  the  Deerfield  road,   and    also   another  where,  he  built  a  mile 
north  of  the  meeting-house.     Parson  Wells  set  trees  extensively 
on  his  land  in  the  center  of  the  town  soon  after  1 77 1 .     He  began' 
to  sell  cider  and  vinegar  as  earl}'  as  1785.     The  price  for  apples- 
was  IS  6d  per  bushel,     for  vinegar,    is   6d   per   gallon  and    for- 
cider,  5s  per  barrel. 

Potatoes.     Potatoes  were  unknown  to  the  first  settlers  of; 
Whately  as  an    article   of   food.     Justin    Morton  stated  to  the 
author,  that  "David  Graves  brought    the  first  potata into  town 
in  his  saddle  bags  on  his  return  from  Boston  about  1765."     Het 


added,  "The  boys  loved  to  go  over  to  the  Straits  and  do  chores 
for  Mr.  Graves  for  he  would  give  them  a  potato  as  pay  and  we 
used  to  carry  it  home  and  plant  it.  I  can  remember  when  they 
did  not  have  any  potatoes  on  the  table  for  dinner." 

"The  culture  of  the  potatoe,  in  this  part  of  America,  was 
first  introduced  by  the  Scotch  who  settled  Nutfield.  now  Lon- 
donderry, N.  H.,  in  1718-21."     [Everett's  Life  ot  Stark. 

The  same  people  settled  Pelham,  Mass.,  about  1740,  and 
started  the  cultivation  of  the  potato  there.  It  found  its  way 
into  Hadley  before  1760.  At  first  it  was  regarded  by  our  peo- 
ple as  an  unfit  article  of  food,  and  the  prejudice  against  it  was 
slow  in  giving  way.  Many  of  the  older  folks  refused  to  taste  it 
till  the  day  of  their  death.  In  some  towns  it  was  looked  upon 
as  a  sort  of  forbidden  fruit.  The  Rev.  Jonathan  Hubbard  of 
Sheffield,  who  died  in  1765,  came  near  being  dealt  with  by  the 
church  for  raising  twenty  bushels  of  potatoes  in  one  year. 
About  1780,  potatoes  are  mentioned  in  Parson  Well's  account 
book,  sold  in  small  quantities  of  from  one-half  to  one  and  two 
bushels,     'l^he  price  was  is  6d  per  bushel. 

Drinks. — Beer,  made  from  malt  and  hops,  was  the  com- 
mon artificial  drink  used  in  families  at  the  time  Whately  was 
settled.  Hops  grew  wild  in  many  places,  but  most  house- 
holders had  a  few  hills  in  their  gardens,  or  beside  the  pigpen. 
Malt  was  made  of  barley  and  meslin  and  a  poor  grade  of  winter 
wheat  mixed  with  chess.  A  small  family  would  lay  in  eight 
bushels  of  malt  for  a  year's  supply,  while  larger  families  would 
lay  in  as  many  as  fifteen  bushels.  There  is  no  record  of  a  malt- 
house  in  Whately.  The  malting  for  our  families  was  done  by 
Joshua  Dickinson  of  Hatfield,  and  afterwards  by  Mr.  Wilkie. 
A  strong  ale  was'sometimes  made,  but  the  beer  for  common  use 
was  weaker,  and  was  brewed  in  the  summer  time  as  often  as 
once  a  week.  Flip  was  made  from  this  weaker  beer.  Barley 
coffee  was  considerably  used  as  a  breakfast  drink — acorn  coffee 
occasionally.  Tea  and  foreign  coffee  were  rarities  at  the  tables 
of  the  common  farmers.  After  apples  became  plenty,  though 
beer  continued  to  be  used,  cider  became  the  family  drink.  Milk 
punch  and  flip  were  the  favorite  drams  for  home  use,  flip  of  the 
tavern  loungers,  and  the  latter  was  sold  by  the  mug.  After 
cider  took  the  place  of  beer,  cider  brandy  largely  took  the  place 
of  flip. 

Maple  Sugar.  The  Indians  appear  to  have  learned  the 
art  of  making  syrup  from    the   sap   of   the   maple.     As  soon  as 


134 

they  obtained  kettles  by  barter  with  the  whites  they  made  sugar 
in  considerable  quantities,  though  of  an  inferior  quality.  They 
had  manufactured  it  as  early  as  1750.  It  was  made  by  the 
Chestnut  Plain  settlers  ever  after  they  became  established, 
though  at  first  in  small  quantities.  Before  the  Revolution  some 
families  depended  on  it  for  their  year's  supply  and,  in  1784  or 
'85,  it  became  to  some  extent  an  article  of  trade.  The  price  at 
first  was  6d  per  pound. 

Maple  sugar  was  made  by  most  of  the  farmers  living  in  the 
central  and  west  parts  of  the  town  from  a  very  early  period.  In 
the  east  part  of  Whately  the  maple  was  the  soft  or  white  maple 
and  the  sap  flowing  from  this  variety  has  but  little  saccharine 
matter  in  it.  Early  in  the  history  of  Hatfield  large  quantities 
of  suoar  were  made  on  Mt.  Esther,  as  well  as  other  localities  in 
Whately. 

The  name  of  Easter  is  the  way  that  old  people  called 
Esther,  and  that  hill  is  still  more  often  spoken  of  as  Easter  than 
any  other  way.  It  gets  its  name  from  some  one  of  the  Hatfield 
dames  who  not  only  had  a  dairy  house,  but  a  sugar  camp  on 
that  natural  home  of  the  sugar  maple*.  It  was  fertile  and  pro- 
duced a  rich  supph*  of  succulent  food  for  the  cows,  and  so  the 
cows  were  driven  to  Easter,  and  the  dair}-ing  was  done  near 
where  the  cows  procured  their  food.  But  who  the  Easter  or 
Esther  was  I  do  not  know. 

A  dairy  house  was  built  by  Salmon  Dickinson,  about  1745 
to  '50,  on  the  lot  owned  by  him  adjoining  a  piece  of  woodland 
in  the  White  pasture.  This  was  about  forty  rods  west  of  Chest- 
nut Plain  road  and  the  land  is  now  owned  by  Robert  Dickinson. 
This  was  used  in  the  spring  for  the  making  of  maple  sugar  and 
later  in  the  season  for  dairy  purposes.  A  daughter  of  Salmon 
Dickinson,  Mary,  married  Samuel  Dickinson  who  built  where 
Samuel  and  Horace  Dickinson  lived  so  long,  now  owned  by  Rob- 
ert Dickinson.  I  have  heard  of  others,  but  only  know  cer- 
tainly of  one. 

John  Crafts  built  a  dair\^  and  sugarhouse  on  Easter  about 
the  time  of  the  siege  of  Boston.  He  bought  a  number  of  cows 
with  the  view  of  taking  them  near  to  Boston  and  supplying  the 
soldiers  with  milk,  but  the  evacuation  of  Boston  by  the  British 
and  the  removal  of  the  army  to  near  New  York  spoiled  his  plans, 
so  he  built  the  dair}-  and  sugarhouse  as  mentioned  above. 
His  sister,  Martha,  did  the  work  there  several  summers  and  I 
have  often  heard  her  relate   many   incidents  of   her  life  there. 


135 

Among  them  that  the  pigeons  were  so  abundant  that  when  she 
fired  a  gun  at  them  one' time,  just  as  they  flew  up  in  a  huddle, 
she  gathered  up  twenty-eight  either  dead  or  more  or  less 
disabled. 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

THE    TOWN    INCORPORATED. 

Before  the  town  of  Whately  was  incorporated,  the  town 
of  Hatfield,  at  a  meeting  held  23  May,  1770,  passed  the  follow- 
ing vote : 

"\'oted  to  set  off  the  town  or  district  to  be  made  from  the 
north  part  of  Hatfield,  on  petition  of  the  northern  inhabitants." 

Then  follows-  the  boundary'  lines  of  the  new  town  as  given 
in  the  act  of  incorporation.  Recorded  in  Hampshire  Registry, 
book  67,  pages  474-475- 

From  this  it  will  be  seen  that  the  vote  was  taken  nearly  a 
year  before  the  incorporation,  showing  that  the  subject  had 
been  agitated  and  the  terms  of  the  division  agreed  upon,  includ- 
ing the  rather  sharp  operation  of  so  carefully  arranging  the  line 
as  to  throw  the  expense  of  maintaining  the  bridge  over  the 
west  brook  on  Chestnut  Plain  road. 

In  this  chapter  it  is  proper  to  give  in  full  the  Act  of  Incor- 
poration, as  copied  from  the  original  parchment,  and  to  insert 
copies  of  letters,  showing  the  origin  of  the  name  adopted,  as 
well  as  other  official  documents  of  permanent  value  and  inter- 
est. All  these  papers  are  copied  from  originals  in  the  office  of 
the  Secretary'  of  the  Commonwealth. 

Afino  Reg7ii  Regis  Georgii  Tertii  Undecimo . 

An  Act  for  erecting  the  northerly  part  of  the  town  of  Hat- 
field, in  the  County  of  Hampshire,  into  a  town  hy  the  name  of 
Whately. 

Whereas  the  inhabitants  of  the  northerly  part  of  the  town 


137 

of  Hatfield,  in  the  County  of  Hampshire,  have  made  application 
to  this  Court,  that  the  northerly,  part  of  said  town  may  be  incor- 
porated into  a  distinct  and  separate  Town, 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Governor,  Council  and  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives, 

That  the  northerly  part  of  the  said  town  of  Hatfield,  which 
is  contained  within  the  lines  and  limits  following,  That  is  to  say. 
Beginning  at  the  northeast  corner  of  the  General  Field,  there 
called  the  North  Meadow  and  Farms,  thence  in  the  north  line  of 
the  said  General  Field  to  the  northwest  corner  thereof,  from  the 
said  northwest  corner  of  that  Field  the  said  line  to  run  in  a  direct 
course  to  the  southeast  corner  of  tbeMill  Swamp,  which  belongs 
to  Moses  Dickinson,  thence  in  the  south  line  of  the  said  Mill 
Swamp  to  the  southwest  corner  thereof,  adjoining  there  to  the 
east  sidfe  of  that  way  called  the  Chestnut  Plain  road,  thence 
south  on  the  east  side  of  the  said  way  to  a  point  where  a  line  at 
right  angles  with  the  east  line  of  said  way  and  one  rod  south  of 
the  bridge  there,  called  the  West  brook  bridge  would  intersect 
the  aforesaid  east  line  of  the  said  way ;  from  the  said  point  of 
intersection  to  continue  such  right  angular  line  as  aforesaid  to 
the  west  side  of  the  said  way ;  thence  to  the  northeast  corner  of 
the  lot  laid  out  to  Samuel  Kellog  in  the  Third  Division  of  Com- 
mons; thence  west  in  the  north  line  of  the  said  lot  to  a  point 
at  which  a  line  parallel  to  and  half  a  mile  distant  from  the 
east  line  of  the  Three  Mile  x^dditional  Grant,  so  called,  would 
intersect  the  said  north  line  of  the  lot  last  mentioned ;  thence 
in  such  parallel  line  last  mentioned  to  the  District  of  Con- 
way ;  thence  in  the  line  dividing  between  Hatfield  and  the 
town  of  Deerfield  and  District  of  Conway  to  the  Connecticut 
River;  thence  on  the  west  side  of  the  said  River  to  the  station 
•  first  mentioned;  be,  and  hereby  is,  erected  into  a  separate 
Town  by  the  name  of  Whately :  And  that  the  inhabitants  of 
the  said  town  be,  and  are  hereby  invested  with  all  the  powers, 
privileges,  and  immunities  that  towns  in  this  Province  enjoy  by 
law,  that  of  sending  a  Representative  to  the  General  Court  only 
excepted :  And  that  the  said  town  of  Whately  shall  have  full 
right  and  liberty  from  time  to  time,  to  join  with  the  town  of 
Hatfield  in  the  choice  of  Representative,  to  be  chosen  of  the 
towns  of  Hatfield  or  the  said  town  of  Whately  indifferently,  to 
represent  them  in  the  General  Assembly  :  And  that  the  said 
town  of  Whately  shall  from  time  to  time  bear  their  proportion 


138 

of  the  expense  of  such  Representatives  with  the  said  town  of 
Hatfield,  accordinjj  to  their  respective  proportion  of  the  Prov- 
ince tax  :  And  the  freeholders  and  other  inhabitants  of  the  said 
town  of  Whately  shall  be  notified  of  the  time  and  place  of  elec- 
tion, by  a  warrant  from  the  selectmen  of  Hatfield  directed  to  the 
constable  or  constables  of  the  said  town  of  Whately,  requiring 
such  constable  or  constables  to  warn  the  freeholders  and  other 
inhabitants  of  the  said  Whately  qualified  to  vote  in  the  choice 
of  a  Representative,  to  meet  at  the  time  and  place  of  election, 
which  warrant  shall  be  returned  by  such  constable  or  constables, 
with  certificate  of  his  or  their  doings  thereon,  to  the  selectmen 
of  the  town  of  Hatfield,  before  the  time  for  holding  every  such 
meeting. 

Provided  nevertheless,  and  be  it  enacted.  That  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  said  town  of  Whatel}'  shall  pa}'  their  proportion 
of  such  Pro\'ince,  County  and  Town  Taxes  as  already  set  on 
them  by  the  town  of  Hatfield,  in  like  manner  as  though  this 
Act  had  not  been  made ;  and  the  constables  chosen  by  the  town 
of  Hatfield,  at  their  annual  meeting  in  March,  anno  domini  one 
thousand  seven  hundred  and  seventy,  are  hereby  fully  author- 
ized and  impowered  to  levy  and  collect  all  such  taxes  assessed 
upon  the  inhabitants  and  lands  in  the  said  town  of  Whately,  and 
are  directed  to  pay  in  the  same  in  the  same  manner  they  would 
and  ought  by  law  to  have  done,  had  not  this  Act  been  made. 

Provided  nevertheless,  and  be  it  further  enacted,  That 
the  treasurer  of  the  town  of  Hatfield  be,  and  he  is  hereby  impow- 
ered and  directed  to  pay  the  town  treasurer  of  the  said  town  of 
Whately,  and  for  the  use  of  the  said  town,  such  a  proportion  of 
the  sum  of  Thirty  Pounds,  which  was  raised  by  the  town  of 
Hatfield  at  their  meeting  on  the  first  Monday  in  December  last, 
for  providing  Preaching  in  the  said  town  of  Hatfield  in  the  year 
then  next  ensuing,  as  has  been  assessed  upon  the  inhabitants 
and  lands  within  the  limits  of  the  said  town  of  Whately,  agree- 
able to  the  List  last  taken  by  the  assessors  of  Hatfield  ;  and  the 
treasurer  of  the  said  town  of  Whately  is  hereby  fully  authorized 
and  impowered  to  demand  and  receive  of  the  treasurer  of  Hat- 
field such  proportion  of  the  said  Thirty  Pounds  as  aforesaid. 

And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  William  Williams,  Esq., 
be,  and  hereby  is  impowered  and  directed  to  issue  his  warrant 
to  some  principal  inhabitant  of  thesaid  town  of  Whately,  requir- 
ing him  to  warn  the  inhabitants  of  the  said  Whately,  qualified 


U9 

as  hereinafter  mentioned,  to  meet  at  some  suitable  time  and 
place  in  said  town,  to  choose  such  officers  as  towns  in  this  Prov- 
ince are  impowered  and  enjoined  by  law  to  choose  in  the  month 
of  March  annually,  which  they  are  hereby  impowered  to  choose 
at  such  meeting. 

And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  the  inhabitants  of  the  said 
town  of  ^V'hately,  who  in  the  last  tax  in  the  town  of  Hatfield 
were  rated  one-half  part  so  much  for  their  Estates  and  Faculties 
as  for  a  single  Poll,  shall  be  allowed  to  vote  in  their  first  meet- 
ing, and  such  other  meetings  as  may  be  called  in  the  said  town 
of  Whately,  until  a  valuation  of  Estates  shall  be  made  by  assess- 
ors there. 

And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  no  person  happening  to 
reside  or  be  within  the  limits  of  the  said  town  of  Whately,  at 
the  end  of  the  present  session  of  this  Court,  who  would  not  then 
have  become  an  inhabitant  of  Hatfield  had  not  this  Act  been 
made,  shall  become  an  inhabitant  of  the  said  town  of  Whately, 
or  have  legal  claim  or  right  to  any  of  the  privileges  of  an  inhab- 
itant there,  anything  herein  before  contained  to  the  contrary 
notwithstanding. 

And  the  said  town  of  Whately  shall  be,  and  hereby  is  fully 
impowered  to  proceed  with  all  such  persons  residing  there,  who 
at  the  end  of  the  said  present  session  of  this  Court,  would  not 
have  been  inhabitants  of  Hatfield,  in  the  same  manner  the  town 
of  Hatfield  then,  or  at  any  time  before,  might  have  proceeded 
with  them  touching  their  removal.  Consented  to  by  the  Gov- 
ernor, April  24,  [as  appears  from  the  Journal,  not  actually 
signed  till  April  26],  1771. 

Thomas  Sanderson,  Justin  Morton  and  Ebenezer  Barnard 
asked  consent  of  the  town,  i  Dec,  1806,  to  be  set  off" to  Whately, 
giving  the  bounds.  The  town  refused  its  consent.  The  peti- 
tioners, failing  in  that,  applied  to  the  General  Court  and  in  Jan., 
1808,  the  Legislature  ordered  notice  to  be  served  on  Deerfield  and 
Whately.  Deerfield  held  a  town  meeting  and  chose  a  commit- 
tee of  three  to  oppose  the  petition.  The  petitioners  sent  another 
petition,  dated  May  8,  1S09.  Again  Deerfield  opposed  it,  and 
again  was  an  order  of  notice  served  on  both  towns.  Deerfield 
chose  another  committee  of  three  of  her  most  influential  citizens 
to  oppose  the  annexation  to  Whately,  but  the  state  granted  the 
prayer  of  the  exultant  petitioners  and,  5  March,  1816,  the  deed 
was  done,  though  bitterly  opposed  by  Deerfield. 


140 


An  Act  to  set  off  Thomas  Sanderson  and  others  from 
Deerfield  and  annex  them  to  Whately. 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives 
in  General  Court  assembled,  and  by  authority  of  the  same, 
That  from  and  after  the  passage  of  this  Act,  Thomas  Sanderson, 
Ebenezer  Barnard  and  Justin  Morton,  with  their  polls  and 
estates,  together  with  the  lands  and  the  inhabitants  thereon, 
within  the  limits  hereafter  described — that  is  to  say,  Beginning 
at  the  southwest  corner  of  Thomas  Sanderson's  land  in  the  north 
line  of  Whately,  thence  running  northerly  on  a  line  parallel  with 
the  original  east  line  of  Conway  to  the  north  line  of  Lot  Num- 
ber Sixteen  in  Long  hill,  west  Division,  so  called,  thence  run- 
ning eastwardly  on  the  north  line  of  said  Lot  No.  i6  to  the  east 
end  of  Justin  Morton's  land,  thence  southerly  on  the  ea.st  line 
of  Justin  Morton's  land,  to  the  south  line  of  William  Tryon's 
land,  thence  eastwardly  on  the  south  line  of  William  Tr^-on's 
land,  to  the  east  side  of  the  County  road  leading  from  Deerfield 
to  Whately,  thence  southwardly  on  the  east  line  of  said  County 
road,  to  the  north  line  of  Whateh-,  including  all  lands  within 
the  said  running  line  and  the  north  line  of  Whately,  be,  and 
they  hereby  are  set  off  from  the  town  of   Deerfield,  and  annexed 

to  the  town  of  Whately. 

Passed  5  March,  18 10. 

The  sixteen  Deerfield  lots,  contained  in  the  section  annexed 
to  W'hately  in  March,  1810,  were  as  follows: 

1 2  3/4  rods  wide. 
18       rods  wide. 

55^  rods  wide. 
19/^  rods  wide. 
21  rods  wide. 
12      rods  wide. 

4>^  rods  wide. 
15  rods  wide. 
19/4  rods  wide. 
19^  rods  wide. 
13^  rods  wide. 

9      rods  wide. 

6  rods  wide. 
15  rods  wide. 
1054  rods  wide. 
15      rods  wide. 


No. 

I 

Nathaniel  Shurtliff, 

No. 

2 

Samuel  Hinsdale, 

No. 

3 

Thomas  Root, 

No. 

4 

Joseph  Selden, 

No. 

5 

William  Barnard, 

No. 

6 

John  Hinsdale, 

No. 

7 

Thomas  Selden, 

No. 

8 

Thomas  Allison, 

No. 

9 

Joshua  Catlin, 

No. 

10 

Zacharia  Field, 

No. 

II 

Joseph  Brown, 

No. 

12 

Richard  Weller, 

No. 

13 

Thomas  Hunt, 

No. 

14 

David  Belding, 

No. 

15 

John  Broughton, 

No. 

16 

Benjamin  Barrett, 

216 


The  above  lots  are  in  what  is  known  as  Long  hill  division 
and  the  names  are  those  of  the  original  proprietors,  about  1700. 


141 

The  Name  of  the  Town.  It  is  a  singular  fact  that  the 
origin  of  the  name,  Whately,  has  been  hitherto  wholly  un- 
known. No  tradition,  or  conjecture,  has  existed  in  relation  to 
it.  The  memory  of  p  single  individual,  in  1848,  furnished  the 
writer  with  the  following  hint  :  Mr.  Oliver  Graves  (born  1761) 
said,  "I  was  ten  years  old  when  Mr.  Salmon  White  came  to  our 
house  and  read  the  warrant  for  the  first  town  meeting.  My 
father  asked  him  why  it  was  called  Whately  ?"  He  answered, 
"It  is  the  name  of  a  man."  The  inference  from  this  incident, 
as  well  as  from  the  absence  of  any  tradition,  is,  that  the  name 
was  not  suggested  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  territory-.  An  ex- 
amination of  the  records  and  files  of  the  General  Court  for  1771, 
renders  it  pretty  certain  that  no  petition  for  an  Act  of  incorpo- 
ration, signed  by  residents,  was  sent  in.  The  wording  of  the 
preamble  seems  to  imply  that  there  was  no  such  petition  "Have 
made  application  to  this  Court,"  probably  through  Israel  Wil- 
liams, Esq.,  the  representative  from  Hatfield  for  that  year. 
And  the  original  draft  of  the  Act  of  incorporation  discloses  the 
singular  fact,  that  the  bill  passed  through  its  several  read- 
ings in  the  lower  House,  and  received  the  concurrence  of  the 
Council,  with  the  name  left  in  blank.  The  inference  is,  that 
the  name  was  not  selected  by  the  House  of  Representatives  nor 
by  the  Council.  And  further  examination  shows  that  the  name 
was  not  inserted  on  the  parchment  by  the  engrossing  clerk,  but 
was  inserted  by  the  Governor,  in  his  customary  handwriting 
when  it  was  presented  to  him  for  his  official  signature.  This 
gives  the  clew  to  the  man  for  whom  the  town  received  its  name. 

From  letters  preserved  in  the  State  Archives,  it  appears 
that  a  gentleman  by  the  name  of  Thomas  Whately  was  at  this 
time  connected  with  the  British  government  ;  that  he  took  a 
special  interest  in,  and  was  thoroughly  conversant  with  the 
affairs  of  the  Massachusetts  Colony,  and  was  an  intimate  friend 
and  trusted  adviser  of  Governor  Hutchinson.  There  is  hardly 
room  for  doubt  that  the  Governor  inserted  the  name  W^hately  in 
the  Act  of  incorporation,  out  of  compliment  to  his  London  friend. 

The  letter  above  alluded  to  is  here  inserted,  partly  for  its 
historic  value,  as  throwing.light  on  the  British  view  of  our  polit- 
ical affairs,  and  partly  as  a  memorial  of  a  man  of  whom  nothing 
has  hitherto  been  known  by  us,  and  in  whom  every  citizen  of 
the  town  must  feel  a  personal  interest : 

London,  nth  February,  1769. 

Sir: — I  have  deferred  answering  your  favors  of  17  October 


142 

and  lo  December  till  the  consideration  of  American  affairs  was 
over  :  I  am  sorry  to  say  how  little  has  been  done  ;  I  am  afraid 
no  more  is  intended.  I  will  therefore  give  you  a  full,  tho'  I 
doubt  not  a  satisfactory  account  of  our  proceedings,  as  I  appre- 
hend for  ye  winter. 

The  manner  in  which  Mr.  Danforth's  petition  was  received 
appears  in  the  votes  of  23  January.  The  manner  in  which  it 
had  been  obtained  was  known  to  ye  Ministry-,  and  stated  to  the 
House;  but  their  great  desire  to  admit  some  American  petition 
induced  them  to  receive  it,  entering  it  only  as  a  petition  of  indi- 
viduals, not  of  the  Council;  to  some,  however,  the  implied 
assertion  of  the  Right,  was  an  insuperable  objection  ;  the  Minis- 
ters overlooked  it,  and  yet  the  next  day  insisted  on  rejecting  a 
petition  of  Mr.  Bollan,  tho'  perfectly  innocent,  and  tho'  because 
it  was  so,  Mr.  Grenville  with  many  more  strongly  pressed  to 
have  it  received. 

These  were  all  the  material  events  previous  to  the  consider- 
ation of  the  Resolution  and  Address  sent  down  by  the  Lords. 
The  Commons  have  agreed  to  them,  with  some  amendments  in 
point  of  accuracy.  I  cannot  pretend  to  state  to  you  all  that 
passed  in  two  days"  debate  upon  them  ;  tho'  inefficacy  and  the 
locality  of  the  plan  proposed  were  much  insisted  on ;  Lord 
Rockinham's  and  Lord  Shelburne's  friends  objected  to  the 
whole ;  Mr.  Grenville,  tho'  he  ridiculed  and  disapproved  of  such 
plan  for  such  a  crisis  as  much  as  any  body,  and  particularly 
urged  the  absurdity  of  exasperating  a  deluded  people  with  angn,' 
words,  while  the  Tameness  of  the  measure  would  encourage 
them,  yet  as  the  facts  had  been  stated  by  the  Lords,  he  would 
not,  by  a  negative  to  the  Resolutions,  give  any  reason  to  sup- 
pose that  he  countenanced  the  transactions  therein  condemned: 
nor,  on  the  other  hand,  by  assenting  to  the  Address,  shew  any 
approbation  of  a  measures  so  inadequate  to  the  occasion.  You 
will  easily  see  what  must  have  been  suggested  on  these  topics. 
I  wall  not  trouble  you  with  arguments  which  so  obviously  occur, 
but  confine  myself  to  what  was  said  on  the  Statute  of  Henry  the 
Eighth.  They  who  oppose  the  whole  plan,  generally  not  uni- 
versally, disputed  the  application  of  the  Act  to  the  Colonies:  it 
was  passed  before  they  existed  :  the  Title  and  the  preamble  pre- 
vent such  an  application,  unless  upon  admission  that  ye  Colonies 
are  not  within  the  King's  dominions.  Some  doubted  whether  it 
was  an  existing  law,  but  that  point  was  given  up.  Mr.  Gren- 
ville declared  that  he,  upon  the  words  of  the  preamble  and  title 
had  been  inclined  to  think  the  Statute  not  applicable,  and  won- 
dered the  Ministers  had  not  rather  rested  on  the  Statute  of 
Edward  the  Sixth,  which  was  less  doubtful  ;  but  said  that  the 
precedents  and  authorities  cited  by  the  Attorney  General  had 
convinced  him  that  the  Act  did  extend  to  every  part  of  the 
King's  dominions.  Those  authorities  were  many.  InO'rooke's 
Case,  reported  in  Anderson,  the  twelve  Judges  were  unanimously 
of  opinion  that  the  Act  extended  to  treasons   committed  in  Ire- 


143 

land,  tho'  there  is  a  separate  parliament,  and  ever}'  species  of 
Jurisdiction  for  constituting  and  trying  any  offences.  Lord  Hale 
in  many  passages  maintains  that  treasons  committed  in  Ireland 
and  Guernsey  and  in  the  Remains  of  the  Duchy  of  Normandy 
are  triable  under  that  Statute  in  England  :  Even  a  Peer  of  Ire- 
land, tho'  amenable  there  only  before  the  House  of  Lords,  may 
be  and  often  has  been  tried  here  by  a  common  Jury.  At  the 
latter  end  of  Oueen  Anne's  reign,  one  Kirbv  was  bro't  from 
Antigua  to  be  tried  on  that  statute  here,  for  a  treason  commited 
there.  The  proceeding  was  on  an  opinion  of  >rort'ney,  Attorney 
General,  and  Raymond.  Solicitor  General,  and  passed  ye  Coun- 
cil, when  Lord  Chancellor  Harcourt  and  Lord  Chancellor  J. 
Parker,  afterwards  Lord  Chancellor  Macclesfield,  were  present  ; 
he  was  indicted  and  pleaded,  as  appears  from  ve  Record  of 
King's  Bench,  but  afterwards  broke  prison.  Not  one  Lawyer  in 
the  House  supported  a  doctrine  contrary  to  such  authorities  : 
As  I  cite  them  from  memory,  you  will  pardon  any  little  inaccu- 
racies: In  ye  material  points  I  am  exact,  and  I  thought  you 
would  wish  to  be  furnished  with  them  as,  after  debate  upon  the 
subject  here,  I  conclude  it  will  be  a  matter  of  controversy  with 
you. 

I  do  not  hear  of  any  design  to  bring  in  a  bill  to  explain  or 
amend  ye  Mutiny  Act,  though  I  have  not  been  wanting  to  sig- 
nify thro'  proper  channels  ye  difficulties  which  you  have  in- 
formed me  occur  in  ye  execution  of  it :  but  perhaps  they  stay  till 
further  experience  has  shown  ye  whole  extent  of  what  may  be 
necessary  to  alter.  I  fear  all  parliamentary  proceedings  rela- 
tive to  America  are  at  an  end  for  the  present,  and  that  this,  with 
the  long  letter  I  wrote  you  on  the  14  Nov.  is  the  whole  history 
of  ye  session.  As  to  ye  Ministerial  measures,  tho'  when  Parlia- 
ment was  called  upon  to  approve  of  them  ye  Ministers  were  in 
return  called  upon  to  declare,  whether  they  meant  to  abide  by 
them,  especially  ye  suspension  of  ye  Assemblies,  no  answer 
could  be  obtained,  but  there  has  not  appeared  the  least  idea  of 
withdrawing  ye  Troops  from  Boston,  nor  will  the  last  Revenue 
Law  be  repealed,  or  I  believe  altered,  whilst  the  right  to  impose 
duties  is  questioned.  The  opinion  without  doors  on  the  claims 
of  the  Colonies,  and  the  behaviour  of  ye  Bostonians  seem  to  me 
the  same  as  they  have  been  for  some  time  past,  and  the  concur- 
rence of  ye  other  Colonies  in  the  Principles  of  Boston  only  con- 
firm those  opinions. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  with  great  respect.  Your  most  obe- 
dient, humble  serv., 

THOMAS  WHATELV. 

To  The 

Honorable  Lieut.  Gov.  Hutchinson. 

Since  these  pages  were  prepared  for  the  press,  the  following 
letter  has  been  discovered  among  some  old  papers  in  the  State 
Department.     It  explains  itself: 


144 

Boston,  14  May,  177 1. 

Dr.  Sik: — Permit  me  to  congratulate  you  upon  the  honour 
done  you  in  your  late  appointment.  It  is  what  I  have  long 
wished  for,  and  I  hope  the  junction  of  so  many  of  Mr.  Gren- 
ville's  friends  will  strengthen  Go^•ernment  and  render  the  pres- 
ent Administration  of  long  continuance.  A  durable  Ministry, 
and  a  few  examples  in  England  of  punishment  for  the  seditious 
principles  and  practices  so  prevalent  there,  would  discourage 
the  disturbers  of  the  peace  here.  They  triumph  when  their  cor- 
respondents write  that  you  are  in  danger  of  a  great  convulsion  : 
as  soon  as  their  hopes  of  it  are  over,  they  are  depressed  and 
hide  their  heads. 

Among  the  Acts  passed  in  the  late  session  of  the  Geiieral 
Court,  you  will  see  one  for  incorporating  a  Township  by  the 
name  of  Whately.  This  is  but  a  poor  mark  of  respect.  I  wish 
it  may  be  in  my  power  to  give  you  further  proof  of  my  being, 
with  very  great  regard  and  esteem. 

Sir,  Your  most  humble  and  most  obedient  servant, 

T.  HUTCHINSON. 
Thomas  Whately. 

There  is  a  natural  desire  to  know  who  lived  in  Whately, 
who  owned  houses  here,  and  what  were  their  pecuniar^'  circum- 
stances when  the  town  first  started.  And  as  a  full,  accurate 
and  reliable  account  of  the  condition  of  affairs  at  this  date,  the 
following  List  of  the  Polls  and  Estates  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 
Town  is  here  subjoined.  Though  the  month  is  not  given,  it  was 
e\ddently  made  out  in  May,  1771.  It  will  be  seen  that  some 
early  settlers  are  not  included  in  the  list.  Lieut.  Ebenezer 
Bardwell  was  at  this  date  a  resident  of  Deerfield.  Adonijah 
Taylor  and  Gideon  Dickinson  were  living  north  of  the  line,  in 
what  was  afterwards  annexed  to  the  town  from  Deerfield.  Noah 
Wells  had  probably  removed,  temporarily,  to  the  Equivalent 
Lands,  afterwards  Hawley.  Joel  Dickinson  had  removed  to 
Conway.     Capt.  Lucius  Allis  had  removed  to  Conway. 


H5 


Polls  and  Estates,  Whately, 


Polls.  2^T'i'il5  Horses.  Cows.  O.xen. 


Daniel  Morton 
Oliver  Graves 
David  Graves 
Elisha  Belding 
John  Crafts 
Joseph  Crafts 
Israel  Graves 
Simeon  Wait 
Henry  Stiles 
Oliver  Morton 
Benj.  Smith,  Jr. 
Moses  Crafts 
Peter  Train 
Edward  Brown 
Abraham  Turner 
Benoni  Crafts 
Paul  Belden 
Ezra  Turner 
Hosea  Curtis 
Joseph  Kellogg 
Joseph  Belding,  Jr. 
Nathaniel  Sartle 
Thomas  Sanderson 
Nathaniel  Coleman 
Abel  Parker 
Jonathan  Smith 
Elisha  Frary 
Lemuel  Wells 
John  Wait 
Joseph  Scott 
Seth  Wait 
Thomas  Crafts 
Philip  Smith 
David  Scott 
Noah  Bardwell 
Paul  Smith 
Nathan  Graves 
Wid.  Lois  Parker 
John  Wait,  Jr. 
Joshua  Beldin 


2 
2 


I77I. 

Busliels    No.  acres 
Grain.  Tillage  Land. 


O 

2 

2 
2 


2 

4 


3  sheep 
2 
6 

3 
2 

2 

2 
2 


2 
2 

2 

2 

I 

2 

2 


2 

2 
2 
I 
2 


159 

130 

80 

60 

15 
15 

JO 
2CO 

64 

85 
48 

45 
26 

24 

35 

24 
16 


12 

13 
12 

II 

3 
3 


r  1/ 


20 


854 


4 

4 

5 

3 
2 


0 

2 

150 

23 

2 

60 

12 

3 

2 

164 

24 

I 

2 

140 

20 

2 

2 

39 

6 

3 

2 

30 

5 

2 

I 

I 

132 

22 

I 

84 

14 

3 

4 

140 

20 

2 

2 

80 

8 

2 

86 

16 

2 

4 

88 

II 

4 

4 

48 

6 

I 

32 

4 

3 

2 

56 

8 

3 

4 

35 

7 

2 

I 

21 

3 

3 

140 

20 

146 


Benjamin  Scott 
Renj.  Scott,  Jr. 
Elisha  Smith 
Martin  Graves 
Salmon  White 
Perez  Bardwell 
Samuel  Carley 
Benjamin  Smith 
Thomas  Allen 
William  Kellog 
John  Graves 
Elihu  Graves 
David  Scott,  Jr. 

NON-RESIDENTS. 

Elisha  Allis 
Nathaniel  Hawkes 


Polls 

2 
I 
2 
I 
I 
I 
I 

3 
I 

I 

I 

I 

I 


Hou 


'"g  Horses.  Cows.  Oxen.  rr-nlf'Tn^o^'c; ''?''''% 
ses.  Grain.  Tillaare  Land. 


'2 
I 
I 
I 
I 
2 


J 

I 

2 
I 

3 
I 

I 

I 
I 
I 


140 

23 

119 

17 

80 

10 

71 

ID 

88 

I  I 

56 

8 

66 

1 1 

12 

2 

40 


Acres  Aovp^ 

Mowing  ^ 

Daniel  Morton  12  20 

Oliver  Graves  6  12 

David  Graves  3  5 

Elisha  Belding  2  4 

John  Crafts  10 

Israel  Graves  4  26 

Simeon  Wait  13  20 

Henr>'  Stiles  6  8 

Oliver  Morton  11  25     " 

Benj.  Smith,  Jr.  9 

Peter  Train  6  20 

Edward  Brown  6  20 

Abraham  O^umer  16  4 

Benoni  Crafts  6  7 

Paul  Belding  6  12 

Ezra  Turner  i  i}^ 

Hosea  Curtis  6 

Jos.  Belding,  Jr.  10  10 

Nathaniel  Sartle  4^ 

Thos.  Sanderson  9  3 

Abel  Parker  4  10 


Acres 


Acres 
Moving  I'-^--g^ 


Jona.  Smith  6 

Elisha  Frary  7 
Moses  Frary 

John  Wait  7 

Joseph  Scott  2 

Seth  Wait  6 

Thomas  Crafts  9 

Philip  Smith  6 

David  Scott  18 

Noah  Bardwell  6 

Paul  Smith  3 

Benj.  Scott  7 

Elisha  Smith  3 

Martin  Graves  5 

Salmon  White  1 1 

Perez  Bardwell  20 
John  Graves 
David  Scott,  Jr. 

Nathan  Graves  11 
Wid.  Lois  Parker   6 

Joshua  Beldin  10 


7 
12 

6 

2 

5 
16 

8 

6 

12 

30 
20 


3 

18 

8 

30 
6 

18 

3 
30 


147 


Acres      , 

NON-RESID  TS    Enuli^b  p;,,Vura-e 
Mowins<     '^-'•"'"o^ 

Acres 
Engli.sh  p, 
Mowing 

Acres 
[isturage 

Elisha  Allis         '  20 

60 

Eliakim  Field 

14 

Nathaniel  Hawks 

4 

Medad  Field 

ID 

Reuben  Belden 

8 

Samuel  Church 

8 

Gideon  Dickinson 

3/2 

Noah  Nash 

30 

Simeon  Morton 

12 

Elijah  Dickinson 

16 

Noah  Coleman 

30 

Benj.   Wait 

8 

Abner  Dickinson 

16 

Jonathan  Morton 

II 

Eleazer  Frary 

2 

Moses  Wait 

4 

Daniel  Graves 

I  r 

Israel  Williams  Esq. 

30 

Sam'l  Dickinson    14 

30 

David  Morton 

16 

Rem'br'ce  Bard  well 

30 

Oba.   Dickinson 

20 

Eleazer  Allis 

3 

Mary  Smith 

20 

Elijah  Morton 

3 

Joseph  Smith 

6 

Joseph  Billings 

8 

Elisha  Wait 

2 

David  Billings 

8 

Benj.  Wait,  Jr. 

9 

Jonathan  Allis 

28 

Moses  Frary 

6 

Four  residents  were  not  taxed,  viz. :  Rev.  Rufus  Wells, 
Joseph  Sanderson,  Sr.,  Joseph  Belden,  Sr.,  Richard  Chauncey. 
Of  the  non-residents.  Eleazer  Frar>'  had  6  acres  of  tillage  land 
and  raised  48  bushels  of  grain;  Daniel  Graves  had  5^2  acres 
and  38  bushels;  Obadiah  Dickinson  had  7  acres  and  42  bushels; 
Mary  Smith  had  10  acres  and  90  bushels;  Benjamin  Wait,  Jr., 
had  3  acres  and  21  bushels.  Edward  Brown  had  a  sawmill ; 
Reuben  Belden,  a  sawmill  and  gristmill;  Paul  Belden  had  a  tan 
house. 

Summary. 

Number  of  Polls,  ratable  71 

Number  of  Polls,  not  ratable  4 

Number  of  dwelling  houses  40 

Number  of  tan  houses  i 

Number  of  horses  45 

Number  of  cows  99 

Number  of  oxen  64 

Number  of  sheep  375 

Number  of  swine,  over  three  months  old  56 

Number  of  bushels  of  grain  raised  3495 

Number  of  barrels  of  cider  made  17 

Number  of  tons  of  English  hay  182^ 

Number  of  sawmills,  2  ;  gristmills,  i  3 

Number  of  non-resident  land  owners  32 


148 


Though  a  little  out  of  their  proper  places  yet,  for  the  sake 
of  ready  comparison,  the  following  certificate  and  assessors  re- 
turn are  inserted  here  : 

This  may  certify  that  the  number  of  rtales  from  sixteen 
years  old  and  upwards  in  the  town  of  Whately  is  one  hundred 
and  six  (106)  white  persons  and  two  (2)  negroes. 

JOSEPH  BELDING,       )  Selectmen 


JOHN  SMITH, 
OLIVER  GRAVES, 


of 
)    Whately. 


Whately,  Jan.  20,  177 


/  ■ 


VALUATION    OF    ESTATES    AND    POLLS    IN    WHATELY,    AS    ESTAB- 
LISHED   BY    THE    GENERAL    COURT,     I786. 


Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 
Number  o 


Polls,  ratable 

Polls,  not  ratable 

dwelling  houses 

tan  house 

gristmill — Samuel  Belden 

sawmills 

barns 

young  neat  cattle 

horses — 3  years  old  and  upwards 

oxen 

cows — 3  years  old  and  upwards 

sheep 

swine — over  three  months  old 

barrels  of  cider 

acres  of  tillage  land 

acres  of  English  mowing 

acres  of  fresh  meadow 

acres  of  pasture  land 

acres  of  woodland 

acres  unimproved  land 

acres  of  unimprovable  land 


Stock  in  Trade 


135 

6 

68 

I 

I 

45 

177 

85 
88 

171 
264 
149 
96 
6i9>4 
220 
256 
1608^ 
161 

5325 
953 

£   57 


The  first  meeting  for  the  election  of  town  oflBcers  was  held 
at  the  house  of  Daniel  Morton,  innholder,  May  6,  1771.  The 
officers  chosen  were  as  follows:  Salmon  White,  town  clerk  and 
treasurer;  Joseph  Belding,  Jr.,  and  Henr}'  Stiles,  constables ; 
John  Wait,  Simeon  Wait,  Edward  Brown,  Salmon  White  and 
Philip  Smith,  selectmen;  Edward  Brown,  Philip  Smith  and  Sal- 
mon White,    assessors;    Thomas  Crafts,   sealer  of  weights  and 


149 

measures;  Thomas  Sanderson,  sealer  of  leather;  Peter  Train, 
Oliver  Graves  and  Benj.  Smith,  surveyors  of  highways;  Israel 
Graves,  Noah  Bardwell  and  John  Wait.  Jr.,  fence  viewers ;  Benj. 
Scott,  Jr..  John  Brown  and  Joseph  Crafts,  field  drivers;  Elisha 
Belding  and  Noah  Bardwell,  tythingmen  ;  Benj.  Smith,  Perez 
Bardwell  and  Abraham  Turner,  wardens;  John  Crafts,  Martin 
Graves  and  Elisha  Frary,  deer  reeves  :  Thomas  Crafts,  surveyor 
of  shingles ;  Peter  Train,  Gad  Smith  and  Lemuel  Wells,  hog- 
reeves. 

The  leading  interests  of  the  town  will  be  treated  in  sepa- 
rate chapters,  but  some  votes,  characteristic  of  the  times,  which 
were  passed  at  the  earlier  meetings,  are  here  copied  ; 

Voted,     To  build  a  pound  forty  feet  square. 

Voted,  That  the  Selectmen  provide  a  Law  book  and  a 
Record  book. 

Voted,     To  provide  a  grave  cloth  for  the  use  of  the  town. 

Voted,  That  David  Scott  and  Joseph  Scott  be  a  Committee 
to  provide  two  biers  for  the  use  of  the  town. 

Voted,  That  hogs  may  run  at  large  from  May  i  to  October 
15,  being  properly  j-oked  and  rung. 

Voted,  To  let  two  milch  cows  to  a  family  run  on  the 
Commons. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  last  section  of  the  Act  of  Incorporation 
provided  that  the  town  shall  have  full  power  "To  proceed  with" 
persons  "Touching  their  removal."  This  provision  shows  the 
extreme  care  taken  by  our  fathers  to  guard  the  rights  and  priv- 
ileges of  citizenship.  They  wanted  in  ever>'  citizen  moral 
worth  and  habits  of  industry'  and  economy,  and  a  purpose  of 
permanent  settlement.  Hence  the  custom  prevailed  generally 
throughout  the  Province  of  "Warning  out  of  town"  all  transient 
persons,  all  who  did  not  purchase  real  estate  and  all  strangers 
not  vouched  for  by  some  inhabitant.  And  when  a  stranger 
came  into  town  to  reside  the  person  into  whose  family  or  tene- 
ment he  came  was  required  to  give  notice  to  the  Selectmen  of 
the  name  of  the  person  or  persons,  the  place  from  which  he 
came,  his  pecuniary-  circumstances  and  the  date  of  his  coming 
to  town.  The  authorities  would  then,  at  their  discretion,  allow 
him  to  remain  or  order  him  to  be  "Warned  and  cautioned  as  the 
law  directs."  A  person  so  warned  was  prevented  from  gaining 
a  settlement  and  the  town  escaped  liability  for  his  support.  In 
several  instances  this  town  availed  itself  of  the  right  in  question 
as  the  following  warrant  will  show : 


i5C> 

Hampshire,  ss.  To  either  of  the  constables  of  the  town 
of  Whatelj-,  in  said  county,  Greeting:  In  the  name  of  the 
Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts,  you  are  directed  to  warn  Sam- 
uel Brass  and  Sabra  Andross,  transient  persons,  lately  come  into 
this  town  for  the  purpose  of  abiding  therein,  not  having  the 
town's  consent  therefor,  that  they  depart  the  limits  thereof  with 
their  children  and  others  under  their  care,  within  fifteemdays, 
and  make  due  return  of  your  doings    to    the  clerk  of  the  town. 

Signed  by  the  Selectmen. 

The  names  of  others,  "warned"  at  different  times  are: 
Robert  Durfy,  Jonathan  Bacon,  John  Lamson,  Benjamin  Bacon, 
Jonathan  Clark,  Zebina  Lyon,  Enoch  Bird,  Noah  Coleman, 
William  Brown,  William  Brown,  Jr.,  EHsha  Frary,  Jr.,  Josiah 
Brown,  Nathaniel  Coleman,  Isaac  Frar^^  Thomas  Castwell. 
Some  of  these  became  permanent  residents  and  were  among  our 
best  citizens. 


Rev.  Rufus  Wells. 


CHAPTER  IX. 

ECCLESIASTICAL    HISTORY. 

In  anticipation  of  a  town  organization  steps  had  been  taken 
to  secure  regular  Sabbath  ordinances.  In  the  February  preced- 
ing, David  Scott,  acting  in  behalf  of  the  others,  had  engaged 
Rufus  Wells  of  Deerfield,  to  preach,  and  he  had  supplied 
them  from  March  6  to  April  28.  The  first  entry  in  Mr.  Wells' 
account  book  gives  the  full  history  of  this  preliminary  transac- 
tion: 

1771.  David  Scott  Dr. 

Mar.  6  to  Apr.  28.  To  preaching  to  the  people  in 
Whately  eight  Sabbaths,  by  your  engagement, 
on  whom  my  demand  is,  and  not  ye  said  people        ^8     o     o 

1771.  Contra  Cr. 

April  29.     By  cash  received  of  Mr.  Brown 
May  15.     By  cash  received  of  Daniel  Morton 
May  17.     By  cash  received  of  Elisha  Frary 
June  5.     By  cast  received  of  yourself 
July  9.     By  cash  received  of  Joseph  Belding,  Jr. 
Oct.  25.     By  cash  received  of  Thomas  Crafts 
Dec.  23.      By  cash  received  of  Peter  Train 
Jan.  22.     By  cash  received  of  Benoni  Crafts 
Apr.  7.     By  cash  received  of  Salmon  White 
June  22.     By  cash  received  of  Elisha  Belding 
May  and  June.      By   yourself    making    plow,  6s — 
Work  hewing  and  framing  my  house  to  balance 

/Sod 
At  a  meeting   held,    probably    by   adjournment.    May  9th, 


/;o 

6 

0 

0 

6 

0 

0 

5 

0 

2 

5 

0 

0 

13 

0 

0 

6 

0 

0 

5 

4 

0 

5 

0 

0 

6 

0 

0 

4 

0 

2 

t8 

8 

152 

three  days  after  the  formal  organization  of  the  town,  it  was 
voted.  "To  raise  thirty  pounds  for  preaching."  June  4,  1771, 
the  town  voted  to  hire  Rufus  Wells  of  Deerfield  to  preach 
six  weeks  upon  probation.  Simeon  Wait,  John  Wait  and  Philip 
Smith  were  chosen  a  committee  to  engage  him.  The  same 
committee  were  instructed  to  provide  a  place  for  him  to  board 
This  committee  attended  to  the  duty  and  engaged  board  at  Dan- 
iel Morton's. 

At  the  expiration  of  the  six  weeks'  probation,  the  town 
voted  to  give  Mr.  Wells  a  call  to  settle  there  in  the  Gospel  min- 
istry. The  conditions  offered  were  as  follows:  A  "settle- 
ment, "  as  it  was  termed,  of  one  hundred  and  thirty-three  pounds, 
six  shillings  and  eight  pence  ;  a  salary'  of  fifty-five  pounds  for 
the  first  year;  and  to  raise  forty  shillings  yearly  till  it  amount  to 
seventy-five  pounds.  It  was  also  voted,  that  Mr.  Wells  be 
allowed  six  pounds  yearly  tor  wood,  to  take  place  at  such  lime 
as  he  sets  up  housekeeping.  The  committee  to  make  these  pro- 
posals to  Mr.  Wells  were  Nathan  Graves,  Daniel  Morton  and 
Salmon  White. 

A  pound  as  then  reckoned  was  equal  to  three  dollars,  thirty- 
three  and  a  third  cents.  Hence  the  "settlement"  would  amount 
to  $450,  and  the  full  salary,  including  the  allowance  for  wood, 
to  S270  per  year.  This  sum  sounds  small  compared  with  minis- 
ters' salaries  at  the  present  day,  but  it  is  to  be  considered  that 
money  is  valuable  according  as  it  procures  the  necessaries  of 
life.  Taking  the  price  of  wheat  as  a  standard  $270  then  was 
equal  to  about  $360  now  ;  with  the  wages  of  labor  for  a  standard, 
which  is  probably  more  just,  the  $270  was  equal  to  $550  at  the 
present  time  ;  taking  the  price  of  land  as  the  standard,  $270  then 
equal  to  $2,000  now. 

The  .settlement  was  paid  in  land,  the  town  making  over  to 
Mr.  Wells  the  lot  hnng  east  of  the  old  parsonage,  extending 
from  land  of  Calvin  Wells  on  the  north  to  land  of  J.  P  Dickin- 
son on  the  south  and  containing  nearlv  sixtv  acres. 

After  giving  Mr.  Wells  a  call  (as  above)  the  town,  it 
appears,  applied  to  some  of  the  neighboring  ministers  for  advice 
in  the  case  and  received  an  answer  as  follows  : 

Whereas  the  inhabitants  of  Whately  have  applied  to  us  for 
our  advice  respecting  the  settlement  of  Mr.  Rufus  Wells  in  the 
work  of  the  ministry'  among  them  ;  we  hereby  signify  that  we 
well  approve  of  their  choice  of  the  said  Mr.  Rufus  Wells,  and 
do   freely    advise   to    his   settlement    in    the    ministry  in    said 


^53 

Whately  ;  provided  no  sufficient  obstacle  shall  appear  in  the  way 
of  his  settlement  there. 

JOSEPH  ASHLEY. 

JONATHAN  ASHLEY. 

JOHN  EMERSON. 

August  ye  2d,  1771. 

Formation  of  a  church.  As  preliminary-  to  the  forma- 
tion of  the  church,  at  a  town  meeting  held  13  August.  1771,  it 
was  voted  "That  Wednesday  the  21st  day  of  this  August  be 
kept  as  a  day  of  Fasting  and  Prayer  by  ye  inhabitants  of  ye 
town  of  Whately." 

Voted,  That  Messrs.  David  Parsons  of  Amherst,  Joseph 
Ashley  of  Sunderland,  Jonathan  Ashley  of  Deerfield,  Samuel 
Hopkins  of  Hadley  and  John  Emerson  of  Conway,  V.  D.  M., 
be  the  persons  to  perform  the  ser\-ices  of  the  day  of  Fasting. 

August  21,  1771.  On  this  day  of  Fasting  and  Prayer, 
(writes  Mr.  Wells  in  his  Church  Records)  there  being  present 
on  the  occasion,  Rev.  Messrs.  Parsons,  Jona.  Ashley,  Hopkins 
and  Emerson,  after  the  public  services  of  the  day  were  finished, 
the  members  in  full  communion  in  Whately  were  embodied  into 
a  church,  being  recommended  by  the  church  of  Christ  in  Hat- 
field, to  which  church  by  far  the  greatest  part  that  were  embod- 
ied did  belong,  and  had  communed  there  in  all  the  ordinances 
of  the  Gospel. 

The  Certificate  of  recommendation,  above  alluded  to,  was 
in  the  following  words  : 

These  may  certify,  that  the  within-mentioned  persons  are 
members  of  the  church  of  Christ  in  Hatfield,  in  regular  stand- 
ing ;  and  as  such  are  recommended  to  be  embodied  in  a  church 
state  among  themselves. 

By  vote  of  the, Ch.  OBA.   DICKINSON. 

Hatfield,  August  19,  177J. 

One  of  the  preliminar\'  requisites  for  organizing  and  incor- 
porating a  town  in  the  early  days  was  the  fact  that  an  Orthodox 
church  had  been  formed  and  a  learned  minister  procured,  and 
these  statements  were  properly  set  forth  in  the  petition  to  the 
Great  and  General  Court  as  an  argument,  or  a  fact,  showing 
the  fitness  of  that  locality  to  assume  the  municipal  functions. 
And  Whately,  desiring  to  be  in  the  prevailing  fashion,  took 
steps  to  secure   regular   Sabbath    ser\'ices.      For  this  purpose  a 


154 

subscription  paper  was  drawn  up  and  signed  by  Edward  Brown, 

Daniel  Morton,  Sr.,  Elisha  Frary,    David  Scott.  Joseph  Belden, 

Jr.,  Thomas  Crafts,  Peter  Train,    Benoni    Crafts,  Capt.  Salmon 

White  and    Elisha  Relding,    giving   in   all    /8,  6  March,  1771. 

They  employed  Rufus  Wells  to  preach  for  them.  He  was 
a  recent  graduate  from  his  theological  studies,  and  he  preached 
for  them  six  Sabbaths,  to  April  28th.  The  town  was  organized 
and  town  officers  elected  6  May,  177 1.  At  a  meeting  adjourned 
from  May  6th  to  May  9th,  the  town  voted  to  raise  thirty  pounds 
for  preaching  and,  4  June.  1771-  the  town  voted  to  hire  Rufus 
Wells  to  preach  six  weeks  on  trial.  At  the  end  of  the  six  weeks 
the  town  voted,  '"To  give  Mr.  Rufus  Wells  a  call  to  settle  in  the 
Gospel  ministry  with  us." 

The  conditions  were  a  "settlement,"  as  it  was  termed,  of 
^133,  6s  and  8d,  probably  paid  in  land,  and  a  salary  of  ^55  for 
the  first  year,  and  to  raise  it  40s  yearly  until  it  amounted  to 
^75.  It  was  also  voted,  "To  allow  him  £6  more  per  annum 
for  wood,  to  take  place  at  such  time  as  he  should  set  up  house- 
keeping." A  pound  was  reckoned  as  equal  to  $3.33^/3.  The 
land  was  on  the  east  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  St.,  and  was  com- 
posed of  lots  23,  24,  25,  26,  27  and  28,  in  the  second  division  of 
Commons.  He  also  had  a  lot  on  the  west  side  of  the  road,  in 
the  fourth  division.  The  lots  on  the  east  side  extended  to  the 
Claverack  road,  one-half  mile.  It  is  evident  that  he  commenced 
preparation  to  build,  as  Dea.  Sanderson,  in  1772,  charges  him 
with  labor  of  himself  and  his  two  brothers,  John  and  Asa,  for 
digging  the  cellar  and  a  team  for  drawing  stone  for  the  cellar, 
in  all  eighteen  days,  as  per  book  of  Dea.  Thomas  Sanderson. 

The  next  thing  done  was  the  formation  of  a  church.  To 
make  this  more  impressive,  the  town  held  a  meeting  13  August, 
1771,  when  it  was  voted,  "That  Wednesday,  the  21st  of  August, 
be  kept  as  a  day  of  fasting  and  prayer  by  ye  inhabitants  of  ye 
town  of  Whately,"  and  the  town  voted  to  invite  five  clergymen 
from  the  neighboring  towns  to  assist  in  the  exercises  of  the  day. 
During  the  day,  after  the  public  services  were  over,  the  mem- 
bers in  full  communion,  as  certified  to  by  the  clerk  of  the  Hat- 
field church,  were  embodied  as  a  church. 

The  names  of  the  members  were  as  follows  :  David  Graves, 
Sr.,  Joseph  Belden,  Sr.,  Salmon  White,  Simeon  Waite,  John 
Waite,  Richard  Chauncey,  Nathan  Graves,  David  Scott, 
Thomas  Crafts,  Daniel  Morton,  Israel  Graves,  Sr.,  Benjamin 
Smith,  Philip  Smith,  Elisha  Frary,  Joshua  Belden,  Elisha  Bel- 


loo 

ding,  John  Waite,  Jr.,  David  Graves,  Jr.,  and  Oliver  Graves, 
Sr. ,  nineteen  in  all.  There  also  should  be  added  the  names  of 
the  following  ladies  :  Elizabeth  Bardwell,  wife  of  Lieut.  Ebe- 
neier;  Elizabeth  Belden,  wife  of  Paul;  Martha  Waite,  wife  of 
Dea.  Simeon;  Submit  Scott,  wife  of  David;  Abigail  Smith. 
daughter  of  Elisha  ;  Eunice  Graves,  wife  of  Israel;  Mary  White, 
wife  of  Capt.  Salmon  ;  Ruth  Belding,  wife  of  Dea.  Elisha;  Man,' 
Waite,  wife  of  John,  Sr. ;  Abigail  Crafts,  wife  of  Benoni ;  Lydia 
Stiles,  mother  of  Capt.  Henry ;  Ruth  Stiles,  wife  of  Capt. 
Henry  ;  Sarah  Smith,  wife  of  Elisha  ;  Sarah  Smith,  daughter  of 
Elisha;  Abigail  Graves,  wife  of  David,  Sr.  ;  Jemima  Scott,  wife 
of  Benjamin,  Sr.  ;  Abigail  Scott,  wife  of  Benjamin,  Jr.;  Anna 
Belden,  wife  of  Joshua  ;  Margaret  Belden,  wife  of  Joseph  ;  Sarah 
Wells,  wife  of  Thomasof  Deerfield ;  Eleanor  Morton,  (2)  wife  of 
Daniel;  Miriam  Frary.  wife  of  Lieut.  Elisha;  Elizabeth  Chaun- 
cey,  wife  of  Richard;  Abigail  Smith,  wife  of  Jonathan;  Rebecca 
Graves,  wife  of  Dea.  Oliver,  twenty-five  in  all ;  and  George 
Pratt,  a  slave  to  Mr.  Chauncey.  He  died  18  Sept.,  1794,  aged 
75  years. 

The  next  step  was  the  ordination  of  Mr.  Wells.  A  council 
of  thirteen  members  was  invited  from  neighboring  towns.  Capt. 
Salmon  White  was  agreed  with  to  provide  for  and  entertain  the 
council  which  probably  convened  at  his  house,  some  three- 
fourths  of  a  mile  from  the  center,  where  the  services  of  ordina- 
tion were  held.  The  council  met  and  Mr.  Wells  was  "Set  apart 
to  the  work  of  the  ministry,  being  made  an  overseer  of  the 
church,  or  flock  of  Christ,  in  Whately,  by  the  laying  on  of  the 
hands  of  the  Presbytery,"  25  Sept.,  1771.  The  services  were 
held  under  the  shade  of  two  large  oak  trees  standing  on  the 
west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  St..  just  south  of  the  present  resi- 
dence of  C.  R.  Chaffee.  A  stage  was  built  for  the  ministers  and 
the  congregation  was  seated  in  front  on  temporary  seats.  This 
was  a  proud  day  for  our  young  town  and,  doubtless,  for  the 
young  minister  now  empow^ered  to  perform  all  the  acts  custo- 
mary for  the  ministerial  order. 

The  halfway  membership  then  prevailed  of  admitting  per- 
sons of  fair  character  to  the  church  far  enough  to  have  their 
children  baptized,  but  were  not  allowed  to  partake  of  the  em- 
blems of  Christ's  body  and  blood  until  they  became  members  in 
full  communion  by  confessing  Christ  or,  as  they  expressed  it, 
"Persons  to  come  to  full  communion  shall  be  of  competent 
knowledge,  in  the  opinion  of  the  pastor;  that  they  publicly  pro- 


156 

fess  their  faith  and  consent  to  the  church  covenant."  This  con- 
tinued until  1 8  March,  iSi6.  Brother  Joel  Waite  (a  rumseller, 
by  the 'way)  stated  that  it  was  a  matter  of  grief  and  an  offence 
to  hijn  that  this  church  admitted  persons  to  the  privilege  of  bap- 
tism for  their  children  by  consenting  to  the  covenant,  and  yet 
neglected  to  attend  upon  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  supper, 
when  he  conceived  that  this  practice  was  not  countenanced  by 
the  word  of  God.  After  due  consideration  the  question  was  put 
and  the  heretofore  practice  wis  condemned  by  a  unanimous 
vote.     Then  the  pastor  closed  the   meeting  with  solemn  prayer. 

To  go  back  now  to  the  early  days  when  was  commenced 
the  effort  to  build  a  church  or  meeting-house.  And  now  we  will 
allow  Mr.  Temple  to  tell  the  story.  Of  course,  he  has  to  omit 
much  of  the  strife,  the  wrangling  and  the  heartburnings  of  this 
people,  of  which  I  have  heard  so  much. 

The  Meeting-house.  At  the  time  of  the  organization  of 
the  church  and  settlement  of  Rev.  Mr.  Wells  no  meeting-house 
had  been  built.  The  people  first  met  for  religious  worship  in 
the  dwelling  house  of  Oliver  Morton.  The  meetings  were  held 
here  for  perhaps  two  years.  December  2,  1771,  the  town  voted, 
"To  allow  Oliver  Morton  three  pounds  for  his  house  to  meet  in 
for  the  term  of  one  year."  March  6,  1774.  voted,  "To  pay  Mr. 
Morton  one  pound,  ten  shillings  for  the  use  of  his  house  six 
months."  Meetings  for  public  vi'orship  were  also  held  for  a 
time,  perhaps  a  year,  at  the  house  of  Rev.  Mr.  Wells,  the  town, 
as  compensation,  agreeing  to  assist  him   in    finishing  his  house. 

December  2,  1771,  a  vote  was  passed,  "To  make  provision 
for  a  meeting-house."  A  committee,  consisting  of  David  Scott, 
Thomas  Crafts,  Joseph  Belding,  Jr.,  Noah  Bardwell  and  David 
Graves,  Jr.,  was  appointed  at  the  same  time  to  carry  out  the 
above  vote.  At  a  meeting  a  few  weeks  later  the  town  instructed 
the  above  committee  to  provide  four  thousand  feet  of  pine  boards, 
clapboards,  window  frames  and  sash  and  timber  suflBcient  for 
said  meeting-house.  The  timber  was  cut  wherever  it  could  be 
easiest  procured.  The  boards  and  joists  were  sawed  at  the 
mill  of  Adonijah  Taylor,  where  Silas  Sanderson's  mills  are  now 
located. 

The  next  spring  (March  30,  1772,)  the  town  voted,  "To 
provide  shingles  this  present  year  for  the  meeting  house."  These 
were  purchased  at  about  ten  shillings  per  thousand.  In  the  fall 
of  this  year  (October  5,  1772,)  it  was  voted,  "That  the  meeting- 
house be  set  up  next  spring. ' '  It  was  also  voted  at  the  same  time 
"That  the  meeting-house  be  placed  in  the  Chestnut  Plain  street 


157 

(so  called)  at  the  most  convenient  place  between  the  dwelling 
house  of  Oliver  Morton  and  that  of  Rufus  Wells,  V.  D.  M.,  in 
Whately.'"'  Salmon  White,  Edward  Brown,  Oliver  Graves, 
Joseph  Belding,  Jr.,  and  David  Scott  were  chosen  building 
committee.  The  spot  they  selected  was  where  the  meeting- 
house of  the  First  Parish  stood.  At  the  same  meeting  it  was 
voted  to  raise  eighty  pounds  to  build  said  meeting-house,  the 
money  to  be  levied  by  tax  on  the  ratable  polls  and  property  of 
the  inhabitants.  At  a  town  meeting,  held, a  few  months  later, 
it  was  voted,  "To  build  one  porch  to  the  meeting-house,"  but 
the  vote  was  never  carried  into  effect. 

During  the  winter  of  1772-73  the  timber  and  materials  were  . 
collected  and  at  a  meeting,  held  roMay,  1773,  the  town  granted 
additional  money  and  voted  that  David  Scott  be  master  work- 
man to  frame  the  house.  In  the  course  of  the  two  following 
months  the  house  was  framed,  raised  and  partially  covered.  At 
a  town  meeting  held  8  July,  1773,  it  was  voted,  "To  raise  forty 
pounds  to  go  on  and  finish  the  meeting-house."  The  "finish" 
then  put  on,  however,  was  not  of  the  highest  order,  as  will  be 
seen  in  the  particular  description  which  follows:  On  the  outside 
the  roof  was  well  shingled,  though  it  had  no  steeple  or  tower  ; 
the  sides  and  ends  were  covered  with  rough  boards,  chamfered 
together.  The  windows  in  the  lower  story  were  pretty  fully 
glazed;  those  in  the  upper  stor>"  were  boarded  up.  There  were 
three  doors  to  the  house,  one  each  on  the  north,  east  and  south 
sides — that  on  the  east  side  being  reckoned  the  front  door. 
These  were  made  of  rough  boards  and  not  very  tightly  fitted. 
Thus  uniform  was  the  covering  upon  the  outside.  The  inside 
had  no  "finish"  at  all  except  a  ground  floor.  The  sides  were 
destitute  of  both  plastering  and  laths,  and  the  frame  work  of  the 
galleries,  the  beams,  girths  and  rafters  were  all  naked.  A  rough 
board  pulpit,  raised  a  few  feet,  was  placed  in  the  center  of  the 
west  side.  Directly  in  front  of  the  pulpit,  a  carpenter's  work- 
bench was  left.  The  seat  which  was  placed  before  this  bench 
was  claimed  by  the  old  ladies,  that  they  might  hear  better,  and 
have  a  support  for  the  back.  The  seats  were  nothing  more  than 
low  slab  forms  ;  these  were  arranged  without  much  regard  to 
order,  and  were  free  to  all.  After  some  years  Mr.  Wells  nailed 
up  a  couple  of  boards  on  the  left  of  the  pulpit,  for  the  better 
accommodation  of  his  wife;  and  a  sort  of  pew  or  bench,  with  a 
back  fixed  to  it.  capable  of  seating  six  or  eight  persons,  was  fit- 
ted up  by  a  few  of  the  young  men,  on  the  east  side  near  the 
door. 


158 

The  house  remained  in  this  state  twenty-four  or  twenty- 
five  years.  During  this  time  it  was  hardly  more  respectable 
in  appearance  or  more  comfortable  than  an  ordinary  single 
boarded  barn.  In  those  days  no  stoves  or  fireplaces  were  found 
in  the  meeting-house.  The  men  kept  their  feet  warm  by  thump- 
ing them  together ;  the  women  carried  foot  stoves  filled  with 
coals  from  the  hearth  at  home.  Families  who  lived  at  a  dis- 
tance hired  a  "noon  room"  somewhere  in  the  village  where  they 
could  eat  their  lunch,  get  warm  and  fill  their  foot  stoves  with 
fresh  coals.  An  article  was  once  inserted  in  the  town  warrant, 
"To  see  if  the  town  will  grant  leave  to  people  that  live  at  a  dis- 
tance from  meeting,  to  build  a  fire  in  the  schoolhouse  on  Sab- 
bath noons."      Passed  in  the  negative. 

It  is  quite  probable  that  some  of  his  good  friends  were 
accustomed  to  make  the  pastor's  kitchen  their  noon  room,  and 
that  the  genial  fire  and  genial  fare  were  the  cause  of  a  little  tar- 
diness in  reaching  the  sanctuary  for  the  afternoon  service. 
Otherwise  it  is  not  eas\'  to  account  for  the  following  vote  of  the 
town:  \'oted,  "That  the  intermission  on  Sunda}'  be  one  hour, 
and  that  the  selectmen  be  a  committee  to  inform  the  pastor  when 
to  begin  the  exercises  and  to  be  punctual." 

In  winter  drifting  snows  found  easv  entrance,  and  in  sum- 
mer  the  swallows,  in  great  numbers,  were  accustomed  to  fly  in 
and  build  their  mud  nests  on  the  plates  and  rafters.  On  the 
Sabbath  these  social  little  intruders,  twittering  as  merrily  as 
ever,  seemed  entirely  regardless  of  the  people  below ;  plainly 
having  it  for  their  maxim  to  mind  their  own  business,  however 
much  the  minds  and  eyes  of  those  below  might  be  attracted  to 
themselves.  It  is  said  that  during  the  few  months  of  their 
annual  stay  Mr.  Wells  seldom  or  never  exchanged  with  his 
brethren  of  other  towns,  giving  as  a  reason,  that  he  feared  the 
swallows,  to  which  habit  had  *familiarized  hira,  would  be  too 
great  an  annoyance  to  strangers.  He  could  say  with  the  Psalm- 
ist. "The  sparrow  hath  found  a  house,  and  the  swallow  a  nest 
for  herself,  where  she  may  lay  her  young,  even  thine  altars,  O 
Lord  of  Hosts." 

There  were  two  reasons  which  prevented  the  further  com- 
pletion of  the  meeting-house.  The  first  was  the  war  of  the  Rev- 
olution, which  broke  out  soon  after  the  town  was  incorporated. 
This  for  some  years  absorbed  the  chief  attention  of  the  com- 
munity, and  the  taxes  levied  to  support  it  drained  the  people  of 
money.     O^he  other  leason  was  a  division  of  sentiment  about  the 


159 

location  of  tlie  house.  x\  part  demanded  that  it  should  be 
moved  half  a  mile  to  the  southwest,  to  a  spot  south  of  "Spruce 
Hill,"  (in  the  lot  owned  in  1S49  by  the  Rev.  John  Ferguson) 
and  a  majority  insisted  that  it  should  remain  on  the  old  spot. 
Many  votes  were  passed  and  afterwards  reconsidered.  Many 
expedients  were  devised  by  both  parties.  Numerous  commit- 
tees, both  of  the  town's  people  and  disinterested  men  from 
abroad,  were  appointed  on  this  question  with  various  results. 
At  the  town  meeting  in  March.  17S8,  a  vote  was  passed  and 
insisted,  "To  raise  seventy  pounds  to  repair  the  meeting-house." 
This  led  to  the  drawing  up  of  the  following  "protest."  which 
was  presented  to  the  town  at  a  meeting  in  April : 

"We,  the  subscribers,  the  people  of  the  westerly  part  of  the 
town  of  Whately.  whose  names  are  under  written,  do  enter  a 
protest  to  this  meeting,  10  April.  ijSM,  against  the  proceedings 
of  the  other  parts  of  the  town,  that  is,  in  finishing  up  the 
meeting-house  in  the  place  where  it  now  stands.  For  we  have 
been  to  the  cost  of  having  a  committee  to  determine  where  the 
just  spot  for  the  meeting-house  to  stand  is,  who  determined  in 
the  centre  of  the  town,  and  there  we  are  willing  to  finish  it  up, 
and  nowhere  else. 

"John  Smith,  Elisha  Frary,  Phineas  Frary,  Elihu  Waite, 
Simeon  Morton.  Edward  Brown,  Joel  Waite,  Reuben  Graves. 
John  Brown.  Moses  .Munson,  John  Starks,  Bernice  Snow. 
Isaiah  Brown.  Reuben  Taylor,  Asa  Sanderson.  Xoah  Bardwell." 

This  protest  not  being  heeded,  the  signers  and  others  with- 
drew and  formed  a  new  society.  They  afterwards  erected  a 
meeting-house  on  the  Poplar  Hill  road.  This  was  the  origin  of 
the  Baptist  society  of  Whately. 

The  feelings  engendered  by  this  long  and,  at  times,  bitter 
controversy  about  the  location  of  the  meeting-house  were  not  at 
once  subdued.  Those  who  attached  themselves  to  the  new 
organization"  and  paid  the  expenses  incidental  to  maintaining 
separate  ordinances,  claimed  that  they  ought  to  be  released  from 
liability  to  pay  theirproportion  of  the  expenses  of  the  old  church. 
The  law  was  against  them,  and  the  majority  ot  the  town 
was  against  them,  and  for  a  series  of  years  they  bore 
the  double  burden.  But  in  1794  the  town  voted,  "That  the 
treasurer  pay  to  all  such  persons  their  ministerial  rates,  as  shall 
procure  proper  certificates  of  their  attending  on  other  teachers, 
and  shall  profess  to  differ  in  sentiment  from  those  Christians 
called  Congregationalls." 


i6o 

Although  the  town  voted  at  this  date  to  raise  money  to 
repair  the  meeting-house  it  does  not  appear  that  any  funds  were 
actually  expended  for  this  purpose  till  1797.  The  seventy 
pounds  was  paid  to  Mr.  Wells  for  arrearages  of  his  salary. 
Various  moneys  were  raised  in  different  years  for  repairs,  and 
then  otherwise  expended. 

The  town  voted,  5  December,  1796,  "To  raise  three  hundred 
pounds  for  repairing  the  meeting-house,"  and  appointed  a  com- 
mittee to  carry  out  the  vote.  In  January  following,  twenty 
pounds  additional  was  granted,  and  in  the  spring  the  work  was 
commenced.  In  the  course  of  the  year  1797  the  house  was 
thoroughly  repaired 

The  outside  was  clapboarded  and  painted,  the  vacant  win- 
dows of  the  upper  story,  which  had  afforded  access  to  the  swal- 
lows for  so  many  years,  were  glazed  and  paneled  doors  were  put 
in.  The  inside  was  also  "finished,"  galleries  put  up  and  pews 
built.  The  pews  were  square,  enclosed  with  paneled  work, 
according  to  the  fashion  of  the  times.  The  pulpit,  situated  as 
before,  was  a  plain  structure,  very  high,  square  corners  and  pro- 
jecting center,  with  a  hexagonal  sounding-board  suspended 
above. 

No  formal  consecration  of  the  house  appears  to  have  been 
made  at  its  first  opening  in  1773.  But  now  that  it  had  been 
made  more  seemly  a  day  was  specially  set  apart  and  it  was 
solemnly  dedicated  to  God. 

Seating  the  Meeting-House.  At  the  town  meeting, 
held  Dec.  4,  1797,  it  was  voted  not  to  sell  the  pews  and,  instead, 
a  committee  of  nine  persons  was  chosen,  "To  seat  the  meeting- 
house," i.  e..  to  assign  to  each  family  the  particular  pew  they 
were  to  occupy  for  a  year  or  longer  as  the  case  might  be.  The 
principle  of  "seating,"  at  first  adopted,  is  not  known.  The 
practice  prevailed  in  some  years  of  seating  by  age  and  some- 
times by  property.  At  a  town  meeting,  held  19  May,  1800,  it 
was  voted,  "That  in  seating  people,  one  year  in  the  age  of  a 
person  shall  be  reckoned  equal  to  one  dollar  on  the  list." 

This  custom,  which  prevailed  for  upwards  of  twenty  years, 
was  the  occasion  of  much  strife  and  many  jealousies  and  heart- 
burnings. Individuals  and  families,  disliking  their  seat  mates, 
would  sometimes  absent  themselves  entirely  from  meeting,  and, 
in  one  instance,  an  individual  made  an  appeal  to  the  town  at  a 
regular  meeting  of  the  inhabitants,  and  a  vote  was  passed  assign- 
ing him  a  given  pew.  The  pews  and  internal  fixtures  erected 
at  this  time  remained  in  the  same  state  and  fashion  till  1843. 


l6£ 

In  the  spring  of  1819  the  town  voted,  "To  sell  the  pews  in 
the. meeting-house,"  and  in  this  and  the  following  years,  a  large 
number  of  them  were  sold.  Of  the  avails  of  this  sale  of  pews,  a 
steeple  was  built  upon  the  south  end  of  the  house  and  a  bell 
purchased.  This  was  done  in  1821-22.  The  people  now  for 
the  first  time  heard  the  sound  of  the  "church-going  bell. 

In  the  earh'  days  of  the  town,  perhaps  till  1795,  it  was  custo- 
mary to  call  the  people  together  on  the  Sabbath,  by  blowing  a 
conch.  (In  1795.  it  was  voted.  "That  the  town  will  not  improve 
anybody  to  blow  the  conch  as  a  signal  for  meeting."  The  iden- 
tical shell  is  now  in  possession  of  Porter  Wells.)  It  was  blown 
once  an  hour  before  the  time  of  service,  and  again  as  the  minis- 
ter was  approaching  the  house.  From  1795  to  1822  no  public 
signal  was  given,  the  people  assembling  at  their  pleasure. 

In  1843  the  meeting-house  was  entirely  remodeled,  but  the 
original  frame  erected  by  Master  Scott  in  1773,  being  found  per- 
fectly sound,  was  left  unaltered. 

After  the  reunion  of  the  First  and  Second  parishes  this 
house  was  sold  and  taken  down  (1867)  and  the  united  congre- 
gation removed  to  the  house  built  by  the  Second  parish,  stand- 
ing just  south  of  the  old  parsonage. 

Statistics.  The  original  number  who  subscribed  and 
assented  to  the  covenant  of  the  church  was  forty-three.  The 
number  of  person  admitted  to  full  membership  during  Rev.  Mr. 
Wells'  pastorate,  i.  e.,  up  to  1822,- was,  according  to  the  church 
records,  374.  But  as  many  who  were  received  to  "covenant 
privileges"  were  accustomed  to  partake  of  the  sacrament  some 
names  were  unintentionally  omitted  from  the  records,  and  the 
actual  number  in  communion  is  believed  to  be  488.  The  total 
number  of  members  received  to  church  fellowship,  from  177 1  to 
187 1  is  740. 

Rev.  Mr.  Wells.  In  accordance  with  the  customs  of  the 
times  Mr.  Wells  managed  the  affairs  of  a  large  and  productive 
farm  in  connection  with  his  ministerial  duties.  He  was  emi- 
nently successful  in  both  callings.  His  accounts,  often  quoted 
from  in  these  pages,  filled  a  large  sized  folio  of  285  pages.  He 
also  acted  as  conveyancer  and  counselor  in  drawing  up  con- 
tracts, filling  deeds  and  writing  wills.  His  charge  for  drawing 
up  a  lease  or  writing  a  will,  was  one  shilling  ;  for  drawing  up  a 
bond,  two  shillings.  After  the  death  of  his  first  wife,  in  1796, 
to  whom  he  was  tenderly  attached,  he  suffered  for  a  time  from 
mental  depression  which  amounted  to  partial  insanity.     While 


■  l62 

he  was  in  this  state,  by  advice  of  the  Association  a  day  of  fast- 
ing and  prayer  was  appointed  by  the  church,  as  it  appears,  with- 
out consulting  the  pastor.  It  was  arranged  that  Rev.  Mr.  Tay- 
lor of  Deerfield  should  preach  in  the  morning,  and  Rev.  Hr. 
Porter  of  Ashfield  in  the  afternoon.  Mr.  Taylor  prepared  a  ser- 
mon on  the  subject  of  mental  derangement  not  expecting  that 
Mr.  Wells  would  attend  the  meeting.  But  just  before  the  ser- 
mon was  to  commence,  he  entered  the  meeting-house  and  took 
a  seat.  The  preacher  \^  as  a  good  deal  disconcerted  and  begged 
of  Mr.  Porter  to  preach  in  his  stead.  But  the  latter  declined 
and  insisted  that  Mr.  Ta\lor  should  preach  the  sermon  which  he 
had  prepared.  It  proved  to  be  a  wise  arrangement.  Before 
this  Mr.  Wells  had  not  realized  his  mental  condition,  but 
thought  that  his  friends  treated  him  strangely  and  acted  like 
enemies.  Towards  the  close  of  the  afternoon  service,  which  he 
also  attended,  while  pondering  the  question  why  his  friends  had 
thus  treated  him,  he  was  led  to  the  conclusion  that  something 
was  wrong  in  himself,  that  he  was  in  fact  deranged.  A  reac- 
tion at  once  began  and  his  mind  recovered  its  former  tone  and 
strength. 

Mr.  Wells  continued  to  discharge  in  full  the  duties  of  pas- 
tor till  1S22,  a  period  of  fifty  years,  when  the  infirmities  of  age, 
then  apparently  about  to  break  down  his  constitution,  induced 
him  and  the  people  to  seek  a  colleague.  At  the  same  time  he 
consented  to  a  reduction  of  one  hundred  dollars  from  his  3'early 
salary.  After  this  date,  however,  he  recovered  in  a  measure 
his  strength  and  would  occasionalh*  exercise  the  functions  of 
his  office  till  near  the  time  of  his  death. 

His  last  (recorded)  public  act  was  the  marriage  of  his 
granddaughter,  Miss  Sarah  Wells,  to  Silas  Rice  8  November, 
1 83 1.  The  entry  of  this  in  the  church  record  in  his  own  hand, 
now  tremulous  and  uncertain,  forms  a  striking  contrast  to  the 
plain,  bold  penmanship  of  his  earh-  prime.  He  died  8  November, 
1834.,  in  the  ninety-second  year  of  his  age.  The  sermon  at 
his  funeral  was  preached  by  Rev.  Nathan  Perkins  of  Amherst, 
who  was  then  the  oldest  survivor  of  Mr.  Wells'  particular 
associates. 

It  would  be  foreign  to  my  purpose  to  give  an  extended 
analysis  of  the  character  of  Rev.  Mr.  Wells.  Let  it  suffice  to 
say  that  he  was  a  man  of  undoubted  piet}',  his  sermons  were 
largely  scriptural  and  practical,  rather  than  doctrinal ;  he  rebuked 
and  exhorted  with  all    his   long-suffering  and  gentleness.     As  a 


i63 

preacher  he  held  a  respectable  rank  among  his  coteniporaries, 
as  a  pastor  he  was  pre-eminently  a  peace-maker,  as  a  man  he 
was  verv'  affable  and  of  good  social  qualities.  He  made  no  ene- 
mies and  was  kind  and  faithful  to  his  friends. 

In  the  course  of  his  ministry  Mr.  Wells  married  three  hun- 
dred and  five  couples  and  administered  baptism  to  nine  hundred 
and  fifty-six  persons.  He  wrote  about  three  thousand  sermons, 
a  few  of  which  were  printed.  His  last  sermon,  written  probably 
with  no  idea  that  it  would  be  the  last,  was  on  Heb.  iv.  9: 
"There  remaineth  therefore  a  rest  to  the  people  of  God." 

But  to  return  to  the  thread  of  our  narrative.  At  a  town 
meeting  held  21  December,  1S21,  Capt.  Salmon  Graves,  moder- 
ator, it  was  voted,  "To  give  Mr.  Lemuel  P.  Bates  (of  South- 
ampton) a  call  to  settle  in  the  gospel  ministry  as  colleague  pas- 
tor with  the  Rev.  Rufus  Wells.  Voted,  "To  give  Mr.  Bates 
three  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  salary  per  year,  during  Mr. 
Wells'  natural  life  and  four  hundred  fifty  dollars  per  year  dur- 
ing his  ministry  with  us  after  the  decease  of  Mr.  Wells." 

Voted,  "To  give  Mr.  Bates  five  hundred  dollars  settlement 
to  be  paid  in  three  annual  instalments,  and  if  he  leaves  us  before 
the  three  years  are  expired  he  draws  only  in  proportion  to  the 
time  he  preaches  with  us." 

Voted,  "That  Mr.  Bates  have  the  privilege  of  being  dis- 
missed, by  giving  the  town  one  year's  notice,  and  the  town  have 
the  privilege  of  dismissing  Mr.  Bates  by  giving  him  one  year's 
notice,  provided  either  party  holds  that  mind  during  the  year." 

This  last  vote  was  the  occasion  of  some  distrust  on  the  part 
of  the  ordaining  council.  Dr.  Lyman  of  Hatfield  warmly  pro- 
tested against  the  conditions  therein  implied,  and  it  was  not  till 
the  parties  concerned  declared  it  was  their  understanding,  "That 
Mr.  Bates  could  not  be  dismissed  without  the  advice  of  an  eccle- 
siastical council,"  that  the  council  consented  to  proceed  to  the 
examination  of  the  candidate. 

Mr.  Bates  was  ordained  13  February,  1S22.  The  order  of 
exercises  was  as  follows:  Introductory  prayer,  Rev.  James 
Ta^'lor  of  Sunderland;  sermon,  Rev.  Zephaniah  Swift  Moore. 
D.  D.,  president  of  Amherst  college;  consecrating  prayer,  Rev. 
Dr.  Lyman  of  Hatfield;  charge  to  the  pastor.  Rev.  John  Emer- 
son of  Conway  ;  right  hand  of  fellowship,  Rev.  Wm.  B.  Sprague 
of  West  Springfield;  charge  to  the  people,  Rev.  Henry  Lord  of 
Williamsburg;  concluding  prayer,  Rev.  Vinson  Gould  of  South- 
ampton. 


164 

It  is  a  somewhat  remarkable  fact  that  one  of  the  above 
council,  Rev.  John  Emeison  of  Conway,  was  a  member  of  the 
council  which  ordained  Rev.  Mr.  Wells,  the  first  pastor  of  the 
church  fifty  j'ears  before. 

By  the  terms  of  his  settlement  ^Ir.  Rates  could  claim  but 
three  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  annual  salary,  as  the  senior  pas- 
tor was  still  living.  But  in  1828,  '29  and  '32  the  parish 
(which  was  organized  separate  from  the  town  30  April,  1828,) 
granted  him  one  hundred  dollars  additional.  He  held  the  office 
of  pastor  for  the  term  of  ten  3-ears  and  was  disniissed  17  October, 
1832. 

After  the  dismission  of  Rev.  L.  P.  Bates  the  church 
remained  destitute  of  a  pastor  for  four  years.  The  pulpit  was 
regularly  supplied  the  while  by  various  ministers  and  candidates, 
among  whom  were  Rev.  Messrs.  Packard  of  Shelburne  and  Rev, 
John  Eastman. 

The  third  pa.stor  was  Rev.  John  Ferguson  of  Dunse,  Ber- 
wickshire, Scotland,  previously  settled  in  Attleboro.  The 
terms  of  his  settlement  were  five  hundred  dollars  annual  salar\', 
wath  the  condition,  "That  the  existing  connection  may  be  dis- 
solved at  the  pleasure  of  either  part}'  by  an  ecclesiastical  coun- 
cil." He  was  installed  16  March,  1836,  the  sermon  being 
preached  by  Rev.  John  Todd  of  Pittsfield.  Mr.  Ferguson  was 
dismissed  17  June,  1840. 

The  church  now  continued  without  a  settled  ministry  five 
years.  The  pulpit  was  supplied  during  the  interim  by  Rev. 
Moses  Chase,  Rev.  Sumner  Lincoln,  Mr.  Porter  H.  Snow,  Mr. 
John  W.  Salter  and  the  faculty  of  Amherst  college.  Mr.  Salter 
was  invited  to  settle  17  February,  1843.  Mr.  Snow  was  invited 
10  April,  1845,  but  both  declined. 

The  fourth  pastor  was  Rev.  J.  H.  Temple  of  Framingham, 
who  was  ordained  30  September,  1845,  the  Rev.  Joel  Hawses, 
D.  D.  of  Hartford,  Conn.,  preaching  the  sermon.  The  terms  of 
his  settlement  were  "Five  hundred  dollars  a  year  as  a  salary  as 
long  as  he  is  our  minister,  with  liberty  to  take  a  vacation  of 
three  Sabbaths  a  year;  that  when  either  party  becomes  dis- 
satisfied, one  month's  notice  shall  be  given,  and  this  contract 
shall  end  and  the  connection  be  dissolved  in  the  usual  way." 
Mr.  Temple  was  dismissed  24  March,  1852. 

The  fifth  pastor  was  Rev.  Charles  N .  Seymour  of  Hartford, 
Conn.,  who  was  installed  g  March,  1853.  The  sermon  was 
preached  by  Rev.    Nahum    Gale,    professor   in  the  Theological 


1 65 

seminar}'  at  East   Windsor  Hil],   Conn.      He   was    dismissed  27 
April,  1S59. 

The  sixth  pastor  was  Rev.  John  \V.  Lane  of' South  New- 
market. N.  K..  who  was  ordained  17  October,  i860.  Professor 
Austin  Phelps,  D.  D..  of  .Andover  Theological  seminary  preached 
the  sermon,  and  W.  A.  Stearns,  D.  D..  president  of  Amherst 
college,  made  the  ordaining  prayer.  Mr.  Lane's  salary  was 
fixed  at  eiglit  hundred  dollars  a  year.  In  the  century-  since  its 
orgmization  the  church  has  had  a  settled  pastorate  for  eighty- 
nine  \-ears. 

Communion'  Furniture.  The  two  flagons  and  the  two 
tankards  were  purclaased  in  [797  from  funds  bequeathed  to 
the  church  by  Deacon Obadiah  Dickinson  of  Hatfield.  The  two 
silver  cups  and  four  tumblers  were  presented  to  the  church  in 
1822  by  Messrs.  Francis,  Reuben  and  Aaron  Belden.  The  sil- 
ver baptismal  basin  was  presented  by  Miss  Judith  White.  In 
1865  two  silver  plated  plates  were  purchased. 

Singing.  Choristers,  "To  set  the  psalms  in  meeting," 
were  chosen  by  the  church  till  1821  when  they  were  elected  by 
the  choir.  The  persons  first  chosen  by  the  church,  16  Oct., 
1771,  were:  John  Waite,  Jr.,  John  Graves  and  Elihu  Graves. 
Those  chosen  by  the  choir  in  1S21  were  R.  B.  Harwood  and 
Luther  Warner. 

In  179S  the  town  voted,  "Twenty  dollars  to  revive  singing 
in  the  town  :  That  four  pounds  of  it  be  laid  out  in  the  east  part 
of  the  town  for  the  above  purpose,  and  forty  shillings  be  laid 
out  in  the  west  part  to  support  a  ciphering  school  or  a  singing 
school,  as  the  inhabitants  of  that  part  shall  decide,  both  schools 
to  be  free  for  all  parts  of  the  town  and  be  under  the  direction  of 
the  selectmen." 

Sabbath  School.  It  is  believed  that  the  first  eflfort  to 
gather  children  into  classes  on  the  Sabbath  for  religious  instruc- 
tion in  Whately  was  made  by  Misses  Chloe  Adkins  and  Ruth 
Dickinson.  This  was  probably  in  the  year  1820.  The  children 
learned  verses  of  Scripture  and  hymns  of  their  own  selection. 
Mr.  Wells  was  accustomed  to  go  into  the  centre  school  on  Sat- 
urday to  see  if  the  children  had  selected  and  committed  to  mem- 
ory the  lesson  for  the  next  day.  Xo  regular  school  was  organ- 
ized till  after  the  settlement  of  Mr.  Bates — perhaps  not  till  1826. 

The  early  teachers,  besides  the  two  already  named,  were 
Lucinda  Bates,  Ann  Edwards,  Harriet  Frary,  Lydia  Allis,  Dea. 


i66 

James  Smith,  Dea.  Justus  White,  Spencer  Bardwell.  Luther 
Warner,  John  White.  One  of  the  deacons  was  probably  the 
first  superintendent.  For  a  number  of  years  after  its  organiza- 
tion the  school  drew  in  most  of  the  children  and  many  of  the 
older  church  members,  who  formed  adult  classes  for  the  study 
of  the  Bible. 

Clergymen  who  Originated  in  Whately. 

Alvan  Sanderson,  bom  13  December,  17S0,  sun  of  Thomas 
and  Lucy  Sanderson;  graduated  at  Williams  college  1802;  stud- 
ied theology  with  Rev.  Dr.  Hvde  of  Lee  and  Rev.  Dr.  Lvman 
of  Hatfield  :  licensed  by  Berkshire  association  17  October,  1804  ; 
ordained  an  evangelist  at  Westhampton  4  Feb.,  1807,  (sermon 
bv  Rev.  Rufus  Wells)  ;  installed  colleague  with  Rev.  Nehemiah 
Porter,  Ashfield,  22  June,  1808,  died  22  June,  1S17. 

Pomeroy  Belden,  born  15  March,  1811,  son  of  Aaron  and 
Sarah  Belden;  graduated  at  Amherst  college  in  1833;  Andover 
Theological  seminary  1836  ;  ordained  an  evangelist  at  Warwick 
8  August,  1837;  preached  as  stated  supply  at  Deerfield  from 
1837  to  1842  ;  installed  in  Amherst,  East  Parish,  14  September. 
1842  ;  died  2  March,  1849. 

Alonzo  Sanderson,  born  24  June,  1808,  son  of  Joseph  and 
Content  Sanderson  ;  graduated  at  Amherst  college  in  1834;  An- 
dover Theological  seminary  in  1837;  ordained  at  Ludlow  in 
January  1839;  installed  at  Tolland  12  July,  1843;  installed  at 
Wellington,  Ohio,  i  March,  1S54.  Mr.  Sanderson  was  born  in 
Bernardston,  but  regarded  Whately  as  his  ancestral  home. 

William  Bardw^ll,  born  13  October,  18 13,  son  of  Orange  and 
Euphame  t'.ardw^ell  ;  studied  at  Wesley  an  university.  Middle- 
town,  Conn.;  ordained  by  Methodist  conference  May,  1846; 
died  at  Northampton  1851. 

Perez  Chapin,  born  29  April,  1783,  so;i  of  Perez  (M.  D.) 
and  Elizabeth  Chapin;  graduated  at  Middlebury  college  1808; 
studied  theology  with  Rev.  Abijah  Wines,  Newport,  N.  H. ; 
licensed  in  Cornish,  N.  H.,  March,  1810;  ordained  at  Pownal, 
Me.,  20  March,  iSii  ;  died  27 January,  1839.  He  was  a  "Model 
of  a  minister  of  Jesus  Christ." 

Lucius  W.  Chapman,  born  7  January,  1820,  son  of  Isaac 
and  Hannah  Chapman  ;  studied  at  Shelburne  Falls  academy  ; 
licensed  in  Westmoreland  county.  Pa.,  5  February,  1842,  and 
ordained  as  a  Baptist  minister  in  Jefferson  county,  Pa.,  14  Octo- 
ber, 1842  ;  became  a    Presbyterian    and   was   installed  pastor  of 


167 

the  Presbyterian  church  at  Lycoming  Centre,  November,  1849: 
residence  in  1S54  Munroetown,  Pa. 

Rufus  Porter  Wells,  born  4.  February,  1818,  son  of  Thomas 
and  Mary  Wells;  graduated  at  Amherst  college  in  1842  ;  gradu- 
ated at  Union  Theological  seminary,  New  York,  1845  ;  licensed 
by  Third  Presbyter}'  of  New  York  iS  April,  1S45  :  ordained  an 
evangelist  in  Jonesboro,  E.  Tenn.,  by  the  Holston  Presbytery 
26  September,  1S46;  installed  at  Jonesboro  17  August,  1850. 
When  the  civil  war  broke  out  in  1861  Mr.  Wells  declined  to 
pray  for  the  success  of  the  new  confederacy  and  lost  the  sympa- 
thy of  a  large  portion  of  his  church  ;  and  rather  than  suffer  con- 
fiscation and  imprisonment  with  other  Union  men,  after  long  and 
perplexing  delays  and  a  journey  with  his  family  to  Richmond 
and  back,  he  procured  a  pass  and  went  through  the  lines  by  way 
of  Murfreesboro,  Lebanon  and  Gallatin,  Tenn.,  crossing  the 
Cumberland  river  in  a  canoe  27  November,  1862.  He  preached 
to  the  United  •  Presbyterian  and  Congregational  churches  of 
Prairie  du  Sac,  Wis.,  till  March,  1864,  then  one  year  to  the 
Second  Presbyterian  church  of  Thorntown  and  the  Bethel  Pres- 
byterian" church  of  Boone  county,  Ind.  He  spent  the  year  1S65 
in  labors  with  the  Second  Presbyterian  church  of  Kuoxville, 
Tenn.  In  April,  1S66,  he  commenced  gathering  a  Congrega- 
tional church  at  Gilbertsville  in  the  town  of  Hardwick.  The 
church  was  organized  7  March,  1867,  with  thirty-eight  members 
and  increased  to  fifty-three.  He  left  Gilbertsville'December. 
1868 ;  was  installed  pastor  of  the  Congregational  church  at 
Southampton  5  January,  1S69. 

George  R.  Ferguson,  born  in  Attleboro  19  March,  1829, 
son  of  Rev.  John  and  Margaret  S.  Ferguson  ;  graduated  at  Am- 
herst college  1849;  studied  at  Andover  Theological  seminary- 
1858-59;  licensed  by  Franklin  County  association  July  1858; 
acting  pastor  at  Northeast,  Dutchess  county,  N.  Y.,  for  many 
years. 

Horace  B.  Chapin,  who  was  installed  colleague  with  Rev. 
Enoch  Hale  of  Westhampton  8  July,  1829,  dismissed  i  May, 
1837;  installed  at  Danville,  Me..  24  July.  1839,  was  son  of  Dr. 
Perez  and  Elizabeth  Chapin  of  Whately,  but  was  born  after  his 
parents  removed  to  Benson,  Vt. 

The  church  was  instituted  21  August,   1771. 

These  may  certify  that  the  following  named  persons,  viz.  : 
Salmon  White,  Simeon  Waite,  John  Waite,  Richard  Chauncey, 
Nathan  Graves,  David  Scott,    Thomas   Crafts,    Daniel  Morton, 


i68 

Israel  Graves,  Benjamin  Smith,  Philip  Smith,  Elisha  Frary, 
Joshua  Beldiiig,  John  Waite,  Jr.,  David  Graves,  Jr.,  Elisha 
Belding,  Oliver  Graves  are  members  of  the  church  of 'Christ  in 
Hatfield  in  regular  standing,  and  as  such  are  recommended  to 
be  embodied  in  a  church  state  among  themselves. 
By  vote  of  the  church, 

OBA.   DICKINSON. 
Hatfield,  ig  Aug.,  1771. 

In  addition  to  these,  the  following  persons  consented  to  the 
covenant  and  were  embodied  into  church  state,  viz.:  Ebenezer 
Bardwell,  Elizabeth  Bardwell,  Elizabeth  Belden,  Submit  Scott, 
Abigail  Smith,  Martha  "Waite,  Eunice  Graves,  Mary  White, 
Ruth  Belden,  Mary  Waite,  .\bigail  Crafts.  Lydia  Stiles,  Ruth 
Stiles,  Sarah  Smith,  Sarah  Smith,  Jr.,  Abigail  Graves,  Jemima 
Scott,  Abigail  Scott,  Anna  Belden,  Margaret  Belden,  Sarah 
Wells,  Eleanor  Morton,  Miriam  Frary,  Elizabeth  Chauncey, 
Abigail  Smith  and  George  Prutt.  The  Intter  was  a  slave  be- 
longing to  Richard  Chauncey  and  died  18  Sept..  1794,  75  years 
of  age. 

Of  the  above  Elizabeth  Belden  was  the  wife  of  Paul,  Mar- 
tha Waite  wife  of  Dea.  Simeon,  Ruth  Belden  wife  of  Dea. 
Elisha,  Mary  W'aite  wife  of  John,  Jr.,  Abigail  Crafts  wife  of 
Benoni,  Margaret  Belden  wife  of  Joseph,  Sarah  Wells  mother 
of  Rev.  Rufus,  Eleanor  Morton  wife  of  Daniel,  Abigail  Smith 
wife  of  Jonathan,  Elizabeth  Belden  wife  of  Paul  and  a  daughter 
of  Lieut.  Ebenezer  Bardwell. 

There  were  eighteen  males  including  George  Prutt."  a  pious 
old  slave  of  Richard  Chaunce}',  and  Lieut.  Ebenezer  Bardwell 
who  seems  to  have  been  admitted  at  the  same  time,  thus  increas- 
ing the  nunjber  to  nineteen  male  members  and  twenty-four 
females,  in  all  forty-three. 

To  this  number  was  speedily  added  quite  a  number  of  both 
sexes.  Great  efforts  were  made  to  sustain  the  preached  word 
for  quite  a  time  and  quite  through  the  war  of  the  Revolution, 
the  efforts  of  the  people  to  maintain  their  meetings,  though 
pinched  for  the  want  of  ready  money,  foregoing  school  as  well 
as  dispensing  with  everything  that  was  deemed  a  luxur\-,  but 
which  would  now  be  regarded  as  absolute  necessities. 

Money  raised  for  the  support  of  the  public  schools  was  used 
to  pay  Mr.  W^ells'  salary,  as  well  as  seventy  pounds  raised  by  a  tax 
levy  voted  at  the  March  meeting  in  1788,  five  years  after  the  close 


169 

of  the  Revolutionary  war.  This  was  raised  to  repair  the  meet- 
ing-house.    This,  too,  was  paid  to  Mr.  Wells. 

Mr.  Temple  well  observes,  "That  Mr.  Wells  managed  the 
affairs  of  a  large  and  productive  farm  in  connection  with  his 
ministerial  duties."  He  was  eminently  successful  in  both  call- 
ings-. He  was  not  personally  required  to  pay  a  tax  on  his  nice 
farm.  He  was  an  excellent  accountant  and  seemed  determined 
that  his  book  should  balance  without  any  loss  to  himself. 

The  confession  of  faith  and  the  covenant  are  in  the  usual 
form  in  the  Congregational  denomination.  The  ordination  of 
Mr.  Wells  was  in  the  usual  form,  thirteen  churches  of  the'neigh- 
borhood  being  invited  as  a  council.  They  met  "And  set  apart 
Mr,  Rufus  Wells  to  the  work  of  the  ministry,  being  made  an 
overseer  of  the  church  or  flock  of  Christ  in  Whately  by  the  lay- 
ing on  of  the  hands  of  the  Presbytery,  25  Sept .,  1771 ."  The  ser- 
vices were  held  under  the  shade  of  two  large  oaks,  on  the  west 
side  of  the  street,  near  the  residence  of  the  late  Dr.  Myron  Har- 
wood.  The  sermon  was  by  Rev.  Jonathan  Ashley  of  Deerfield, 
I  Timothy,  iv :  6. 

The  halfway  covenant  prevailed  for  many  years  that  per- 
sons not  of  scandalous  character,  could  solemnly  confess  the 
covenant.  This  permitted  such  persons  to  have  their  children 
baptized.  It  was  deemed  efficacious  in  case  of  the  death  of  the 
child  in  infancy,  as  only  such  could  be  saved.  This  was 
changed  in  1816,  and  only  full  fledged  church  members  were 
accorded  the  right  to  have  their  children  baptized. 

When  one  reflects  for  a  moment  he  finds  who  among  our 
people  was  so  aggrieved  that  he  could  not  endure  the  "grief  and 
offense"  that  the  church  should  continue  the  practice  of  baptiz- 
ing the  children  of  such  persons,  and  asks,  who  was  Joel  Waite? 
Why  a  man  who  sold  mm  for  years  at  his  hotel  in  the  Straits. 
How  often  it  is  that  men  of  this  class  are  very  ostentatious  in 
their  professions  of  possessing  sensibilities. 

At  the  time  of  the  ordination  of  Mr.  Wells,  Capt.  Salmon 
White  provided  for  the  council.  His  house  was  nearly  a  mile 
from  the  place  where  the  ceremony  was  performed.  And  we 
who  live  in  a  different  environment  are  led  to  wonder  at  the 
unusual  trouble  they  took  to  go  so  far.  Then  there  were  but 
two  houses  between  the  house  of  Capt.  White  and  the  place 
where  the  meeting  was  held,  and  probably  both  were  small  and 
inconvenient  for  such  a  council  to  convene  in.  I  have  often 
tried    to  picture   that   gathering   of   our  grandsires  and  great- 


170 

grandsires,  with  their  wives  and  children,  all  intent  upon  per- 
forming this  most  important  step  in  building  a  foundation  for 
our  new  town,  filled  with  pious  zeal  and  anxious  that  this  im- 
portant work  should  be  done  well  and  properly.  And  with 
what  satisfaction,  not  to  say  exultation,  they  clung  to  the  young 
man  who  had  cast  his  lot  with  them  and  was,  this  beautiful 
autumnal  day,  made  their  minister,  their  friend  and  guide. 

This  was  the  culmination  of  all  their  aspirations.  They 
had  settled  on  their  farms  and  had  labored  and  hoped  aye, 
prayed.  Oh!  how  earnestly,  for  the  time  when  the}-  could  wor- 
ship their  God  in  their  own  little  town.  And  now  looking  back 
upon  their  efforts  to  progress  to  higher  and  better  conditions, 
we  should  be  ingrates  did  we  not  regard  their  labors  with  pride 
and  gratification,  that  they  so  boldly  worked  for  the  upbuilding 
of  religion,  of  good  morals  in  the  community,  for  without  such 
a  foundation  to  build  upon,  their  organization  as  a  town  would 
have  lost  its  best,  its  crowning  glory. 

The  next  thing  was  to  have  a  meeting-house.  As  Mr. 
Temple  has  so  eloquently  told  the  story  of  the  town's  struggles 
to  surmount  the  various  obstacles  that  for  j^ears  compelled  them 
to  worship  in  a  building  not  as  good  as  the  ordinary  barn  of  to- 
day, I  will  only  add  that  my  hearty  respect  for  the  pluck  and 
endurance  of  our  grandsires  can  onh'  make  me  wish  that  their 
descendants  were  equally  meritorious. 

When  the  bell  was  purchased,  late  in  the  fall  of  1821,  the 
writer  was  in  his  fifth  year  and  well  recollects  hearing  it  rung 
when  it  was  swung  up  on  the  south  plate  of  Capt.  Salmon 
Graves'  woodshed,  and  it  was  rung  amid  the  cheers  of  hosts  of 
men  and  women,  as  well  as  of  a  crowd  of  girls  and  boys.  This 
was  on  Thursday  and  it  was  rung  by  Mr.  Simeon  Reed,  and 
that  evening  the  first  curfew  was  rung. 

The  Sunday  following  it  was  rung  at  the  same  place  for 
meeting  and  at  noon  w'hen  it  was  rung,  I  was  there  to  see  it  as 
well  as  to  hear  its  tones.  It  seemed  as  though  the  whole  town 
thronged  the  grounds  of  Capt.  Graves.  In  those  days,  all  went 
to  meeting  and  stayed  to  both  services.  The  next  week  it  was 
hoisted  into  the  belfry,  and  every  evening  at  9  o'clock  it  rung 
out  cheerfully,  until  about  i860  when  clocks  were  so  abundant 
that  the  town  declined  to  continue  the  practice.  I  well  recall 
the  facts  related  about  its  journey,  its  being  hoisted  b}'  willing 
hands  to  its  place.  It  was  slid  up  on  long  smooth  poles  to  the 
belfry  window. 


171 

In  December,  1821,  the  town  voted  to  give  Mr.  Lemuel  P. 
Bates  a  call  to  settle  as  a  colleague  pastor  with  yir.  Wells  at  a 
salary  of  $350  per  year,  to  be  increased  to  S450  after  the  decease 
of  Mr.  Wells,  and  what  was  called  a  "settlement"  of  S500  to  be 
paid  in  three  installments.  He  wasordained  13  Feb.,  1S22,  and 
was  dismissed  17  Oct.,  1832.  He  is  remembered  for  his  unsav- 
ory reputation.  The  town  ceased  its  control  about  1S2S  or  '29 
and  the  parish  was  organized.  There  has  since  been  settled 
quite  a  number  of'different  clergymen,  among  them  Rev.  John 
Ferguson,  Rev.  J.  H.  Temple,  Rev.  Charles  N.  Seymour,  Rev. 
John  W.  Lane,  Rev.  M.  F.  Hardy  and  novv  '^iS^^j  Rev.  George 
L.  Dickinson.  In  the  interim  between  settled  ministers  I  recall 
Rev.  Mr.  Snow,  Rev.  Mr.  Chase,  Rev.  Mr.  Lincoln,  Rev.  Mr. 
Salter,  Rev.  Mr.  Curtis,  and  there  were  others  that  I  do  not 
now  recall.  At  the  second  church  Rev.  J.  S.  Judd  was  settled 
in  October,  1843,  and  dismissed  in  1855.  He  was  succeeded  by 
Rev.  Charles  Lord,  who  was  settled  in  1856  and  dismissed 
in  i860. 

The  second  church  was  formed  by  the  secession  of  seven- 
teen members  from  the  first  one  who  withdrew  on  account  of 
the  lack  of  sound  orthodox  preaching.  They  claimed  that  the 
preaching  was  verging  towards  Methodism.  These  seventeen 
were  soon  followed  by  others  to  the  number  of  seventy-five  in  all, 
and  were  properly  organized  into  a  church.  I  well  recollect 
hearing  one  Sunday  a  discourse,  largely  upon  free  agency,  and 
seeing  the  scowls  that  covered  the  faces  of  some  of  the  good 
people.  One  lady  who  sat  in  a  chair  became  so  much  incensed 
that  she  arose  and,  grasping  her  chair  with  both  hands  and 
turning  her  back  to  the  minister,  set  down  her  chair  with  a  bang 
that  attracted  every  eye.  So  it  was  the  straight  laced  Calvinist 
that  seceded  and  then,  as  more  liberal  thought  })ervaded  the 
community  after  the  decease  of  the  original  members,  the  two 
churches  were  again  happily  reunited  in  1867.  They  enlarged 
the  new  meeting-house,  raising  and  fitting  it  up  in  good  shape 
so  that  it  is  a  matter  of  pride  to  the  whole  town. 

The  Baptist  church  probably  grew  out  of  the  fierce  quarrel 
over  the  location  of  the  meeting-house.  There  were,  perhaps,  a 
few  full-fledged  Baptists  living  in  town  that  believed  in  the 
necessity  of  immersion,  and  others  in  the  adjoining  towns  who 
joined  with  them.  They  built  a  meeting-house,  on  Poplar  Hill 
road,  two  stories  high,  with  a  gallery  on  three  sides.  In  18 17, 
the  parish  voted,  "To  cut  it  down  four  (4)  feet  and  remove  the 


172 

galleries."  This  was  done  by  sawing  off  the  posts  and  studding, 
thus  lowering  the  cliurch,  and  then  finished  off  into  what  was 
called  slips.  This  wa.s  rededicated  in  October,  1S17,  the  sermon 
being  given  by  Rev.  David  Pease  of  Ashfield  The  first  nnnis- 
ter  was  Rev.  Asa  Todd  from  Westfield.  He  was  doubtless  an 
excellent  man,  but  very  deficient  in  educational  qualifications, 
judging  by  the  church  records  that  he  kept.  He  was  followed 
by  Rev  St::?phen  Barker  from  Heath,  Rev.  John  R.  Goodnough, 
Rev.  Lorenzo  Rice,  who  remained  several  years,  then  Rev. 
James  Parker  and  then  Rev.  George  Bills,  an  Englisliman. 
Since  Mr.  Bills  they  have  had  occasional  preaching,  but  gave 
up  their  orgainzation  23  Aug.,  1850. 

After  181 S  a  small  Methodist  society  was  organized  and  a 
certificate  reciting  the  facts  was  filed  with  the  town  clerk.  It  is 
quite  likely  this  was  to  avoid  taxation  by  the  regular  orthodox 
church,  as  then  every  taxpayer  was  taxed  by  the  town  for  the 
support  of  the  regular  order,  and  many  avoided  this  by  filing 
their  certificates  with  the  town  clerk  that  they  were  members  of 
some  other  religious  society. 

The  Universalist  societ}' was  organized  20  May,  1839.  The 
warrant  was  issued  for  the  first  regular  meeting  by  Luke  B. 
White,  Esq.,  on  a  petition  of  fourteen  of  its  members  dated  18 
April,  1S39.  A  constitution  and  by-laws  were  adopted  with  the 
understanding  that  as  man}-  Sabbath  meetings  should  be  held 
as  the  funds  raised  would  allow.  It  began  wdth  one  Sunday 
per  month  for  the  first  year  and  ended  in  i860  with  preaching 
half  of  the  time.  On  the  formation  of  the  Unitarian  society,  in 
1865,  the  members  of  the  Universalist  all  joined  heartily  with 
those  who  favored  the  forming  of  the  Unitarian  society,  and  a 
meeting-house  was  built  and  dedicated  17  Jan.,  1867.  The  pas- 
tors were  Rev.  E.  B.  Fairchild,  three  years.  Rev.  George  H.  El- 
dridge,  two  years,  and  Rev.  Leonard  W.  Brigham,  about  three 
and  one-half  years,  with  several  young  men  in  the  interim  of 
settled  pastors.  A  large  number  of  the  w^ealthiest  members 
removed  to  other  towns,  and  the  society  ceased  to  exist  about 
the  year  1876. 


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CHAPTER  X. 

WHATELY    ROADS. 

The  system  of  highways  originally  adopted  by  Hatfield, 
and  partially  carried  out  before  the  incorporation  of  this  town, 
has  been  already  mentioned.  The  idea  was  to  give  ever\'  land- 
owner ready  access  to  his  several  lots.  The  system  was  roads 
running  north  and  south  through  the  town,  crossed  at  right 
angles  by  east  and  west  roads,  extending  from  the  meadows  to 
the  town  limits.  This  could  be  easily  effected  because  the  sys- 
tem was  devised  before  the  Commons  were  divided. 

The  Straits  road  was  the  Indian  trail  and  practicalh'  di- 
vided the  River  Meadows  from  the  Upland  Commons.  The 
Chestnut  Plain  road  was  a  space  of  ten  rods  wide  left  between 
the  two  main  divisions  of  Commons.  The  east  and  west  roads 
were  reserved  lots  in  the  Commons.  The  only  cross  roads 
within  Whately  limits,  laid  out  by  Hatfield,  were  the  Christian 
Lane,  between  lots  No.  36  and  37  in  the  second  division,  and 
Mt.  Esther  road,  between  lots  No.  26  and  27  in  the  fourth 
division.  These  two  roads,  as  laid  out  in  17 16,  were  coinci- 
dent at  the  Chestnut  Plain  crossing,  atid  taken  together  ex- 
tended from  the  west  line  of  the  Bradstreet  farm,  to  "the  end  of 
the  six  miles  from  the  great  river."  The  course  was  not  quite 
a  straight  line,  as  the  Mt.  Esther  road  from  Chestnut  Plain  bore 
due  east  and  west.  All  the  roads  laid  by  Hatfield  were  ten 
rods  wide. 

It  seems  to  have  been  the  original  intention  to  lay  the  north 
and  south  thrmigh  roads  at  about  half  a  mile  distant  from  each 
other,  and  it  was  pretty  well  understood- where  the  line  of  a  road 
would  be.     This  is  shown  by  the  location  of  the  earliest  houses. 


174 

Capt.  Lucius  Allis,  Lieut.  Elisha  Frpry,  Edward  Brown,  Simeon 
Morton  and  other  settlers  knew  where  to  build,  and  a  road  was 
sure,  in  due  time,  to  come  to  them. 

The  road  north  and  south  over  Spruce  Hill  and  Chestnut 
mountain  to  Hatfield  line  was  laid  out  by  Whately  in  1772,  and 
the  same  year  the  town  voted.  "That  Samuel  Dickinson  have 
liberty  to  make  bars  or  gates  near  the  southerly  end  of  this  road 
for  his  convenience."  These  gates  were  ordered  to  be  removed 
and  the  road  made  an  open  highway  in   17S3. 

The  road  from  Conway  line  over  Poplar  hill  by  the  Baptist 
meeting-house,  and  so  on  over  Hog  mountain  to  the  south  line 
of  the  town,  was  laid  out  1773  and  was  early  accepted  as  a 
county  road.  A  road  from  Conway  line  to  the  south  line  of 
Whately,  west  of  the  Poplar  hill  road  was  laid  out  in  1774.. 
Probably  the  following  has  reference  to  this  road:  17S5, 
"Voted,  To  open  and  clear  the  road  running  southerly  from 
Simeon  Morton's  by  Paul  Smith's  to  Williamsburg  line." 

A  road  was  laid  in  177S  from  Conway  line  southerly  to  the 
highway  south  of  Elisha  Frary's,  and  from  the  above  highway 
between  said  Frary's  house  and  barn,  southeasterly.  Probably 
this  was  a  designated  line  of  a  through  road  but  its  history  is 
obscure.  It  seems  to  have  been  continued  to  West  brook,  and 
along  the  north  bank  of  said  brook  to  meet  the  Stony  hill  road, 
and  the  road  running  southwesterly,  by  the  southwest  school- 
house,  was  probably  a  branch  or  continuation  of  it  in  that 
direction. 

The  line  of  the  Claverack  road,  probably  so  named  by  the 
soldiers  who  returned  from  an  expedition  to  Claverack,  N.  Y., 
in  1779,  perhaps  from  a  real  or  fancied  resemblance  to  that  place, 
seems  to  have  been  established  by  tradition  and  worked  as 
houses  were  built.  The  following  votes  probably  refer  to  this 
line:  1777,  a  committee  was  chosen  to  view  a  road  from  the  Egypt 
road  north  to  the  Deerfield  line  and  surv^ey  the  same.  1780,  a 
road  three  rods  wide  was  laid  from  Eleazer  Frary's  to  Hatfield 
line,  "Beginning  half  a  mile  east  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,  to 
lands  reser\-ed  by  the  proprietors  of  Hatfield  for  a  road  at  the 
east  end  of  Mill  Swamp."  1779,  Voted,  "To  lay.  a  road  to  the 
dwelling  house  of  Ebenezer  Bardwell,  Jr."  It  is  likely  that  the 
whole  line  was  originally  known  as  the  "Island  road",  and  that 
it  was  actually  opened  from  Christian  Lane  .south  in  1780, 

To  "lay  out"  a  road,  and  to  "accept"  a  road,  as  the  terms 
were  then  used,  probably    fail  to  convey  a  true  idea  to  us  now. 


175 

A  vote  to  that  eflfect  did  not  show  that  a  highway  was  put  in 
complete  order  and  well  graded,  but  meant  that  a  way  was 
marked  out  and  was  made  passable  or  possible.  Sometimes  it 
only  meant  that  if  a  person  traveled  the  designated  route  he 
should  not  be  liable  -for  damages  for  crossing  his  neighbor's  land 
and  that  if  he  got  mired  the  sur\'e}'or  was  bound  to  help  him 
out  without  charge.  In  1771  the  town  granted  £16  for  repair- 
ing highways  and  allowed  2s.  6d.  per  day  for  highway  work, 
which  would  give  only  128  days'  work  for  all  the  roads. 

The  plan  of  east  and  west  roads,  as  actually  laid  out,  is 
ver>^  complicated  and  the  record  very  confused.  Excepting 
Christian  Lane,  and  the  Mt.  Esther  road  from  Spruce  hill  west- 
ward, scarcely  one  remains  to-day  as  originally  established,  and 
the  line  of  many  of  the  early  crossroads  would  be  wholly  unin- 
telligible to  the  present  generation.  A  "close"  road  was  often 
laid  to  accommodate  a  single  individual.  The  roads  leading 
from  Chestnut  Plain  street  to  Belden's  mills,  were  laid,  and  re- 
laid,  and  altered,  and  discontinued  as  new  interests  sprung  up. 
And  the  same  is  true  of  the  roads  in  the  southwest  and  north- 
v/est  parts  of  the  town.  Convenience  for  the  time  being  was. 
perhaps  unavoidably,  the  rule  of  location  and  discontinuance. 

In  1772  the  town  voted  that  both  the  westerly  and  easterly 
(i.  e.  from  Chestnut  Plain  as  a  base  line)  crossroads  be  laid 
out  three  rods  wide.  And  where  not  otherwise  specified  this  is 
believed  to  be  the  uniform  width. 

The  road  from  Chestnut  Plain  near  the  old  meeting-house, 
southeasterly  through  "Egypt"  to  Hatfield,  does  not  appear  to 
have  been  accepted  as  a  highway  by  either  Hatfield  or  Whately, 
though  it  was  the  convenient  and  the  traveled  way  from  the 
earliest  settlement  of  the  territory. 

Christian  Lane  and  the  road  over  Mount  Esther,  as  already 
stated,  were  reserved  lots  ten  rods  wide  and  were  in  a  continu- 
ous line.  The  lane  was  a  "bridle  path"  in  1756  and  a  rough 
log  "causeway"  in  1761,  and  Mill  river  was  then  crossed  by  a 
fordway.  In  1773  the  town  voted  to  build  a  foot  bridge  over 
the  Mill  River  swamp,  near  the  house  of  Dea.  Simeon  Wait  (the 
J.  C.  Loomis  place.)  Originally  the  lane  extended  only  to  the 
Straits,  The  road  from  Bartlett's  corner  to  Canterbury,  north 
of  the  cemetery,  was  laid  in  1820. 

.  From  Chestnut  Plain  westerly  the  road,  as  first  traveled, 
followed  nearly  the  line  of  the  reserved  lot,  var>'ing  only  to 
escape-"The  gutter"  and   to   get   an   easier   ascent  up  the  hilL 


176 

That  part  "From  the  foot  of  Mt.  Esther  through  land  of  Ensign 
Elisha  AUis  to  Abraham  Turner's  barn  on  Poplar  Hill"  was 
laid  out  in  1773.  From  the  foot  of  Mt.  Esther  to  the  Chestnut 
Plain  street  the  location  has  been  changed  several  times.  In 
1786  the  town  voted  to  establish  the  alterations  in  the  highway 
from  Whately  meeting-house  to  Conway,  beginning  four  rods 
south  of  the  brook  and  runniiig  through  the  northeast  part  of 
Jonathan  AUis'  land  on  the  old  road,  etc..  and  to  the  old  road 
near  the  foot  of  the  hill  near  Dea.  Samuel  Wells'  house  in  Con- 
way. In  iSoi  record  is  made  of  a  new  location  from  Chestnut 
Plain  road  on  Levi  Morton's  north  line  to  the  old  road  near  the 
pound.     West  lane,  as  it  now  runs,  was  laid  out  in  1S19. 

Probablv  the  Hatfield  authorities  had  no  thought  of  a  new 
town  when  they  marked  off  the  Commons  and  reserved  the  lots 
for  highwa}'s.  But  the  intersection  of  those  reserved  highway 
lots  determined  where  the  central  village  of  the  newitown  should 
be.  And  this  line  from  Bartlett's  corner  to  Poplar  Hill  was  the 
natural  location  for  a  road.  Great  swamp  could  not  be  so 
readily  crossed  at  any  other  point,  and  the  ascent  of  the  hills 
was  most  feasible  here.  This  was  the  earliest  opened  of  any  of 
'  the  crossrcads  ar.d  was  the  most  important,  as  it  furnished  a 
convenient  way  for  the  Canterbun-  and  Straits  people,  on  the 
one  hand,  and  the  West  Whately  families  on  the  other,  to  get  to 
meeting  on  the  Sabbath  and  to  town  meeting. 

After  ready  access  to  the  meeting-house  had  been  obtained 
the  next  important  care  was  to  secure  a  convenient  way  to  mill. 
Taylor's  mills,  which  best  accommodated  many  families,  were 
over  the  line  in  Deerfield  and  consequenth'  the  road  up  Indian 
Hill  is  not  noticed  on  our  records.  Belden's  mills  at  West 
brook  were  accessible  from  the  Straits  b}^  means  of  the  road  on 
the  Hatfield  side  of  the  line  running  west,  near  where  the  pres- 
ent road  runs  and  so  across  West  brook  bridge. 

Roads  for  general  convenience  were  established  early.  In 
r776  a  committee  was  appointed  to  view  a  road  from  Poplar  Hill 
road,  beginning  seven  rods  north  of  West  brook  bridge,  and 
running  southwesterly  to  Dry  Hill,  and  another  committee  to 
view  a  road  running  northwesterly  from  Poplar  Hill  road, 
beginning  at  the  north  end  of  Noah  Field's  land,  to  Conway 
line.  This  last  was  laid  out  the  next  year;  In  1779  the  town 
voted,  "That  the  road  which  leads  from  the  Straits  to  Nathaniel 
Coleman's  be  an  open  road,  with  this  restriction,  that  Benjamin 
Scott,  Jr.,  shall  keep  a  good  gate  at  Deerfield  road,  another  on 


177 

Hopewell  Hill  one  month,  another  the  whole  of  the  year  at  the 
south  side  of  his  land  in  Hopewell."  Mention  is  made  Jan.  8, 
1778,  of  a  road  laid  across  land  of  Abial  Bragg  and  Oliver 
Graves. 

In  1779  a  road  was  laid  to  Joseph  Nash's  and  the  next 
year  from  Joseph  Xash's  to  the  Conway  line.  In  1780  the 
road  east  of  Ebenezer  Scott's  land  was  discontinued.  In  1783  a 
road  was  laid  from  Asa  Sanderson's  westerly  to  the  Williams- 
burg line.  In  17S5  a  close  road  three  rods  wide  was  laid  out 
from  the  river  road,  at  a  point  eight  rods  north  of  Joshua  Bel- 
den's  house  to  the  Connecticut  river,  and  near  the  same  time 
Mr.  Belden  opened  a  ferry  across  the  river.  A  way  was  also 
laid  out  that  year  from  Poplar  Hill  road  by  the  Elijah  Sanderson 
place  to  Moses  Munson's  mill.  A  road  was  laid  out  the  same 
year  from  the  road  running  west  from  John  Smith's  northerly  to 
Poplar  Hill  road  near  Peter  Train's  house. 

Of  the  roads  laid  in  comparatively  modern  times  one  from 
Chestnut  Plain  to  the  Island,  between  lands  of  Capt.  Henry 
Stiles  and  Lieut.  John  White,  was  established  in  18 10.  The 
highway  from  Dea.  James  Smith's  mills  down  the  valley  by 
Capt.  Seth  Bardwell's,  was  laid  out  in  1S24.  The  road  from  the 
foot  of  Spruce  Hill,  southwesterly  to  the  Hiram  Smith  place,  was 
laid  out  in  1S34.  The  road  to  South  Deerfield,  from  Gutter 
bridge  through  Great  swamp,  was  established  in  1835,  and  the 
next  year  the  way  leading  from  the  lane  north  was  relocated, 
and  near  the  swamp  moved  to  the  west. 

The  Deerfield  road  was  in  use  probably  as  early  as  the  set- 
tlement of  Deerfield,  about  1671,  and  was  in  constant  use  in 
1764  as  the  only  way  to  communicate  with  the  people  of  Deer- 
field. This  road  leaves  the  Main  street  in  Hatfield  between  the 
houses — when  I  was  a  boy — of  Solomon  Dickinson  and  his 
brother's  widow,  Nancy  Dickinson,  then  by  the  Elisha  Waite 
place,  up  Clay  Hill,  so  called,  on  to  the  second  level  then  fol- 
lowed a  northerly  course  through  the  Straits  to  South  Deerfield, 
keeping  on  the  Plain  to  the  Straits  and  so  over  the  North  plain. 

For  many  years  the  direct  road  much  of  the  way  was  sandy 
and  difficult  to  travel  with  lo&,ded  teams.  It  doubtless  struck 
the  Indian  trail  after  getting  some  fifty  or  sixty  rods  from  the 
top  of  Clay  Hill  and  very  likely  that  trail  was  utilized  for  a  road. 
It  ran  nearly  one  and  one-half  miles  on  the  limits  of  the  Gov. 
Rradstreet  grant,  as  all  of  the  Straits  and  quite  a  strip  north  of 
Bartlett's  comer  is  ou  this  grant,  then  into  the  second  Division 


of  Commons  through  Avhich  it  passes  to  South  Deerfield.  This 
was  the  main  road  up  the  valley  for  over  a  hundred  years,  or 
until  about  1S40,  when  the  roads  were  built  through  Great 
swamp  and  the  hills  were  graded,  and  now  the  old  Deerfield 
road  is  seldom  used. 

The  river  road  passes  through  a  lovely  region  as  well  as  a 
very  fertile  and  well-cultivated  section  of  our  town.  The  writer 
of  this  had  a  plan  of  the  sun^ey  of  the  Chestnut  Plain  street  in 
his  possession,  but  gave  it  to  Irving  Allis,  but  preserved  this 
description  of  it.  It  was  the  survey  of  the  road  from  the  top  of 
Clay  Hill  in  Hatfield  through  Whately  to  Conway,  over  Indian 
Hill,  to  where  it  intersects  the  Conway  and  South  Deerfield 
road  xmder  the  authority  of  the  town  of  Hatfield  before  the  town 
of  Whately  was  incorporated.     This  surve}-  was  made  in  1770. 

We  here  present  the  following  extract  from  the  Hatfield 
town  records:  "At  a  legal  meeting  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Com- 
mons in  Hatfield  Ixing  in  the  six  mile  grant,  21  Nov.  1743. 
Voted,  by  the  proprietors  that  the  highway  between  the  second 
and  fourth  division,  run  as  follows  :  To  begin  where  the  high- 
way ends  that  is  laid  out  on  the  west  side  of  Mill  river  swamp, 
and  from  thence  to  run  to  the  upper  or  north  side  of  the  forty- 
fifth  lot  in  said  fourth  division,  as  staked  out  by  the  proprietors' 
committee  in  the  present  year.  And  from  thence  to  run  north- 
west fift^'-eight  rods  to  the  north  side  of  lot  No.  50,  staked  out 
as  aforesaid,  and  from  thence  north  to  Deerfield  line.  At  this 
point  it  veers  to  the  northwest,  up  to  Pete  Hill  and  so  on  up 
Indian  Hill  and  on  to  Conway." 

This  road  I  presume  to  be  the  real  base  line  of  the  roads 
afterwards  laid.  This,  as  all  the  roads,  was  laid  ten  rods  wide, 
but  since  some  have  been  reduced  to  three  rods. 

The  Chestnut  Plain  street  still  retains  its  original  width. 
Please  note  that  Chestnut  Plain  street  began  "Where  the  high- 
way ends."  Here  allow  me  to  say  that  Silas  G.  Hubbard,  who 
fully  understood  the  Hatfield  roads,  told  the  writer  that  each 
side  of  the  Mill  swamp  division  was  a  road  one-half  mile  apart. 
From  this  fact  I  certainly  think,  as  did  Mr.  Hubbard,  that  the 
Claverack  road — as  now  called — was  a  continuation  of  the  road 
on  the  east  side  of  Mill  swamp.  How  early  these  roads  were 
laid  I  do  not  know,  certainly  before  1743.  So  we  have  good  rea- 
son to  suppose  that  the  Claverack  road  existed  from  about  17 16 
to  1743. 
^     ,  It  was  doubtless  true  that,  the  north  and  south  roads  were 


^79 

intended  to  be  about  one-half  mile  apart,  particularly  from 
Chestnut  Plain  street  east.  Then  the  places  where  roads  were 
to  be  worked  were  indicated  so  plainly  that  when  Simeon  Mor- 
ton settled  on  the  Dry  Hill  road  he  well  knew  where  the  road 
was  to  be.  The  same  is  also  true  of  Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell  and 
Peter  Train.  Edward  Brown  built  on  the  proposed  Poplar  Hill 
road,  that  was  laid  out  in  1773,  from  Conway  line  to  the  south 
line  of  Whately.     The  Dry  Hill  road  was  laid  in  1774. 

Our  theory  about  these  and  other  roads  is  that  the  people 
well  understood  where  the  roads  were  eventually  to  be  worked, 
as  in  1777  the  town  chose  a  committee  to  view  a  road  from 
Egypt  road  north  to  the  Deerfield  line,  and  then  in  1780  the 
Claverack  road  was  laid  from  Eleazer  Frary's  to  Hatfield  line. 
Eleazer  Frary  lived  on  the  Alonzo  Crafts  place  in  the  lane,  so 
it  is  very  evident  that  the  road  was  there,  by  the  action  of  Hat- 
field prior  to  this,  as  Niles  Coleman  lived  there  then. 

As  will  be  seen  by  reference  to  the  will  of  Reuben  Belden, 
dated  27  Nov.,  1775,  he  gave  the  town  of  Whately  ''The  farm  or 
land  in  said  Whately,  with  the  dwelling  house  standing  there- 
on, lying  on  the  Island,  so  called,  in  which  Niles  Coleman  now 
lives."  The  evidence  is  simply  culminative  and  to  the  effect  that 
the  people  of  that  day  well  knew  where  the  roads  had  been  es- 
tablished by  Hatfield.  How  long  Niles  Coleman  had  lived 
there  we  do  not  know  or  who  had  built  the  house  that  was  a  log 
house  we  cannot  tell,  but  it  was  pulled  down  and  the  present 
house  built  very  soon. 

Mr.  Temple  doesn't  give  any  dates  of  the  laying  out  of  the 
highway  from  Deerfield  line  past  the  Abraham  Parker  place  to 
connect  with  the  highway  running  through  the  Gov.  Bradstreet 
farm,  but  the  records  of  the  proprietors  of  Bradstreet's  grant 
say:  "At  a  legal  meeting  of  the  proprietors,  held  16  May, 
1718,  it  was  voted,  that  w£  will  have  a  highway  to  run  through 
the  upper  mile  in  the  most  convenient  place,"  and  a  great  gate 
was  to  be  built  at  the  north  end  that  leads  out  to  Canterbury. 
This  was  built  by  Ebenezer  Bardwell  and  another  at  the  end  of 
the  upper  mile,  built  by  Josiah  Scott,  and  this  was  the  direct 
road  to  Sunderland,  and  as  we  find  the  date  of  171S  we  can  but 
conclude  that  the  road  past  the  Abraham  Parker  place  was  in 
existence  as  early  as  17 18. 

The  road  from  the  river  road  to  the  Deerfield  road  Mr.  Tem- 
ple says  was  laid,  in  1756  and  struck  the  Straits  below  the  John 
Waite   place   running  south  of  the  cemetery.     This  has  since 


i8o 

been  straightened.  Then  he  says:  "In  1755  a  road  was  laid 
from  the  Straits  eastwardly  by  Ebenezer  Morton's  to  the  road 
dividing  Old  farms  and  West  farms,  thence  to  Dennison's  grant." 
Who  was  Ebenezer  Morton  ?  Where  did  he  live  ?  And  where 
is  the  road  ?     Most  certainly  not  in  Whately. 

Considerably  earlier  than  this  a  path  had  been  marked  out 
and  traveled  from  the  Straits  near  "Mother  George"  north- 
westerly through  "Egypt"  to  Chestnut  Plain  street,  so  Mr. 
Temple  says.  Now  the  Mother  George  road  did  not  lead  to  or 
from  the  Straits,  as  the  Mother  George  road  had  its  mouth  or 
junction  exactly  where  the  Ferguson  house  stands,  now  owned 
b\-  H.  A.  Brown,  then  running  east  to  a  ford  of  Mill  river  thence 
running  southerly,  west  of  the  barns  of  John  M.  Crafts  and  Pat- 
rick Conolly,  thence  southeasterly  to  the  south  line  of  R.  M. 
Swift's  land,  bought  of  Orrin  Dickinson,  and  so  on  in  the  same 
southeast  course  to  the  Egypt  road,  crossing  it  diagonally  and 
keeping  the  same  course  across  the  Capt.  Smith  lot,  formerly 
owned  by  the  writer,  and  met  the  Deerfield  road  about  fifteen 
rods  north  of  the  Joseph  Scott  place,  owned  later  by  Elijah  Bel- 
den,  on  the  west  side  of  Deerfield  road  in  Hatfield. 

The  writer  has  been  over  this  Mother  George  road  for  seventy 
years.  The  wet  spots  were  corduroyed,  and  the  old,  much-de- 
cayed poles  are  still  in  existence.  This  was  the  route  over 
which  our  earlier  settlers  went  to  Platfield.  And  one  going  then 
from  Northampton  would  have  to  go  through  Hatfield  then  over 
Mother  George  to  Whately  and  Conway,  either  by  the  Indian 
Hill  route  or  else  by  the  Mt.  Esther  route.  We  have  no  other 
date  for  the  Christian  Lane  road  than  that  of  its  being  laid  out 
or  left  for  a  road  29  April,  1716.  This  lot  was  8  rods,  11  feet 
and  4  inches  wide  at  Chestnut  Plain  street  and  some  wider  at 
the  Straits.  Mr.  Temple  says:  "Christian  Lane  and  the  road 
over  Mt.  Esther,  as  already   stnted,  were  in  a  continuous  line." 

Here  I  must  differ  from  Mr.  Temple,  as  the  lot  left  for  a 
road  in  the  fourth  division  was  between  lots  No.  26  and  27,  and 
was  between  Horace  Manning's  house  and  the  house  of  Dono- 
van brothers.  From  the  north  side  of  lot  26.  in  the  fourth 
division  of  Commons,  to  the  south  line  of  the  Christian  Lane 
road  is  224  rods,  so  the  two  roads  could  not  have  been  in  con- 
tinuous line.  But  there  was  never  a  road  built  on  the  lot  left 
for  a  road  between  26  and  27.  But  the  road  turned  from  Chest- 
nut Plain  street  just  north  of  the  Oliver  Morton  blacksmith 
shop  just  south  of  the  W.  I.  Fox  house  and  then  ran  diagonally 


i8i 

from  that  point  to  the  "Pound"  and  then  up  the  hill  and  on 
over  Easter  to  West  Whately,  striking  the  Poplar  Hill  road 
near  the  house  of  Abraham  Turner,  just  north  of  the  Baptist 
meeting-house.  Had  Hatfield  located  the  West  Whately  road 
between  lots  36  and  37  instead  of  26  and  27,  it  would  have  been 
some  twenty-five  rods  too  far  south  to  have  been  coincident,  as 
Mr.  Temple  claimed. 

The  road  over  Easter  was  laid  by  Whately  in  1773.  The 
Lover's  Lane  was  laid  out,  as  it  now  runs,  in  1S19  at  the  in- 
stance of  Elijah  Allis,  who  was  then  about  to  build  the  hotel. 
Dr.  Bardwell  had  then  built  his  house  and  where  the  hotel 
stands  was  the  location  for  horse  sheds.  These  were  torn  down 
or  removed,  probably  torn  down,  as  there  were  no  sheds  any- 
where about  the  church  as  early  as  1S25,  as  I  well  recollect. 
When  the  West  Whately  road  over  Easter  reached  the  lowlands 
north  of  Irving  Allis'  house  it  branched  off  from  the  Conway 
road,  running  under  Mt.  Easter,  or  Esther,  up  by  the  house  of 
Dea.  Samuel  Wells,  more  recently  owned  by  Seth  B.  Crafts. 

The  Spruce  Hill  road  was  probably  early  designated,  but 
was  really  laid  out  by  the  town  in  1773.  This  ran  on  the  top  of 
the  hill  starting  from  the  Conway  road,  a  little  west  of  the  house 
of  George  Dickinson,  and  south  over  Chestnut  mountain.  That 
this  was  a  designated  road  at  an  early  date  we  have  proof  in  the 
fact  that  Dea.  Nathan  Graves  built  on  the  west  side  of  this  road, 
on  the  top  of  Chestnut  mountain,  in  1762  and  in  1772  the  town 
records  say  it  was  accepted  as  a  town  way. 

The  Poplar  Hill  road,  leading  from  Conway  line  to  the 
south  line  of  the  town,  was  laid  on  and  over  Shingle  Hill,  past 
the  residences  of  Lieut.  John  Brown,  Abraham  Turner,  Xoah 
Field,  Edward  Brown,  Peter  Train,  Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell  and 
Zenas  Field  and  was,  doubtless,  designated  by  the  Hatfield 
authorities  and  formally  accepted  by  the  town  in  1773. 

South  of  Zenas  Field's  the  Grass  Hill  road  commenced  and 
led  to  Williamsburg  and,  as  Mr.  Temple  well  says,  "In  17S5 
the  town  voted  to  open  and  clear  the  road  running  southerly 
from  Simeon  Morton's  by  Paul  Smith's  to  Williamsburg  line." 
This  was  the  Dry  Hill  road  running  by  Elihu  Waite's,  Simeon 
Morton's  and  Col.  Ames'  houses.  In  1S24  the  road,  leading 
from  the  Mitchell  corner  up  the  brook  to  intersect  with  the  road 
leading  from  Poplar  Hill  road  to  Dea.  James  Smith's  mill,  was 
laid  and  worked.  The  road  from  Poplar  Hill  road  to  Munson's 
mills  was  laid  in  1785.     The  mills  were  built  in  1784. 


l82 

In  178S  a  road  was  laid  from  near  West  brook  bridge  to 
Belden's  mills.  It  is  well  known  that  Samuel  Belden  was  a 
cousin  of  and  successor  to  Reuben  Belden  who  died  in  1776.  In 
1788  there  were  iron  works,  used  probabl}-  for  melting  scrap  iron 
and  possibly  smelting  from  iron  ore,  but  most  likely  the  working 
of  scrap  iron.  This  mill,  or  factory,  stood  near  the  site  of  the 
barn  on  the  Lemuel  W'aite  place.  About  this  date  the  iron 
works  ceased  and  the  mill  was  turned  into  a  distillery  for  the 
manufacture  of  rye,  gin  or  whiskey,  by  a  company  consisting  of 
Gen.  Seth  Murray,  Gen.  Dickinson,  Seth  Bardwell,  Samuel 
Belden  and  others.  To  accommodate  this  mill  the  road  was  laid 
as  follows:  "Beginning  at  Hatfield  line  at  West  brook  bridge, 
running  north  one  rod,  then  west  two  and  one-half  degrees, 
north  fifteen  rods,  then  west  thirty-one  degrees,  north  seven  rods 
to  the  northeast  corner  of  the  mill,  then  north  five  rods  to  the 
top  of  the  hill  for  the  convenient  turning  of  teams."  This  was 
voted  at  a  legal  town  meeting  held  2  March,  17S9.  It  is  quite 
probable  that  the  mills  were  either  burned  or  torn  down  before 
1S04,  as  no  trace  of  them  is  found  or  any  party  who  could  tell 
what  became  of  them  since  I  was  old  enough  to  be  interested 
in  such  historical  matters.  I  have  heard  my  father  speak  of  this 
mill  and  distillery  and  of  Chester  Harding  ha\-ing  sketched  the 
appearance  of  some  of  the  people  who  brought  rye  to  the  mill. 
He  had  a  natural  ability  to  sketch  them  in  a  ludicrous  manner 
when  a  mere  boy. 

"Egypt"  road  was  built  earl}^  and  afiTords  a  passage  from 
Deerfield  road  to  Claverack  road.  I  have  never  seen  any  record 
of  the  laying  out  of  the  road  through  "Egypt"  and  yet  it  fur- 
nished the  people  living  in  the  Straits  a  way  to  go  to  mill  and 
the  sawmill,  as  well  as  to  Northampton.  When  this  road  was 
laid,  or  by  whom,  I  do  not  know,  but  it  has  long  been  a  trav- 
eled roadway  leading  from  Claverack  to  the  Deerfield  road,  cer- 
tainly for  njore  than  seventy-five  years,  and  been  repaired  by 
the  town  all  these  years.  There  has  been  only  one  change 
made  in  it  within  my  recollection,  when  m}-  father's  uncles, 
Rufus  and  Caleb,  bought  the  lands  of  Israel  and  William  Dick- 
inson, now  partly  owned  by  the  town  of  Whately.  The  road 
was  mostlv  owned  bv  Caleb  Dickinson  until  the  Plain  was 
reached,  then  it  veered  to  the  north  and  ran  on  to  the  land  that 
the  Crafts  brothers  bouglit.  The  Dickinsons  bought  of  Caleb 
Dickinson  a  strip  two  rods  wide  from  that  point  to  Deerfield 
road,  and  the  roadway  was  thus  straightened,  Caleb  reser\'ing 


183 

the  wood,  but  after  chopping  it  off  the  stumps  would  average 
from  twelve  to  fifteen  inches  high.  This  was  in  1825  and  then 
we  used  to  drive  through  there,  the  wheels  sometimes  goine 
over  a  dozen  stumps  in  driving  the  fifty  rods  or  so.  Then  my 
father  used  to  go  and  cut  down  the  stumps,  as  we  had  a  dozen 
acres  or  so  in  corn.  At  noon,  after  eating  his  dinner,  he  would 
work  on  that  road  until  he  cut  them  out  clean,  the  town  paying 
him  for  the  work.     And  so  it  has  been  occupied. 

The  Stony  Hill  road  was  laid  in  1777  from  the  Poplar  Hill 
road,  near  Nathan  Waite's  and  his  son,  Jeremiah's,  who  had 
bought  first  on  Shingle  Hill  and  subsequently  of  Capt.  Church 
and  his  sister,  the  house  and  land  where  his  son,  Nathan,  then 
his  son,  John  Bement  Waite,  and  his  son,  Willis  F.,  now  lives. 
So  it  was  from  here  that  the  road  was  laid  in  1777,  between 
the  houses  of  John  Smith  and  Maj.  Phineas  Frary  on  Spruce 
Hill  road,  over  Stony  Hill  to  connect  with  the  road  that  was  in 
existence  up  Mill  Hill,  north  of  George  B.  McClelan's  to  the 
mill. 

The  people  had  that  road  up  Mill  Hill  as  early  as  1778. 
This,  after  getting  up  the  hill,  turned  a  square  corner  and  ran 
south  to  the  mill  about  thirty  rods.  This  road  over  Stony  Hill 
was  discontinued  when  the  county  laid  the  road  down  by  the 
brook,  about  1S30,  and  about  that  time  the  road  from  the  mill 
to  Chestnut  Plain  street,  north  of  George  B.  McClelan's,  and 
then  a  road  was  laid  down  by  the  brook,  where  it  now  is. 

What  is  called  the  crossroad  runs  between  the  lands  of 
Capt.  Henry  Stiles  and  Dea.  John  White  and  ran  from  Chestnut 
Plain  street  to  Claverack.  A  brick  schoolhouse  was  erected  at 
the  time  of  the  opening  of  the  road,  in  18 10.  This  opened  the 
way  to  the  schoolhouse  for  the  children  living  in  Claverack  and 
shortened  the  distance  to  the  post  office.  The  schoolhouse  was 
at  the  junction  of  the  crossroad  and  Chestnut  Plain  street. 

And  now  a  tew  words  to  emphasize  the  improvements  that 
have  been  going  on  from  year  to  year  relative  to  the  roads  and 
bridges.  This  we  conceive  to  be  an  element  in  the  history  of 
our  town  that  should  be  laid  fairly  before  our  readers.  The 
chairman  of  your  board  of  selectmen  informed  me  that  all  of  the 
bridges  of  sixteen  feet  in,length  and  over  were  now  built  of  iron 
or  steel.  When  the  town  commenced  replacing  the  old  wooden 
structures  with  iron,  they  used  wooden  joists  or  sleepers.  These 
are  now  being  taken  out  and  steel  joists  used  in  their  places,  thus 
eliminating  the  danger  of  a  collapse  in  the  near  future.     We  ali 


i84 

know  that  highway  workers  are  quite  apt  to  say  without  due 
and  thorough  examination  "O.  I  guess  it's  safe  and  all  right" 
and,  first  you  know,  down  goes  the  bridge. 

Only  a  few*  years  ago  an  omnibus  load  of  young  people,  some 
twelve  or  fifteen  of  them,  drawn  by  four  horses,  descended  the 
hill  on  the  South  Deerfield  road  at  a  smart  gait  and  struck  the 
wooden  bridge  with  such  force  that  the  bridge  fell.  This  struc- 
ture was  about  thirty-five  to  forty  feet  long.  The  horses  and  all 
fell  into  the  water  and  were  saved  with  great  difficulty.  The 
weather  was  cold  and  their  clothing  was  frozen,  and  great  ap- 
prehensions were  felt  for  their  ultimate  recovery.  The  town  had 
to  settle,  the  best  it  could,  the  damages  incurred  by  this  acci- 
dent (if  we  may  so  term  it).  The  approach  to  the  bridge  was 
as  low  as  the  bridge.  Few  people  properl\-  consider  the  blow  a 
bridge  receives  when  a  four-horse  team  rushes  at  a  high  rate  of 
speed,  with  its  heavy  load  of  human  beings,  and  strikes  the 
bridge.  Of  course,  this  was  replaced  b}'  an  iron  structure.  The 
solid  stone  abutments  were  raised  higher,  making  a  rise  to  the 
bridge  in  its  approach  as  you  came  down  the  hill.  The  wooden 
sleepers  have  given  place  to  solid  steel,  and  thus  a  serious 
danger  is  avoided. 

When  it  is  feasible,  stone  abutments  for  the  small  runs  have 
taken  the  place  of  an  old  log,  placed  on  each  side  of  the  brook, 
or  run.  When  the  writer  was  a  boy,  seventy  to  seventy-five 
years  ago,  there  was  no  effort  to  grade  down  the  short  though 
steep  pitches,  or  build  up  the  bridge.  Sleepers  were  laid  across 
the  logs  and,  instead  of  planks,  they  used  fairly  straight  poles, 
of  from  four  to  six  inches  in  diameter,  and  as  one  drove  down 
the  little  hill  it  was  necessary  to  be  on  .your  guard  or  you  would 
be  thrown  out  of  the  wagon.  Now  good  stone  abutments  are  in 
use  and  often  the  bridge  or  covering  is  made  of  large  flat  stones, 
or  arched  over  and  raised  sufficiently  to  afford  abundant  room 
for  the  water  flow  in  times  of  heav>'  freshets. 

The  town  seems  to  be  waking  up  to  the  necessity  of  using 
some  of  the  surplus  cobble  stones  in  macadamizing  the  clay 
hills,  like  the  Dr.  Dickinson  Hill  and  Gutter  Hill.  In  the 
spring  these  hills  are  fearful,  and  the  improvements  come  slowly 
but  surely,  and  if  only  a  small  distance  is  done  in  a  year  it  will 
soon  be  completed  and  all  these  improvements  are  now  going 
on.  The  advocates  of  thorough  work  are  in  the  ascendency  and 
it  is  this  kind  of  work  that  tells  for  the  benefit  of  the  town, 
•     ,  Good  roads  and  bridges  that  carry  you    safely  over   help 


i85 

greatly  to  induce  outsiders,  of  a  class  that  is  needful  to  build  up 
the  town,  to  come  in.  It  also  stimulates,  to  an  extent,  improve- 
ments in  our  houses  and  farm  buildings,  promotes  a  pleasant 
feeling  when  we  ride  out  or  hear  this  remark  from  those  who 
occasionally  ride  tlirough  our  town:  "You  seem  to  be  doing 
something  to  improve  your  town." 

The  old  method  of  building  our  roads  over  the  hills  has 
largely  given  place  to  the  construction  of  roads  in  the  valleys 
following  the  streams,  thus  facilitating  travel  and  the  ease  of 
drawing^  loads  from  town  to  town  or  in  one's  own  town.  For- 
merly  we  had  to  mount  the  hills  and  either  go  over  Mt.  Esther 
or  reach  the  Poplar  Hill  to  get  to  the  west  part.  Since  1825  we 
have  been  saved  all  of  that  tedious  drive  by  the  building  of  the 
road  up  the  valley  of  West  brook,  affording  a  fine,  feasible  route 
and  a  pleasant  roadway,  and  so  of  others. 

Think  of  the  fearful  hills  to  climb  to  get  over  Shingle  Hill 
to  go  to  Haydenville.  Now  we  have  a  fine  road  at  the  foot  of 
the  hill,  affording  a  pleasant  drive,  follov/ing  a  little  brook  quite 
a  portion  of  the  way.  Then  there  was  also  the  Spruce  Hill 
road,  now  seldom  used  since  the  completion  of  the  road  down 
the  valley  from  the  E.  S.  Munson  place  to  the  center  of  the 
town.  I  might  mention  other  improvements,  but  these  seem 
sufficient  to  illustrate  m}'  point. 

The  foregoing  is  an  imperfect  sketch  of  the  highways  of 
Whately.  Some  roads  were  established  and  opened,  of  which 
no  record  can  be  found.  In  some  cases  the  town  ordered  the 
survey  and  location  of  a  road  and  afterwards  reconsidered  its 
action  but,  in  the  meantime,  the  road  had  actually  been  opened 
to  travel.  Thus  the  records  fail  to  furnish  data  for  a  complete 
history  of  our  private  and  public  highways. 

These  details  may  seem  to  be  of  trivial  importance,  but  they 
were  vital  questions  in  their  day.  Individual  and  district  pros- 
perity hinged  on  the  establishment  or  refusal  to  locate  a  road, 
on  the  adoption  of  this  or  that  line,  or  whether  it  was  an  open 
or  a  close  way.  And  these  details  have  in  themselves  a  certain 
historic  value. 

There  is  always  a  reason  for  locating  a  road.  The  reason 
may  lie  at  the  beginning  or  the  end  of  the  line,  it  may  be  a  per- 
sonal or  a  public  reason,  the  reason  miy  be  apparent  or  it  may 
be  concealed.  And  a  careful  study  of  the  subject  never  fails  to 
educe  some  valuable  facts  illustrative  of  sectional  and  general 
interests,  illustrative  of  wise  forethought  or  foolish  afterthought. 


1 86 

The  name  of  a  road  is  expressive  like  the  name  of  a  town  or  the 
baptismal  name  of  a  person.  The  direction  of  a  road  indicates 
the  course  of  settlement  or  the  opening  of  a  new  industry  or  out- 
let of  a  trade. 

The  general  history  of  its  highways,  is  the  history,  in  out- 
line, of  the  rise  and  progress  or  the  decay  of  the  industrial  pur- 
suits of  a  town.  Now  in  closing  our  talk  upon  the  roads  we 
would  congratulate  our  townsmen  upon  the  evidences  of  thrift 
and  prosperity  everywhere  visible. 


CHAPTER  XI. 

EDUCATION. 

As  the  early  action  of  this  town  on  matters  pertaining  to 
education  had  reference  only  to  the  town's  own  interests  and  was 
influenced  by  the  varying  circumstances  of  local  growth  and 
prosperity,  this  chapter  is  necessarily  made  up  largely  of  votes 
and  incidents,  often  apparently  trivial.  But  these  incidents  and 
votes  are  worth  preser^-ing  because,  while  they  reveal  the  senti- 
ment and  plans  of  each  succeeding  generation  and  the  conflict- 
ing interests  of  different  sections,  they  also  show  that  the  public 
free  school  system  is  the  one  best  adapted  to  our  state  of  society 
and  best  answers  the  demands  of  a  growing  people  and  a  free 
government.  Its  flexibility  is  an  advantage.  Its  voluntar\- 
character  is  an  advantage.  Its  dependence  on  an  annual  vote 
of  the  citizens  is  an  advantage.  Even  the  suspension  of  the 
schools  for  a  year,  in  case  of  great  emergency,  has  its  compensa- 
tions, for  then  the  father  and  mother  are  made  to  realize  their 
personal  responsibility  for  their  children's  welfare,  and  are  led 
to  put  forth  efforts  and  make  sacrifices  w];iich  directly  and  indi- 
rectly promote  true  education  and  which  furnishes  an  illustration 
of  life's  exigencies  which  benefits  both  parent  and  child. 

To  know  the  world  is  as  important  as  to  know  books.  To 
acquire  the  habit  of  observing  and  thinking  and  putting  forth 
the  energies  to  master  difiiculties,  'is  as  much  a  part  of  school 
duty  as  to  recite  lessons.  The  Puritan  fathers  had  a  broad  and 
true  conception  of  what  education  is,  and  among  the  earliest 
acts  passed,  was  one  requiring  the  selectmen  of  towns  to  see  to 
it  that  parents  and  masters  train  up  their  children  "In  learning 


i88 

and  labor  and  other  employments  which  may  be  profitable  to 
the  Commonwealth."  For  the  learning  and  habits  of  industry 
and  knowledge  of  some  profitable  employment,  here  enjoined, 
not  only  fitted  the  child  to  become  a  useful  member  of  the  state, 
but  at  the  same  time  fitled  him  for  individual  excellence  and 
happiness.  The  proper  aim  of  school  instruction,  as  of  all 
instruction  to  children,  is  to  fit  them  for  efficient  duty.  There 
is  need  of  knowledge,  need  of  culture  and  need  to  learn  the 
dangers  of  life  and  how  to  shun  them,  as  well  as  the  best  way  to 
use  its  advantages.  The  child  needs  to  get  a  true  idea  of  his 
dependence  on  others  for  his  happiness  and  influence,  and  to 
believe  in  and  respect  the  rights  of  others,  as  well  as  to  believe 
in  his  personal  independence  and  claim  his  own  rights.  He 
needs  to  have  his  wits  sharpened  early  if  he  is  to  be  a  successful 
competitor  for  position  and  power. 

Our  public  schools,  where  all  classes  mingle  and  where 
courses  of  stud}-  are  adapted  to  the  various  capacities  and  where 
restraint  and  liberty  are  wisely  adjusted  and  where  parents  and 
teachers  co-operate,  as  they  do  in  every  successful  school,  and 
home  and  school  discipline  supplement  each  other,  our  public 
schools,  thus  administered,  furnish  the  best  preparation  for  prac- 
tical life.  Probably  parochial  and  patronage  schools  and  pri- 
vate tutors  would  insure  a  higher  standard  of  merely  scientific 
attainment  to  particular  classes  in  the  community,  but  the  true 
education  of  the  people  is,  beyond  question,  best  promoted  by 
our  free  school  system. 

The  first  year  the  tOwn  made  no  pro\dsion  for  schools.  The 
season  was  well  advanced  before  the  new  order  of  things  got 
fairly  established,  and  there  were  no  schoolhouses.  In  1772,  at 
the  annual  meeting  in  March,  it  was  voted,  "To  raise  ^13,  6s, 
8d  for  schooling,  and  that  the  selectmen  lay  out  the  money  in 
Chestnut  Plain,  Straits  and  Poplar  Hill  streets,  said  school 
money  being  proportioned  to  each  street- agreeably  to  what  they 
respectively  paid  in  the  last  year's  rate."  The  schools  in  each 
street,  for  this  and  several  succeeding  years,  were  kept  at  pri- 
vate houses.  A  frame  of  a  schoolhouse  was  put  up  this  year  in 
Chestnut  Plain  street,  directly  south  of  the  meeting-house,  but 
it  was  not  finished.  Probably  it  remained  unfit  for  use  for  sev- 
eral years,  as  in  1774,  the  question  came  before  the  town  to  see 
if  any  conveniences  should  be  made  in  the  meeting-house  for 
schooling.  The  town  voted  in  the  negative — very  wisel}'  it 
would  appear,  as  the  meeting-house  was  quite  as  unfinished  as 


i89 

the  schoolhouse.  The  sura  of  ^13,  6s,  Sd  appears  to  have 
been  raised  for  schooling  during  each  of  the  next  three  years 
and  the  money  was  divided  and  expended  as  in  1772.  In  1775 
the  following  school  committee  was  chosen:  Benjamin  Smith, 
Joseph  Scott,  Joseph  Belden,  Jr.,  Thomas  Crafts,  Elisha  Belden, 
Perez  Bardwell,  John  Smith,  Peter  Train,  Deacon  Nathan 
Graves. 

The  pressure  of  the  war  now  became  severe,  and  for  several 
years  no  public  money  was  raised  for  schooling,  and  it  is  not 
likely  that  any  schools  were  maintained. 

An  English  Schoc^l.  At  a  meeting  held  r  Dec,  1777, 
the  town  voted,  "To  accept  the  piece  of  land  given  by  Reuben 
Belden,  deceased,  for  the  use  of  schools  in  the  town  of  Whately, 
upon  conditions  named  in  his  will."  In  explanation  of  this 
vote  an  extract  from  the  will  of  Reuben  Belden  of  Hatfield,  who 
died  1776,  is  here  given: 

"Furthermore,  I  give  and  bequeath  to  the  inhabitants  of  the 
town  of  Whately,  in  the  County  of  Hampshire,  for  the  sole  use 
and  benefit  of  an  English  School  to  be  kept  there,  as  hereafter 
mentioned,  the  estate,  hereafter  described,  (the  same  to  remain 
unalienable  by  the  said  town, )  viz,  :  That  farm,  or  tract  of  land 
in  said  Whately,  with  the  dwelling  house  standing  thereon,  in 
which  Xiles  Coleman  now  lives,  lying  on  the  Island,  so  called, 
between  the  lands  of  Henry  Stiles  and  Elisha  Belding,  and 
bounded  west  upon  the  Mill  River,  and  extending  thence  east 
two  hundred  rods,  and  carr>'ing  the  width  of  seventeen  rods  the 
length  aforesaid  :  And  I  hereby  appoint  and  impower  the 
selectmen  of  the  said  town  of  Whately  for  the  time  being  for- 
ever hereafter  to  take  the  care  and  direction  of  the  improvement 
of  the  said  farm,  and  the  issues  and  profits  of  the, same,  and  the 
buildings  thereon  and  appurtenances  thereof  to  employ  for  the 
benefit  of  the  said  school.  And  this  gift  and  bequest  I  make 
upon  the  following  conditions  and  noother^vise,  viz. :  That  the 
said  school  be  kept  in  that  street  in  the  said  town  called  the 
Chestnut  Plain  street,  near  where  the  present  meeting-house 
stands,  and  that  the  same  be  set  up  within  two  years  from  the 
time  of  my  decease,  and  be  not  suffered  at  any  time  thereafter 
to  cease  or  fail  to  be  kept  up  and  maintained  for  the  term  of  six 
months  in  any  future  year  :  And  in  case  such  schools  as  afore- 
said shall  not  be  set  up  at  or  near  the  said  place  in  the  said 
street,  and  within  the  time  above  limited,  and  be  kept  and  main- 
tained in  manner  as  aforesaid,  then  it  is  my  will  that  the  said 
estate  shall  be  and  remain  to  my  kinsmen  hereafter  named  and 
their  heirs." , 

The  tract  of  land  above  specified  was  lot  21,  in  the  second 
division  of  Commons.     It  appears  that  the  town  failed  to  take 


the  necessary  steps  to  carry  out  the  provisions  of  the  will,  and 
consequently  the  bequest  was  forfeited. 

The  will  of  Reuben  Belden  was  dated  27  Nov.,  1775,  pro- 
bated 3  Sept.,  (776.-  Mention  is  made  of  his  sisters,  Eunice, 
wife  of  James  Porter  of  Hatfield,  Dorothy,  wife  of  Elisha  Billing 
of  Hardwick,  Submit,  wife  of  David  Scott  of  Whately,  Martha, 
wife  of  Warham  Smith  of  Hadley.  He  also  names  his  late 
wife's  sisters,  Mary,  wife  of  Samuel  Maj-,  Hannah,  wife  of 
Joseph  Flowers,  Susannah  Pierce,  all  of  Wethersfield,  niece, 
Mary,  wife  of  Jona.  Pierce  of  Hartford,  cousins,  Samuel  Bel- 
den and  Silas  Porter  of  Hatfield.  His  inventory  amounted  to 
^.'2,486.  4s,  6d.  He  owned  grist  and  sawmills  on  West  brook — 
the  Isaac  Frary  privilege — before  1770,  afterwards  owned  by  his 
cousin.  Samuel  Belden.  He  owned  real  estate  in  Hatfield, 
Whately,  Hatfield  Equivalent  and  Ashfield.  He  bequeathed  to 
the  inhabitants  of  New  Township  No  7  (Hawley)  in  the  county 
of  Hampshire,  lot  No.  115  in  that  township  for  the  sole  use  and 
benefit  of  an  English  school  to  be  kept  there,  etc. 

In  1780  the  town  voted  to  build  three  schoolhouses  and  the 
next  year  voted  to  put  off  building  the  same.  But  about  this 
time  a  schoolhouse  sixteen  feet  square  was  built  in  the  Straits, 
on  the  corner  southwesterly  from  the  Zebina  Bartlett  place, 
another  was  built  on  Poplar  Hill  road,  by  private  individuals, 
and  there  is  some  evidence  that  one  was  built  on  Spruce  Hill, 
which  was  used  for  a  time  by  the  dwellers  on  Chestnut  Plain 
street. 

In  17S2-83-S4.  Mary  White,  Jr.,  taught  a  school  in  Chest- 
nut Plain  street,  but  whether  in  a  schoolhouse  or  private  house 
the  record  does  not  say.  In  1784  the  town  raised  ^^  1 8  to  be  divided 
into  three  equal  parts,  £,b  for  each  street,  and  Noah  Bard  well, 
Josiah  Allis  and  Thomas  Sanderson  were  appointed  a  committee 
to  lay  it  out.  Zilpah  Stiles  was  employed  to  teach  in  the  center 
nineteen  weeks.  In  1785  £,i'&  was  granted,  to  be  divided  as  in 
'84,  and  a  schoolmaster  was  employed  for  ten  weeks,  beginning 
June  1 1. 

The  reasons  for  a  summer  term  probably  were  that  the  first 
schoolhouses  had  no  fireplaces,  and  it  was  inconvenient  for  fam- 
ilies to  let  their  rooms  during  the  cold  season,  and  the  cost  of 
fuel  would  subtract  too  much  from  the  scant  funds  at  the  dis- 
posal of  parents  and  committees.  Mr.  Backus  was  schoolmaster 
in  1787.  Miss  Stiles  was  again  employed  in  '89.  She  appears  to 
have  been  a  very  useful  person  in  the  new  town,  teaching  school 


191 

as  occasion  required,  and  at  other  times  doing  the  tailoring  and 
dressmaking  of  the  families  until  her  marriage  with  Peter  Clark, 
In  )  789  the  town  voted,  "To  appropriate  the  money  raised  for 
schooling  to  pay  arrearages  in  Mr.  Wells"  salary." 

The  town  voted,  6  Dec,  1790,  "To  provide  five  school- 
houses  for  the  use  of  the  town  ;  that  the  house  now  built  in  the 
east  district,  which  is  sixteen  feet  square,  be  sufficient  for  that 
part  of  the  town  ;  that  the  Chestnut  Plain  schoolhouse  be  20  x 
16  feet ;  that  the  Spruce  Hill  district  schoolhouse  be  20  x  16 
feet;  that  the  Poplar  Hill  schoolhouse  be  15  x  iS  feet,  and  that 
the  town  will  give  the  proprietors  ot  the  house  now  in  that  street 
the  sum  of  ^i  i,  los;  that  the  Grass  Hill  schoolhouse  be  15  x  iS 
feet."  The  Straits  schoolhouse  stood  as  already  described. 
The  one  in  the  center  was  directly  south  of  the  meeting-house. 
The  one  on  Spruce  Hill  was  about  forty  rods  south  of  Levi 
Morton's,  now  the  Rufus  Dickinson  place.  The  house  tor  the 
Poplar  Hill  district  was  built  on  land  of  Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell, 
about  ten  rods  south  ot  the  west  burying  ground,  on  the  west 
side  of  the  road.  (The  old  stepstone  may  now  be  seen  on  the 
spot.) 

In  the  same  year  /"30  was  appropriated  for  schooling,  the 
money  to  be  proportioned  on  the  children  in  each  district  from 
eight  to  twenty-one  years  of  age.  The  rule  of  apportioning  the 
school  money  varied — in  some  years  it  was  divided  equally  to 
each  district,  sometimes  one-half  on  the  scholar  and  one- half  to 
a  district.  In  1827  the  town  voted  to  number  the  children  on 
the  first  of  May,  from  seven  to  twenty,  and  divide  the  money  on 
the  scholar. 

After  a  schoolhouse  was  built  on  Spruce  Hill,  Judith  White 
sometimes  kept  there  and  sometimes  in  the  centre.  "Master 
Roberts,"  whose  full  name  was  George  Roberts,  taught  in  town 
many  years,  certainly  from  1795  to  1804  and  perhaps  longer. 
Other  early  teachers  were  Rebecca  Baker,  Electa  Allis,  Thomas 
Clark,  Mr.  Osgood,  John  Parmenter,  Benj.  Mather,  Thomas 
Sanderson,  Jr. 

In  1785  Simeon  Morton,  Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell,  Capt.  Phin- 
eas  Frary,  John  White,  Joel  Waite.  2d.  were  chosen  school 
committee.  In  1798  the  town  voted  to  reduce  the  number  of 
school  districts  from  five  to  four. 

In  1799  ;^5o  was  voted  to  build  a  schoolhouse  in  Chestnut 
Plain  street,  30  x  24  feet.  As  this  was  the  first  large  and  fin- 
ished schoolhouse  in  town,  and  was  evidently  looked  upon  as  a 


192  - 

model  house  of  the  day,  it  may  be  well  to  give  the  specifications  : 
Contracted  with  Benjamin  Scott,  lor  ;(,42,i'js,  to  build  the  new 
schoolhouse,  to  be  rough  boarded  and  clapboarded  and  shingled, 
a  chimney  built  and  a  hearth  laid,  the  house  to  be  glazed  win- 
dow shutters  on  the  outside  and  the  outside  door  hung.  As  is 
often  the  case  when  men  begin  to  be  extravagant  the  money 
first  appropriated  proved  insufficient  to  fully  carrv^  out  the  idea 
and  later  in  the  year  a  committee  consisting  of  John  White, 
William  Mather  and  Solomon  Adkins  was  appointed,  who  sold 
the  finishing  of  the  house  to  Luther  White,  the  lowest  bidder, 
for  S67. 

This  house  stood  on  the  east  side  of  the  street,  a  little  way 
south  of  the  old  meeting-house.  And  now  another  perplexity 
arose.  The  people  living  on  the  outskirts  had  consented  to  be 
taxed  heavily  for  the  large  and  comfortable  centre  schoolhouse, 
with  a  fireplace,  and  now  as  thej'  thought,  it  would  be  no  more 
than  just  that  they  should  be  allowed  to  use  it  as  a  "noon  room" 
on  the  Sabbath,  where  they  could  warm  themselves  and  chat 
away  the  intermission.  But  the  town  voted,  "Nay."  Nor  was 
this  all.  The  dwellers  on  Spruce  Hill  became  jealous,  and  in 
iSoi  a  \'Ote  was  carried  in  town  meeting,  "To  move  the  school- 
house  on  Spruce  Hill  to  the  guideboard  near  Nathan  Waite's, 
and  add  four  feet  to  the  length,  and  put  it  in  as  good  repair  as 
the  schoolhouse  near  the  meeting-house." 

Previous  to  this  last  vote,  however,  and  about  the  time 
when  the  new  center  schoolhouse  was  completed,  having  got 
three  schoolhouses  more  comfortable  than  the  rest,  a  vote  was 
passed  "To  divide  the  town  into  three  school  districts,  the  lines 
to  be  Mill  river,  between  the  east  and  center  districts,  and  a 
line  running  north  and  south  between  Elijah  Allis'  and  Daniel 
Allis'  and  between  Maj.  Phineas  Frary's  and  Reuben  Graves', 
giving  Joseph  Crafts,  Daniel  Allis  and  Reuben  Graves  liberty 
to  choose  which  district  they  shall  belong  to."  This  vote  was 
not  at  once  carried  into  full,  even  if  it  was  into  partial,  effect. 
In  1801  the  town  voted  to  build  a  schoolhouse  in  the  northwest 
district,  26  x  22  feet,  and  finish  it  in  imitation  of  the  one  in  the 
centre  district,  "Only  twenty  lights  to  a  window."  The  next 
year  the  town  voted,  "To  buy  the  old  schoolhouse  near  Josiah 
Brown's  for  a  workhouse." 

No  new  movements  in  relation  to  schools  or  schoolhouses 
appear  on  the  records  for  the  next  ten  years.  In  181 1  the  school- 
house  in  the  Straits  was  replaced,  on  the  old  spot,  by  a  new  one 


193 

i8  X  24  feet,  at  a  cost  of  one  hundred  dollars.  This  house  had 
two  fireplaces,  one  at  each  end  of  the  room.  The  same  year 
the  middle  district  was  divided,  and  two-  new  schoolhouses 
built,  each  20  x  24  feet,  one  where  the  north  center  house  now 
stands,  the  other  near  Stiles'  corner.  In  1813  schoolhouses 
were  built  in  the  southwest  and  northwest  districts. 

As  early  as  1824  the  families  living  in  Canterbury  moved  to 
secure  a  new  schoolhouse  for  their  accommodation,  but  the 
town  negatived  the  plan.  In  1S27  the  families  living  south  of 
Sugar  Loaf  united  and  built  by  subscription  a  house  just  on  the 
north  line  of  J.  C.  Sanderson's  land,  near  where  the  witch  left 
his  print  in  the  ground  when  he  jumped  from  Sugar  Loaf.  The 
next  year  the  town  voted  to  allow  the  Canterbury  families  their 
portion  of  the  school  money  and  also  to  move  the  Straits  school- 
house  to  the  corner  of  the  proprietor's  highway.  In  1829  the 
town  voted  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  east  district  have  liberty 
to  build  a  house  for  a  select  school  on  the  land  owned  bv  the 
town,  where  the  old  schoolhouse  formerly  stood. 

A  special  effort  on  behalf  of  the  schools  appears  to  have 
been  made  this  year,  the  result  of  which  was  the  adoption  by 
the  town  in  1S30  of  the  following  rules: 

Resolved,  i.  That  the  boys  have  the  privilege  of  attend- 
ing the  schools  in  the  summer,  till  thev  are  ten  vears  old,  and 
the  winter  schools  when  they  are  seven  years  old. 

Resolved.  2.  That  the  girls  have  the  privilege  of  attend- 
ing the  summer  schools  till  they  are  thirteen  years  old,  and  the 
winter  schools  when  they  are  ten  years  old. 

Resolved,  3.  That  the  southwest  district  and  the  east 
district  shall  be  permitted  to  send  scholars  to  the  several  schools 
at  an  advanced  ratio  of  age  provided,  that  the  prudential  com- 
mittee of  the  district  and  the  superintending  committee  shall 
judge  the  increase  of  scholars  will  not  injure  the  school. 

Resolved,  4.  That  one-third  of  the  money  which  each 
district  shall  draw  from  the  town,  be  apportioned  for  the  benefit 
of  the  small  scholars,  and  the  remainder  for  the  large  scholars 
in  winter. 

Voted,  That  the  school  money  be  divided,  the  one-half  on 
the  district  and  the  other  half  on  the  scholar,  the  ensuing  year. 

In  1832  it  was  voted  to  divide  the  town  into  three  districts 
for  the  benefit  of  large  scholars,  to  be  called  the  east  section, 
the  middle  section  and  the  west  section.  And  the  minor 
arrangements  under  this  division  appear  to  have  been  left  to  the 


194 

discretion  of  the  school  committee.  In  1833  the  east  district 
was  divided,  and  a  schoolhouse  built  south  of  Elijah  Allis' place. 
The  six  districts,  into  which  the  town  was  then  divided,  remain 
substantially  unchanged  to  the  present  day. 

Select  or  High  School.  The  question  was  several 
times  agitated  of  erecting  a  building  near  the  meeting-house 
for  a  school  of  higher  grade.  In  1829  the  people  of  the  east 
part  made  a  move  to  get  such  a  building  there,  and  the  town  so 
far  favored  the  plan  as  to  give  them  leave  to  erect  a  schoolhouse 
on  the  town's  land,  at  Bartlett's  corner.  In  1831  the  matter  of 
building  a  Town  house  came  up,  and  the  town  voted,  "To  raise 
one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars,  to  be  given  by  the  town,  together 
with  the  town  land  lying  near  Justin  Morton's  barn,  to  the  pro- 
prietors of  a  schoolhouse,  provided  they  have  a  hall  in  said 
building  sufficiently  large  to  do  all  the  town  business  in."  The 
scheme  did  not  succeed. 

In  the  winter  of  1838  several  citizens  associated  and  raised 
the  necessary  funds,  and  the  next  season  built  a  select  school- 
house  on  West  Lane.  A  school  was  kept  here  in  the  fall  and 
winter  of  1839-40  by  Addison  Ballard  of  Framingham,  then  a 
member  of  Williams  college.  This  school  was  maintained  for 
a  single  term,  annually,  with  a  good  deal  of  interest',  for  a  num- 
ber of  years.  The  building  was  sold  and  converted  into  a  dwell- 
ing house  about  1854. 

In  187 1  the  Town  hall  was  raised 'up  sufficiently  for  a  sec- 
ond story  and  enlarged  by  the  addition  of  twelve  feet  to  the 
length.  The  low^er  storj'  was  divided  and  finished  for  the  uses 
of  a  select  school,  a  town  library  and  town  offices. 

I  desire  to  say  a  few  words  relative  to  the  nonacceptanceof 
the  farm  left  to  the  town  bj'  Reuben  Belden  by  his  will  in  1776. 
At  a  meeting  held  i  Dec,  1777,  it  was  voted,  "To  accept  the 
land  given  by  Reuben  Belden,"  and  on  the  conditions  upon 
which  the  bequest  was  made,  but  they  made  no  attempt  to  carry 
out  the  instructions  of  the  testator.  It  should  be  remembered 
that  at  this  time  a  mere  handful  of  brave  and  patriotic  men  were 
struggling  for  national  existence  and  to  free  themselves  and 
their  children  from  the  hated  yoke  of  British  tyranny. 

Money  was  scarce  and  business  was  carried  on  by  the  inter- 
change of  commodities.  The  taxes  were  paid  in  grain,  pork, 
beef,  etc.,  the  prices  of  which  were  fixed  by  the  General  Court, 
and  the  selectmen  had  lists  of  prices  that  they  could  allow : 
wheat,  six  shillings  per  bushel;  rye,  four  shillings;  potatoes, 


195 

one  shilling  ;  barley,  four  shillings  ;  pork,  four  pence  per  pound  ; 
beef,  three  and  one-half  pence,  and  so  on  clear  through  the  list. 
Continental  bills  were  largely  counterfeited  by  the  British,  so 
really  they  were  nearly  worthless. 

All  these  things  combined  to  prevent  our  people  from 
attempting  to  open  a  school  as  Mr.  Beldeu's  will  directed. 
Even  the  little  stipend  appropriated  for  schools  was  taken  to  pay 
Mr.  Wells  for  his  services.  His  pay,  to  the  last  farthing,  was 
rigorously  demanded.  If  it  ran  overdue  the  interest  was  also  to 
be  paid,  school  or  no  school. 

Continual  calls  for  men  to  fill  the  quota  of  the  town,  to  get 
substitutes  for  those  who  had  property,  as  well  as  the  constantly 
recurring  taxes  to  meet  the  constantly  recurring  wants  of  the 
town  (perhaps  two  or  more  tax  levies  in  a  year)  was  a  great 
burden  upon  the  people.  It  is  no  wonder  that  the  town  allowed 
the  legacy  to  lapse.  Then  the  inventon,-  of  the  property  was 
but  /;26,  or  $86  66. 

Leaving  this  matter,  we  will  speak  of  other  schools  in  the 
town  at  a  later  period.  The  first  schoolhouse  erected  in  the 
Straits  was  on  the  east  side  of  the  road,  near  the  house  of  Rich- 
ard Phillips.  The  counters  were  so  constructed  that  the}'  were 
back  of  the  scholars.  When  the  time  came  for  writing  they  had 
to  turn  around  facing  the  walls  of  the  house,  but  none  but  the 
older  scholars  were  allowed  to  write.  The  teacher  gave  up  the 
time  to  making  pens  or  in  mending  the  old  ones,  which  were, 
of  course,  goose  quills,  and  in  examining  the  writing,  seeing 
how  they  held  the  pen  and  in  making  suggestions  to  the  pupils. 
This  house  was  bunied.  Before  building  another,  the  school 
was  kept  in  a  building  that  had  been  used  for  a  store  by  Gad 
Smith.  One  of  the  early  teachers  was  Cotton  Nash,  son  of 
Joseph  Nash. 

The  Canterbury  schoolhouse  was  on  the  west  side  of  the 
road  and  stood  partly  on  land  now  owned  by  Walter  W.  Sander- 
son and  the  heirs  of  J.  C.  Sanderson.  This  was  built  in  1S24. 
It  was  afterwards  sold  to  Judethan  Eaton,  who  removed  to 
South  Deerfield,  and  he  fitted  it  up  for  a  dwelling  house.  It 
was  later  owned  by  his  son,  L,  L.  Eaton. 

The  two  center  districts  each  built  in  iSroabriok  school- 
house.  These  were  built  by  John  and  Salmon  White  and 
Thomas  Crafts.  Mr.  Crafts  made  the  brick  and  had  them  laid 
into  the  buildings.  That  in  the  north  center  has  been  remod- 
eled, the  walls  laid  higher  with  gables,  while  the  old  ones  were 
covered  by  a  foursquare  roof  running-to  a  point. 


196 

The  one  in  the  south  center  district  was  on  ground  that, 
when  it  frozt.-,  was  such  that  it  was  wholly  unsuited  for  the  pur- 
pose, and  it  was  considered  unsafe.  About  fifteen  years  later 
it  was  torn  down  and  a  new  house  was  built  of  wood  on  the  hill 
very  near  the  site  of  the  present  house. 

The  writer  well  rtcollects  the  house  vacated  in  1S25. 
There  was  a  large  fire  place  on  the  north  and  south  sides  of  the 
room,  and  the  amount  of  wood  consumed  was  immense.  There 
were  seats  on  the  east  and  west  sides,  three  rows  with  counters, 
and  small  seats  in  front  of  the  last  counter  for  the  young 
children. 

The  school  averaged  about  sixty  scholars.  The  girls  were 
seated  on  the  west  side  and  boys  on  the  east  side.  To  spell 
they  were  arranged  on  the  floor  space  and  they  took  places, 
everyone  striving  to  get  to  the  head  and  often  drilled  by  spelling 
two  or  three  pages  in  Webster's  spelling' book. 

There  were  no  blackboards  for  examining  our  methods  of 
solving  the  problems  in  Adams'  arithmetic,  the  only  general 
exercise  in  mathematics.  The  teacher  would  call  upon  anyone 
v\-hom  he  chose  to  rehearse  the  rules  as  far  as  given  in  our  books 
and  asking  us  many  questions  to  test  our  understanding  of  the 
principles  involved  in  the  rules.  If  the  answers  were  not  satis- 
facton,'  another  one  was  told  to  rise  and  give  his  views  and  if  not 
particularly  satisfactory  he  would  say,  "Lay  aside  your  slates 
and  attend  to  learning  the  rules." 

Our  schools  were  divided  into  two  terms  of  twelve  weeks 
each.  The  boys  were  kept  at  home  summers  after  they  were 
about  eight  years  of  age,  but  went  winters  until  they  were  about 
fifteen.  Very  few  had  an  opportunity  to  attend  a  select  school 
until  after  1830. 

About  1838  or  '40  the  northwest  and  the  south  center  dis- 
tricts built  an  additional  room  and  each  winter  graded  the 
schools.  The  older  scholars  were  given  superior  opportunities. 
These  schools  ceased  in  a  few  years  for  the  want  of  scholars. 

In  1854  the  town  opened  the  Town  hall  for  use  as  a  high 
school  and  the  increased  educational  advantages  were  enjoyed 
b}-  a  large  number  from  all  parts  of  the  town.  The  pupils  from 
the  west  part  would  hire  rooms  and  bring  needed  articles  for 
housekeeping  and  food  for  the  week. 

These  schools  were  continued  for  a  number  of  years,  afford- 
ing untold  benefits  to  a  great  number  of  scholars.  The  town 
built   an    addition   to   the  Town  ball    and   raised  the  hall  one 


197 

story  higher.  The  lower  portion  finished  for  use  as  a  school- 
room, a  room  for  the  town  libran,-,  the  selectmen's  room,  etc. 
Of  late  years  scholars  go  and  come  on  the  railway  to  Deerfield 
or  Northampton  and  some  few  have  graduated  there. 

A  better  educated  class  of  teachers  is  required  for  our 
schools,  and  they  also  have  whatever  of  advantage  there  may  be 
in  having  a  competent  superintendent.  I  wish  here  to  say  that 
our  town  has  for  many  years  been  earnest  in  its  efforts  to  fur- 
ther the  interests  of  the  schools  and  has  made  liberal  appropri- 
ations for  their  support. 

But  to  again  recur  to  the  old  time  studies  and  the  methods  of 
instruction  since  the  writer ,,can  recollect,  say  from  1S22  vvhen 
he  was  five  }ears  old.  The  previous  summer  we  had  mastered 
the  alphabet,  standing  at  the  side  of  the  teacher  who  pointed 
with  her  penknife  to  each  letter  and  telling  what  its  name  was. 
After  the  second  year  I  was  furnished  with  the  New  England 
primer,  which  contained  many  Bible  stories,  and  the  catechism, 
and  a  spelling  book.  These  two  occupied  my  time  until  I  was 
\  seven  years  old.  I  had  to  learn  the  catechism  and  rehearse 
daily. 

About  every  two  or  three  weeks  Mr.  Wells  would  come  in 
and  catechise  us.  We  had  to  go  out  onto  the  floor  and  stand  in  a 
row,  ten  or  twelve  of  us,  and  the  good  old  man,  dressed  in  knee 
breeches  and  long  black  stockings,  morocco  shoes  with  knee 
and  shoe  buckles,  (apparently  silver)  with  his  gray  hair  braided 
and  tied  in  a  cue  with  a  black  ribbon  hanging  down  his  back 
about  eight  inches,  wnth  the  ribbon  three  or  four  inches  lower 
and  surmounted  by  a  black  silk  frock  or  mantle  open  in  front, 
with  rather  wide  sleeves,  would  question  us.  He  needed  no 
book,  as  he  was  perfectly  familiar  with  the  questions  and 
answers. 

Then,  for  a  wonder,  I  was  the  best  posted  in  the  class,  and 
often  had  to  answer  when  no  one  else  could  or  would,  and  many 
is  the  time  that  the  kind-hearted,  old  man  has  laid  his  trembling 
hand  upon  my  head  and  said,  '"James,  you  will  make  a  man 
that  your  parents  will  be  proud  of." 

Strange  to  say,  that  then  I  had  not  a  doubt  but  that  ever^- 
word  in  that  catechism  was  true  and  now,  though  the  minds  of 
the  young  are  thoroughly  imbued  with  doctrines  pertaining  to 
the  trinity,  redemption,  justification,  sanctfication  and  damna- 
tion, yet  many  of  us  have  outgrown  these  awful  tenets  warping 
the  minds  of  many  of  us.  Really  the  twig  was  bent  only  to  re- 
bound eventually. 


The  reading  books  were  ill  adapted  to  the  wants  of  the 
scholars.  The  American  Preceptor  and  Scott's  Lessons, 
both  unfit  for  pupils  under  twelve.  Later,  when  attending  win- 
ter terms,  we  had  for  a  reading  book  the  First  Class  Book,  and 
the  smaller  scholars  had  Easy  Lessons  and  the  Young  Reader, 
Webster's  Speller,  Woodbridge's  Geography,  Murray's  Gram- 
mar and  Adams'  Arithmetic  printed  in  1815.  The  Woodbridge 
Geography  was  accompanied  by  an  atlas  and  was  the  earliest 
one  I  had  ever  seen — before  that  we  had  Morse's  and  Dwight's. 
The  bulk  of  our  school  books  would  not  be  tolerated  in  our 
schools  to-da}-. 

I  have  before  me  a  proprietary'  rate  made  for  schooling,  done 
for  the  following  persons  in  Whately  and  Deerfield,  between 
16  May  and  5  Oct.,  1781,  being  five  months  complete  after  the 
deduction  of  two  absent  days,  at  ye  rate  of  ^i,  12s,  od  per 
month,  inclusive  of  board  : 

Lieut.  Tho's  Sanderson,  2  scholars  at  9s,  2d  ^o  18  4 
Joseph  Belden,  1^4  scholars  at  9s,  2d  o  13  9 
Benjamin  Scott,  i  scholar  at  9s,  2d  092 
Benjamin  Smith,  i  scholar  at  9s,  2d  092- 
Joel  Waite,  i  scholar  at  9s,  2d  o  9  '  2 
Philip  Smith,                      2  scholars  at  9s,  2d        o   iS     4 

These  above  belonged  to  Whately  and  the  following  from 
Deerfield  : 

Lieut.  David  Stebbins,     2  scholars  at  9s,  2d  /^o   18     4 

Aaron  Pratt,                        2  scholars  at  9s,  2d  018     4 

Jonathan  Russell,          iH  scholars  at  9s.  2d  o   13     9 

Benoni  Farrand,                2  scholars  at  9s,  2d  0184 

Solomon  Jepherson,      1%  scholars  at  9s,  2d  o  13     9 

£^  00     5 

This  school  was  probably  kept  at  Canterbury  in  the  house 
of  some  one  of  the  people,  or  possibly  at  some  house  in  the  edge 
of  Deerfield,  as  the  Hon.  H.  S.  Allis  well  recalls  his  first  year  at 
school.  They  had  a  room  in  what  was  known  as  the  Stebbins 
house,  where  later  has  lived  A.  A.  Jewett.  The  old  house  was  a 
large  one,  and  there  he  attended  school  when  four  years  of   age. 

An  effort  has  been  made  to  establish  a  new  system  of  school- 
ing in  town,  which  is  to  build  one  large  schoolhouse  for  the 
accommodation  of  all  the  pupils  in  town  and  have  them  trans- 
ported at  public  expense  to  the  center  of  the  town,  and  this  to 
be  a  central  graded  school.  This  is  the  recommendation  not 
only  of  .  our  school  committee,  but  of  your  former,  as  well  as 


199 

present  superintendent  of  schools.  For  one.  I  very  much  doubt 
whether  such  a  plan  could  be  well  carried  out.  for  several  rea- 
sons. The  .condition  of  Sunderland  is  cited  as  the  main  areu- 
ment  in  its  favor. 

The  conditions  of  Sunderland  and  Whately  are  far  from  be- 
ing similar.  The  population  of  Whately  is  scattered  over  a 
larger  extent  of  territory  and  much  of  it  hilly  and  rough.  This 
would  cause  much  unnecessary  inconvenience  and  consequent 
suffering.  It  is  true  at  the  present  time  there  is  a  paucity  of 
number  of  scholars,  and  it  seems  more  desirable  to  allow  the  two 
west  schools  to  be  taken  to  one  schoolroom,  and  so  of  the  two 
east  at  one  place.  When  we  consider  that  the  little  tender 
child,  of  just  school  age,  is  compelled  to  be  hurried  off  through 
storms  and  drifting  snows  and,  sick  or  well,  is  obliged  to  remain 
all  day  amid  suffering,  only  to  get  home  at  a  late  hour,  it 
seems  to  me  to  be  a  pretty  strong  inducement  for  the  loving  par- 
ents to  dispose  of  their  property  and  leave  the  town. 

When  he  bought  his  farm  his  deed  conveyed  all  the 
rights,  privileges  and  appurtenances  thereto  belonging.  Among 
those  privileges  largely  inducing  the  man  to  buy,  was  the 
nearness  of  the  schoolhouse.  Had  he  for  a  moment  expected 
that  his  little  loved  daughter  was  to  be  transported  by  ever  so 
kind-hearted  a  man  he  would  never,  for  an  instant,  have  con- 
sidered the  question  of  locating  in  such  a  locality,  and  now,  after 
he  is  compelled  to  submit  to  such  arrangements,  he  must  feel  as 
though  he  was  deprived  of  a  portion  of  his  actual  rights — and 
for  what  ?  Who  is  benefited  by  such  a  concentration  of  all  the 
scholars  in  one  building  ? 

Is  a  better  class  of  teachers  to  be  employed  ?  Are  the  dul- 
lards to  be  brightened  and  they  induced  to  renewed  efforts. 
Where  I  live  the  schools  are  all  graded.  Are  the  scholars,  all 
of  them,  any  more  eflScient  than  those  who,  like  myself,  attended 
the  district  school  ?  We  then  had  some  bright  scholars  and  some 
were.  Oh,  so  dull.  So  it  is  with  our  schools  here.  We  had 
scholars  of  eight  years  that  were  better  readers  and  spellers  than 
many  great  louts  of  double  the  age.  Fathers  have  rights,  but 
consider  for  a  moment,  the  terrible  strain  to  the  tender,  loving 
and  anxious  mother  as  she  thinks  of  her  loved  one  plodding 
through  drifts  and  amid  the  storms,  coming  home  cold  and  sick. 
But,  having  had  much  to  do  in  school  direction  in  years  gone 
by,  I  can  be  classified  as  an  old  fogy  and  so  will  drop  the  matter. 

As  there  are  but  few  now  living  in  Whately  who  can  recall 


200 

incidents  occurring  in  the  schools  sevent3'-five  years  ago,  as  well 
as  the  methods  of  teaching,  and  knowing  well  the  excellent  mem- 
ory of  my  old-time  schoolmate,  Hon.  Hubbard  S.  A  His,  I  asked 
him  to  contribute  a  sketch  for  the  chapter  on  education,  and  I 
am  now  in  receipt  of  his  paper.  Simply  promising  that  the  inci- 
dents he  relates  have  much  of  historic  value,  we  give  the  moiety 
of  space  for  its  publication,  as  a  sort  of  relief  to  the  recital  of 
simple,  tame  and  not  over-interesting  matters.  Mr.  Allis  has 
returned  to  our  own  well-loved  town  in  his  old  age,  where  we 
hope  he  may  enjoy  his  fine  residence  for  a  good  long  time. 

Whatelv,   Mass.,  May  7,  1899. 
Hon.  J.  M.  Crafts, 

Orange,  Mass., 

My  Dear  Sir: — 

You  requested  me  to  write  out  some  of  the  incidents  of  my 
school  days  in  Whately,  and  of  the  location  of  the  schools  and 
the  teachers  thereof,  within*  my  recollection  from  1823  to  1839, 
the  year  I  left  Whately  for  Rochester,  where  I  resided  until 
1S96.  Now,  I  think  you  are  eighty-two  and  as  I  am  only  eighty, 
you  have  two  years'  more  knowledge  of  Whately  early  schools 
than  m3'self;  at  any  rate  I  used  to  think  you  had  more  brains 
when  we  sat  together  in  the  old  south  school,  figuring  on  an  old 
slate  addition  and  subtraction  of  fractions  when  we  were  young 
kids. 

I  remember  all  about  that  school  and  I  had  reason  to  for, 
between  us  both,  I  got  the  biggest  pounding  from  the  teacher 
that  I  ever  had  for  my  boyish  deviltry.  It  occurred  in  this 
way :  You  made  up  wads  of  paper  and  passed  them  under  the 
bench  to  me  and,  when  teacher's  back  was  turned,  I  would  shy 
them  across  the  room  to  the  girls,  hitting  their  faces.  They 
would  scream  out,  disturb  the  school  and  they  would  not  know 
who  sent  them.  W'e  worked  that  dodge  several  times,  and 
finally  I  was  caught. 

The  teacher  came  by  the  desk,  took  me  by  the  neck,  hauled 
me  out  of  the  seat,  as  you  would  a  trout  out  of  a  brook,  cuffed 
my  ears  and  bent  my  back,  putting  my  head  under  his  long 
table  filled  with  his  books,  inkstands  and  other  traps.  I  had 
been  in  that  position  about  one-half  an  hour,  when  my  disposi- 
tion for  fun  got  the  better  of  me,  by  turning  my  head  towards 
the  girls  and  by  making  up  faces  towards  them  to  make  them 


20I 

laugh,  etc.  I  was  caught  at  that,  when  the  teacher's  two  and 
one-half  ft.  ruler  came  down  upon  my  back  like  a  cyclone.  I 
made  one  jump  on  purpose,  raised  my  body  with  extra  strength, 
turning  over  the  heavy  table,  scattering  his  books  and  ink  all 
over  the  floor.  He  then  went  for  me  like  a  crazy  man  and 
pounded  me  all  around  the  room.  Oh!  such  a  pounding,  no 
scholar  ever  had  in  the  town  of  Whately.  It  cured  me  of 
deviltr\'  from  that  day  on. 

My  first  recollection  of  schools  I  attended  was  in  1S23.  My 
father  lived  at  the  Major  Sanderson  house  in  Canterbury,  oppo- 
site the  shoe  shop.  The  house  was  burned  a  few  years  since. 
I  was  sent  to  school  kept  in  the  Stebbins  house,  standing  near 
the  west  end  of  Sunderland  bridge.  The  teacher  was  Hannah 
Clapp  from  Northampton.  The  scholars  I  remember  were  Levi 
and  Emerson  Parker,  sons  of  Capt.  Asa  Parker,  William  and 
George  Sanderson  and  Harriet  Smith  and  other  children  as  far 
south  as  Frances  Belden,  for  I  remember  Roxana  Belden  coming 
to  the  Stebbins  house  school,  and  she  sat  beside  me.  On  one 
occasion  she  came  to  school  with  a  new  yellow  dress  and  I 
thought  she  looked  so  very  nice  and  pretty,  and  after  that  we 
used  to  walk  hand-in-hand  as  far  as  my  home.  She  was  a  sister 
of  Alfred  Belden. 

Capt.  Parker's  first  wife  died  11  April,  1822,  and  Miss 
Clapp's  school  was  moved  from  Stebbins'  house  to  Parker's 
house,  and  he  married  her,  how  soon  after  his  first  wife's  death, 
I  do  not  know,  but  I  know  she  gave  me  the  first  whipping  I 
ever  had  in  school.  I  had  been  making  some  trouble  in  some 
way  and  she  shut  me  up  in  a  large  closet,  very  dark.  I  yelled 
loudly  to  get  out  and  she  said  I  could  not  until  school  was  over. 
Now,  this  closet  contained  a  quantity  of  walnuts.  I  threw  the 
walnuts  against  the  door  so  continually  that  she  could  not  keep 
school.  She  finally  let  me  out,  gave  me  a  good  whipping,  sent 
me  home  and  father  doubled  tlie  dose. 

The  marriage  of  Miss  Clapp  probably  ended  school  at  the 
Parker  house,  and  a  schoolhouse  was  built  between  J.  C.  San- 
derson's and  Dwight  Sanderson's  houses  in  1824.  I  saw  the 
building  raised,  sitting  on  a  board  between  Diana  Sanderson 
and  Harriet  Smith,  sister  of  Cutler  Smith.  I  recall  an  incident 
that  occurred  at  that  time,  thus:  When  the  frame  was  raised, 
ladders  down,  etc.,  the  last  man  down  was  scolded  for  not  driv- 
ing in  a  peg  to  a  brace.  Some  man  said.  "(I^all  Orrin  Brown 
with  his  axe,  he  can  reach  it."     Orrin  was  over  six  feet  tall,  and 


202 

took  Ms  axe  and  at  two  strokes  drove  the  pin  home,  and  three 
cheers  were  given  for  Orrin. 

Joseph  Erown  r.-as  the  grandfather  of  Theophilus  Brown, 
and  li\-ed  in  an  old  house  about  twentx-five  rods  south  of  S.  W. 
Allis'  house.  I  went  to  school  in  the  new  house  for  a  short 
time,  and  then  we  moved  to  Whately  street  in  1S25,  to  the  place 
where  I  now  live. 

The  first  school  I  attended  after  we  moved  to  Whately 
street  was  at  the  north  center  brick  house,  which  stands  there 
to-da^-.  The  teacher  was  Fanny  Crafts,  sister  of  Cotton,  for  I 
remember  of  her  taking  all  the  school  children  to  her  home  to 
eat  maple  sugar.  The  second  school  I  attended  in  the  street 
was  a  private  school,  kept  in  a  store  that  stood  about  where  the 
Town  house  now  stands.  This  building  was  afterwards  moved 
to  the  west  side  of  the  street,  where  Horace  Manning  now  lives, 
by  J.  M.  Cooley  and  remodeled.  When  he  went  to  Springfield, 
Mr.  Temple  occupied  it. 

Our  teacher  was  the  Rev.  Mr.  Perkins,  afterwards  one  of 
the  first  missionaries  to  China.  He  was  a  rigid  disciplinarian, 
and  gave  me  my  first  whipping  wrongfully.  I  pleaded  with  him 
not  to  whip  me,  as  I  was  not  the  one  who  did  the  mischief,  but 
J.  did  not  give  away  the  other  boy,  but  took  the  dose  manfulh-. 
I  made  up  my  mind  I  would  get  even  with  him.  About  a  month 
after  I  went  to  the  schoolroom  at  noon  time,  put  a  large  bent  pin 
in  his  big  arm  chair  seat,  and  when  he  opened  the  afternoon 
school,  and  sat  down  in  the  chair  he  jumped  half  over  the 
room,  pitching  his  table  and  books  before  him.  He  never  could 
find  out  th^  boy  rogue  who  did  it,  for  that  boy's  head  was  close 
to  his  slate  all  that  afternoon,  wrestling  with  the  mysteries  of 
fractions  and,  occasionally,  seeking  his  advice  to  unravel  them. 
S.  B.  White  attended  this  school,  also  Albert  Sanders,  Deacon 
Reuben  H.  Belden,  Zabina  W.  Bartlett,  Charles  D.  Stockbridge, 
Rufus  P.  Wells,  Mary  Morton,  Experience  Wells,  Harriet  Frary, 
John  H.  Bardwell  and  sisters,  and  many  of  the  older  scholars 
from  other  districts. 

About  this  time  the  people  north  of  the  old  church,  this  side 
of  Gutter  brook,  got  set  off  to  the  south  district  school,  taught 
by  Lydia  Allis,  afterwards  Mrs.  Dr.  Myron  Harwood,  who  took 
the  place  of  Salmon  White,  son  of  Justice  White,  who  died 
while  a  teacher  there,  if  I  am  not  mistaken.  It  was  a  summer 
school,  and  I  don't  think  you  attended.  I  think  there  is  no  one 
living  now  who  attended  school  in  that  district,  except  myself 


^o3 

and  yourself  and  Mrs.  Rufus  Dickinson.  We  children  were  in- 
structed by  our  pious  parents  in^the  street,  as  we  passed  to  and 
fro  from  the  schools,  if  we  met  old  Parsons  Wells,  to  form  two 
lines,  take  off  our  hats  and  bonnets,  and  let  him  pass  through 
the  lane  with  his  chapeau  hat,  black  gown,  silk  stockings, 
clasped  above  his  knees  with  silver  buckles,  abo  the  same  fas- 
tened his  shoes. 

I  also  attended  a  prix'ate  school  kept  by  a  student  from  Am- 
herst college,  in  the  basement  of  Austin  Elder's  house,  on  the 
West  Lane.  I  remember  as  scholars  there,  two  sons  and  a 
daughter  of  Stephen  Clark  of  West  Whately,  John  Bardwell, 
Hopkins  Woods  and  sisters,  Angenette  and  Elizabeth  Looniis, 
Sybil  and  Clarissa  Bardwell,  daughters  of  Dr.  Bardwell,  Expe- 
rience Wells  and  Mary  Morton,  Rufus  Wells  and  Morris  Morton 
and  Porter  Wells. 

The  next  school  I  attended  was  a  private  school,  kept  by 
Rev.  Mr.  MacKinstry,  in  the  hall  of  the  hotel  owned  by  Mr. 
Bush,   who  was  also  the  town  merchant  in  the  store  attached. 

This  was  a  large  and  fine  school,  and  manv  a  Whatelv  bov 
and  girl,  from  sixteen  to  twenty,  from  all  over  the  town  made 
great  progress  under  his  teachings  in  their  education  for  a 
future  business  life.  I  remember  as  scholars  from  East  Whately, 
George  W.  Sanderson,  Reuben  H.  Belden,  Albert  Sanders ; 
from  Christian  Lane,  Elizabeth  Loomis  ;  from  West  Whately, 
Stephen  Clark's  children;  from  the  center,  Hopkins  Woods, 
Morris  Morton,  John  and  Charles  Bardwell  and  sisters,  Experi- 
ence Wells,  Mary  Ferguson  and  brothers  and  Mary  Morton, 

My  father  was  one  of  four  or  five  men  that  subscribed  to 
build  a  private  schoolhouse  which  stood  on  the  lot  west  of  the 
hotel.  This  was  run  as  a  private  school  for  some  years  and 
then,  for  some  reason,  it  was  given  up,  the  building  sold  and  it 
is  now  the  Bennett  house  on  the  west  end  of  the  lane.  I  do  not 
recollect  of  going  to  that  school.  I  presume  the  reason  was  that 
I  was  sent  to  Deerfield  academy  for  two  years  about  that  time. 
I  recollect  of  going  around  with  a  subscription  paper  to  get 
money  for  a  writing  school.  I  succeeded  and  procured  H.  G. 
Knight  of  Easthampton  to  give  lessons  to  some  seven  or  eight 
of  us  boys  in  a  room  in  Dr.  BardwelKs  house,  he  donating  the 
use  of  the  room.  Mr.  Knight  was  afterwards,  I  think,  Lieut. 
Governor  of  Massachusetts. 

I  recollect  also  of  doing  the  same  thing  for  a  singing  school 
and  procuring  Col.   Barr   fdr   a    teacher,    and   we  had  a  large 


io4 

school  and  a  jolly  good  time,  but  I  never  heard  that  any  of  the 
young  ladies  turned  out  Jenny  Linds  or  the  boys  famous  tenor 
singers.  1  know  in  that  role  I  was  a  failure.  The  environment 
here  was  so  contracted,  in  regard  to  music,  that  I  suppose  we 
all  fell  froni  grace  in  that  regard.  We  all  fell  back  into  old  Ste- 
phen Clark's  and  Reuben  Graves'  style  of  singing  through  the 
nose,  after  Reuben  pitched  the  tune  in  church  by  biting  his  tun- 
ing fork  and  starting  in  to  praise  the  Lord  with  a  tenor  scream 
that  would  have  frightened  an  eagle  on  top  of  the  high  moun- 
tain in  "West  Whately  where  he  lived. 

The  same  old  controversy  about  schools  and  their  location 
that  you  and  I  heard  seventy'  years  ago,  is  in  existence  here  to- 
day, for  at  the  last  Town  meeting  in  March,  it  was  voted,  "To 
raise  $6000  for  a  new  schoolhouse,  subject  to  the  approval  of  a 
special  Town  meeting,  held  29  April,"  when  the  vote  in  March 
was  reversed  by  a  large  majority.  The  first  vote  would  have 
compelled  all  the  scholars  to  come  to  one  school  in  the  center. 
The  true  course  to  pursue  is  to  make  three  districts  out  of  the 
six  now  in  existence,  one  to  be  at  the  Straits  four  corners,  one 
in  West  Whately  and  one  large  building  at  the  center  for  small 
children  and  advanced  scholars  from  all  over  the  town. 

Yery  truly  yours. 

H.  S.  ALLIS. 


Libraries.  It  has  always  seemed  to  me  as  strange  that 
the  subject  of  libraries  should  have  escaped  the  attention  of  Mr. 
Temple.  While  the  town  has  nothing  to  be  overproud  of  in 
this  direction,  yet  we  deem  it  of  some  importance  that  due  atten- 
tion should  be  given  to  so  important  a  matter  as  a  library.  So 
we  beg  our  readers  to  note  carefully  what  we  may  say. 

The  first  librar\'  of  which  I  have  any  knowlege  in  Whately 
was  formed  sometime  between  1790  and  '95,  perhaps  earlier  even 
than  1790.  To  commence  with,  each  subscriber  paid  one  shil- 
ling and  six  pence,  and  in  the  original  document,  which  is  with- 
out date,  it  is  written  in  ancient  form,  as  1-6.  This  was  doubt- 
less in  English  money.  To  show  our  authorit}-  for  claiming  a 
date  prior  to  iSoo,  I  find  that  Abner  Dickinson  died  28  Sept., 
1799.  aged  seventy-five  years,  and  he  was  one  of  the  subscrib- 
ers, so  it  must  have  been  before  his  death  and  quite  a  number 
died  soon  after.  I  will  give  an  exact  copy  of  the  names  and  the 
amounts  credited  as  paid  : 


tn 

w 

O 


o 


20S 


LIST    OF    THOSE    WHO    PAID    ONE    SHILLING,    SIX    PENCE. 


Salah  Scott. 
John  White, 
Consider  Morton, 
Daniel  Morton, 
Capt.  Seth  Frary, 
Solomon  Atkins, 
Asa  Sanderson, 
Graves  Crafts, 
Charles  BardwelT, 
John  Smith. 
Zenas  Field, 
Reuben  Graves, 
Isaac  Frary, 
Samuel  Dickinson. 
Gideon  Dickinson, 
Luther  White, 
Simeon  Morton, 
Samuel  Grimes, 
Thomas  Wells, 
Thomas  Marsh, 
Levi  Graves, 
Joel  Monson, 
Martin  Graves. 


Rev.  Rufus  Wells, 

Capt.  Henry  Stiles, 

Joshua  Belden, 

Lieut.  Abel  Scott, 

Eleazer  Frary, 

Jeremiah  Waite, 

Maj.  Phineas  Frar\', 

Oliver  Graves,  Jr., 

Salmon  White, 

Philo  Bacon, 

Moses  Graves, 

Samuel  G.  Morton, 

Capt.  Salmon  Graves, 

Jehu  Dickinson, 

Elijah  AUis, 

Aaron  Dickinson, 

Moses  Munson,  Jr., 

William  Mather, 

Dea.  Levi  Morton,  * 

Salah  Graves, 

Oliver  Morton, 

Gad  Smith, 

Nathan  Waite, 

Abner  Dickinson, 

In  all  forty-seven  names  of  the  most  prominent  people  in 
Whately  prior  to  1800.  The  youngest  of  these  was  Thomas 
W^ells,  born  in  ijSr . 

After  this,  about  1820  or  perhaps  a  year  or  two  earlier, 
another  library  association  was  formed  of  probably  a  larger  con- 
stituency, and  continued  until  about  1832  or  thereabouts,  when 
quite  a  number  of  the  subscribers  refused  to  be  governed  by  the 
regulations,  and  refused  to  pay  annually  the  stipend  agreed  up- 
on and,  after  much  altercation,  they  agreed  to  sell  the  books  at 
auction. 

I  well  recollect  of  being  present  at  the  sale  and  buying  a 
few  books,  and  I  heard  Dr.  Miron  Harwood  say  at  that  time, 
"That  this  was  just  the  way  the  old  library  was  sold  off  at  pub- 
lic auction  and  that  he  bought  one  or  more  books"  (I  do  not 
recall  how  many  books  he  said  he  bought.)  At  that  time,  1S32, 
there  had  been  many  removals  from  tow-n  and  others  w'ere 
going. 

The  next  effort  was  to  avail  ourselves  of  the  right  to  establish 
school  district  libraries,  about  1842  or  '43,  the  state  contributing 
towards  the  expense.     Several  of  our  school  districts  procured  a 


•     2o6 

library  of  standard  works.  This  continued  for  awhile  and  the  in- 
terest in  these  books  decreased,  as  the  books  were  of  a  different 
nature  from  those  the  vounsr  desired  to  read.  The  next  library 
was  an  agricultural  library,  formed  in  i86r.  A  meeting  was 
duly  called  and  a  goodly  number  of  our  people  gatliered  in 
the  evening  of  7  Nov.,  1S61,  and  made  choice  of  Dr.  Chester 
Bardwell  as  president,  Elihu  Btlden.  Esq.,  as  vice  president, 
and  James  M.  Crafts  as  secretary.  A  committee  of  five,  con- 
sisting of  Dr.  Chester  Barduell,  Elihu  Belden.  Esq.,  Edwin  M. 
Belden,  Elliott  C.  Allis  and  James  M.  Crafts,  were  chosen  to 
select  a  list  of  books  to  constitute  an  agricultural  library.  Each 
member  paid  in  fi\-e  dollars  to  the  fund  for  books,  with  an 
annual  stipend  of  one  dollar  to  be  invested  in  ne\\  books.  The 
interest  continued  and  much  good  resulted.  At  a  meeting  held 
after  the  establishment  of  the  Town  librar}-,  in  1S71,  it  was 
voted  unanimousl}-,  "To  place  all  such  books  as  remained,  in 
the  Town  library,  to  be  used  as  town  custodians  might  see  fit," 
and  thus  ended  this  agricultural  library  after  a  continuance  of 
some  fifteen  years. 

It  is  certainly  proper  that  we  should  speak  somewhat  in  de- 
tail relative  to  the  establishment  of  the  Town  free  library. 
There  had  long  been  a  strong  desire  for  the  establishment  of  a 
library,  either  by  an  association  of  interested  citizens  or,  some- 
how, by  the  town.  At  last,  at  a  meeting  held  6  April,  1S74, 
action  was  taken  on  the  following  article:  "To  see  what  action 
the  town  will  take  to  establish  a  Town  library  and  to  choose  a 
committee  for  the  same."  Under  this  article  the  town  chose  as 
the  committee:  Salmon  P.  White,  Seth  B.  Crafts,  David  Scott, 
Samuel  C.  Wood,  Charles  F.  Pease  and  Paul  W.  Field,  and 
they  were  to  appoint  a  librarian.  They  outlined  the  needful 
steps  to  be  taken  and  made  report  to  the  Town  meeting  the 
next  March.  Then  the  town  appropriated  the  amount  of  the 
dog  fund. 

The  first  books  were  bought  and  were  soon  in  the  hands  of 
hungry  readers,  a  room  in  the  Town  house  being  set  apart  for 
the  storage  of  the  books.  This  room  was  intended  for  the  Town 
clerk's  office,  but  was  only  used  to  store  the  weights  and  meas- 
ures and  an  old  trunk  or  two  that  contained  old  papers,  valua- 
tion books  and  a  badly  mixed  assortment  of  town  orders,  etc. 
The  sum  of  the  dog  fund,  often  increased  by  an  extra  appropri- 
ation, has  been  given  annually  for  its  support.  Aside  from  this 
the  town  has  paid  the  needed  expense  of  the  librarian,  as  well 


207 

as  the  expense  of  repairing  and  rebinding  the  books.  I  can 
only  give  the  amount  of  three  years'  appropriations,  for  the  lack 
of  Town  reports,  but  I  ihink  they  represent  about  a  fair  average 
of  the  yearly  appropriations:  For  18S5S6,  the  sum  was  $155.75 
and  service  of  librarian  $26,  in  all  S1S1.75  ;  for  1S87-88,  the  sum 
for  both  was  5142  69  ;  for  1898-99,  the  sum  for  both  was  S199.00. 

Under  the  town's  fostering  care  we  now  have  2,279  volumes, 
besides  numerous  public  documents.  The  number  of  new  books 
added  in  1898  was  120  volumes  of  the  latest  works  of  the  best 
authors,  with  several  standard  works,  and  the  intelligent  com- 
mittee will  tell  you  "The  patronage  of  the  library  increases  each 
year.  The  library  room  has  been  enlarged,  giving  additional 
space  for  at  least  2,000  volumes,  the  floor  covered  with  linoleum 
and  new  lamps  put  in,  all  of  which  greatly  improves  the  appear- 
ance of  the  place."  And  now  I  may  be  permitted  to  say  in  con- 
.cluding  this  account  of  the  efforts  of  our  town's  people  to  have 
a  library  commensurate  with  the  wants,  not  to  say  necessities  of 
the  people  of  our  town — perhaps  I  shall  be  excused  when  I  say 
that  but  a  moiety  of  our  people  have  ever  opposed  liberal  appro- 
priations of  money  for  the  constant  increase  of  the  books  and 
their  care — that  the  library  stands  to-day  as  a  permanent 
fixture  of  the  town,  not  onh'  as  an  adjunct  in  our  educational 
system,  supplementing,  as  it  does,  our  schools  where  the  ele- 
ments of  an  education  are  obtained,  only  to  be  developed  by 
reading  the  best  thoughts  of  intelligent  writers. 

To-day  it  is  not  unusual  to  find  a  large  class  of  our  people 
well  informed  in  current  literature-and  capable  of  interesting  con- 
versation on  topics  allied  thereto.  True,  works  of  fiction  form 
the  larger  portion  of  the  books  read,  yet  they  are  often  found  to 
contain  much  of  historic  value,  as  well  as  a  refined  method  of 
expression,  all  of  which  is  educational. 

One  more  thought  presses  upon  my  mind,  and  that  is  the 
fact  of  a  library  not  being  mentioned  by  Mr.  Temple.  Yet, 
when  he  was  settled  over  the  Congregational  church,  three  libra- 
ries had  existed  and  two  of  them  had  run  their  course  and  been 
closed  up.  And  one  would  be  left  to  conclude  that  the  sources 
of  information  of  our  people  were  confined  to  listening  to  the 
long-drawn-out  discourses  of  the  clergymen  and  the  small  and 
uninteresting  county  papers.  Yet,  we  had  had  two  comfortable 
sized  circulating  libraries,  the  first  dating  back  to  about  rjQo, 
and  the  other  to  about  1818  to  '20,  started  by  a  fund  raised  on 
each  sliare  and  an  annual  payment  of  a  stipulated  amount. 


208 

In  the  first  librar}-,  each  member  or  shareholder  contributed 
annually  the  sum  of  is,  6d  English  money,  so  the  amount  of  an- 
nual collections  would  be  ^3,  los  and  6d,  or  in  federal  money 
(calling  a  pound  equal  to  S3. 35)  would  make  n(jt  far  from  about 
Si  2  in  round  numbers.  This  sum  had  been  annually  expended 
for  books  up  to  near  the  time  of  its  sale.  Copies  of  these  books 
are  yet  in  existence. 

It  is  nevertheless  true  that  our  schools,  though  they  gave 
us  the  primary  elements  for  an  education,  were  largely 
the  hot  beds  of  instilling  into  the  minds  of  the  young,  certain 
theological  notions  calculated  to  uphold  the  dominant  order.  I 
am  now  past  fourscore-and-two  years,  and  yet.  the  impress  on 
mv  mind  still  exerts  an  influence  upon  my  modes  of  thinking. 
I  left  school  for  summers  when  I  was  eight  years  old.  Up  to 
this  time,  the  only  study  in  school  had  been  the  New^  England 
Primer  and  Assembly's  Shorter  Catechism,  and  we  were  cate- • 
chised  not  only  by  the  teachers,  but  often  by  the  minister,  who 
not  only  asked  the  usual  questions,  but  took  occasion  to  impress 
many  points  upon  the  scholars. 

The  primer  contained  twenty-four  coarse  woodcuts,  one,  as 
I  recall  it,  was  a  picture  of  the  devil.  He  was  represented  as 
having  legs  like  a  big  rooster,  with  spurs  ;  another  represented 
a  biblical  scene  of  the  driving  of  a  large  nail  into  a  man's  head  ; 
another  scene  was  the  burning  of  John  Rogers  at  the  stake,  and 
as  a  recent  writer  well  says,  accompanied  with  couplets  and 
triplets  as  follows  : 

In  Adam's  fall    ')  '  Zacheus  he 

;-  and    did  climb  a  tree 
We  sinned  all     )  our  Lord  to  see 

and  others  of  a  similar  nature. 

It  is  claimed  that  the  primer  w^as  of  Englisli  production. 
A  recent  magazine' article  well  says:  "The}'  are  full  of  piety 
of  a  ghoulish  sort,  or  of  the  teachings  of  that  stern  school  of 
theology  to  which  those  men  belonged  who  lived  in  the  idea 
that  they  had  been  ransomed  by  the  sweat  of  no  vulgar  agony, 
by  the  blood  of  no  earthly  sacrifice,"  for  whom  "The  sun  had 
been  darkened  and  the  rocks  rent,  the  dead  had  arisen  and  all 
nature  had  shuddered   at   the  sufferings  of   an  expiring  God." 

All  these  things  were  taught  us  in  the  hope  that  the  mind 
of  the  young  would  receive  such  impressions  as  would  in  after 
life  control  our  religious  belief,  doubtless  with  a  commendable 
purpose,  when  viewed  from  their  standpoint.     So  works  of  fie- 


209 

tion  -^-ere  deemed  of  little  worth,  and  people  urged  the  commit- 
tees to  purchase  books  that  should  largely  consist  of  history, 
biography  and  travels,  with  a  liberal  sprinkling  of  scientific 
works. 

It  was  soon  apparent  that  these  kind  of  books  did  not  often 
leave  the  shelves  of  the  library,  and  the  committees  were 
obliged  to  cater  to  the  wants  of  the  readers.  The  conditions  in 
which  we  live  are  changed,  our  educational  system  is  up  with 
the  times.  Our  newspapers  are  now  filled  with  suitable  read- 
ing. Liberal  and  advanced  thoughtpermeates  the  minds  of  our 
people,  and  their  reading  must  correspond  to  their  advanced 
wants.      So  by  all  means  cherish  your  library, 


CHAPTER  XII. 

WHATELY  IN  THE  \VARS. — THE  FRENCH  AND  INDIAN  WAR, 
1 754- 1 763;  T-HE  WAR  OF  THE  REVOLUTION,  1 775"  1 783; 
THE  SHAYS'  REBELLION.  [786-17S7;  THE  WAR  OF  l8l2- 
1S14;    THE    REBELLION    OF    1S61-1S65. 

Although  the  war  of  1754  antedates  the  incorporation  of  the 
town,  yet  as  permanent  settlements  had  been  made,  and  these 
families  are  identified  with  its  social  and  civil  life,  and  their  indi- 
vidual acts  illustrate  its  public  history,  there  is  an  evident  pro- 
priety that  the  war  records  of  the  time  should  be  included  in 
the  annals  of  Whately.  These  earlier  struggles  against  the 
encroachments  of  the  French,  were  a  preparation  for  the  later 
struggle  for  Colonial  independence.  The  private  soldier  received 
a  training  which  fitted  him  for  the  post  of  command.  And  thus 
the  discipline  of  the  camp  and  the  smell  of  gunpowder  were  not 
new  experiences  to  the  Minute  Men  of  '75. 

As  will  be  seen,  several  of  the  men,  whose  record  is  given 
were,  at  the  time  of  their  enlistment,  inhabitants  of  other  and 
distant  towns.  Some  saw  the  lands  on  which  the}'  afterwards 
settled,  for  the  first  time,  when  marching  to  and  from  the  scene 
of  warfare  northward  and  westward,  and  some  were  then  and 
continued  to  be  citizens  of  Deerneld  till  the  south  part  of  that 
town,  on  which  they  were  located,  was  annexed  to  Whately 
in  1 8 10. 

The  ages  of  these  soldiers  varied  greatly  and,  in  some  cases, 
father  and  son  were  members  of  the  same  company.  Ebenezer 
Bardwell,  St.,  was  fifty,  Gaius  Crafts  was  thirty,  Joseph  San- 
derson, Jr.,  was  eighteen.     Some  were  out  in  a  single  campaign. 


211 

others  took  part  in  nearly-  every  expedition  during  the  seven 
years  of  active  warfare. 

Although  the  list  may  be  incomplete,  yet  even  this  brief 
record  will  help  do  justice  to  the  memory  of  many  brave  men, 
who  o'ave  the  flower  of  their  \'OUth  to  their  country,  and  some  of 
whom,  through  the  neglect  or  inability  of  the  government,  failed 
to  receive  a  proper  return  for  their  sacrifices  of  tinie,  money 
and  health. 

The  scope  of  this  work  does  not    include  a  history  of  the 

causes  and  progress  of  these  wars,   it  does  not  even  include  an 

extended    account    of  any  single  campaign.      Indeed,  so   far  as 

the   French  war  is  coticerned,   our  account  will  be  confined   to 

a  bare  record  of  the   names  of   those  who   were  at  the  time,  or 

afterwards  became  inhabitants  of   W'hately,  and  a  list  of  the  ex- 

peditions  in  which  each  soldier  served. 

Abraham  Parker.  In  Capt.  Israel  Williams'  company, 
Aug.,  1754,  to  March,  1755. 

Henry  Stiles.  In  Capt.  Ephraim  Williams'  company  at 
Fort  Massachiisetts,  23  Sept.,  175-I..  In  Capt.  Israel  Williams' 
company,  11  Dec,  1755,  to  10  March,  1756.  In  Capt  John 
Burke's  company  expedition  to  Crown  Point,  29  March  to  30 
Die,  175&.   Sergeant  inCapt.  Isaac  Wyman's  company,  25  Dec, 

1756,  to  26  Jan.,  1757.  Serjeant  in  Capt.  John  Burke's  com- 
pan_\-,   expedition  to   F5rt   William   Henry,  12   Feb.   to  4   Xov., 

1757- 

Richard  Carey.  In  Capt.  Elijah  Williams'  company,  T755. 
In  Capt.  John  Burke's  company,  2  March  to  i  April,  1757. 

Philip  Smith.  In  Capt.  Elijah  Williams'  company,  1755. 
In  Capt.  William  Lyman's  compan\',  10  Sept.  to  30  Dec,  1756. 

Simeon  Graves.  In  Capt.  E.  Williams'  company,  1755. 
In  Capt.  William  Lyman's  company,  10  Sept.  to  30  Dec,  1756. 

Joel  Dickinson.  In  Capt.  Lyman's  company  at  Lake 
George,  1755.  Sergeant  in  same  company,  10  Sept.  to  30 
Dec,  1756. 

Samuel  Carley.  In  Capt.  Benjamin  Ballard's  company,  Mar. 
to  Oct  ,  1755,  and  Dec.  1755,  to  March,  1756.  In  Capt.  Samuel 
Howe's  company,  1756.  In  Capt.  John  Burke's  company,  ex- 
pedition to  Fort  William  Henr}-,  Feb.  to  Nov.,  1757. 

Gains  Crat"ts.  In  Capt.  Moses  Porter's  company,  expedi- 
tion to  Crown  Point,  i  April  to  S  Sept.,  1756.  In  expedition  to 
Canada,  campaigns  of  175S  and  1759.  In  Capt.  Elijah  Smith's 
company,  expedition  to  Crown  Point,  April,   1759,  to  Jan.'   1760. 

Perez  Bardwell.  Enlisted  at  eighteen  years  old.  In  expe- 
dition to  Crown  Point,  1756.  In  Capt.  John  Burke's  company, 
2  March  to  i  April,  1757.      In   Capt.   Salah  Barnard's  company. 

1757.  In  same  company,  expedition  to  Canada,  1758  and  1759. 


212 

Corporal  in  Capt.  Barnard's  company,  expedition  to  Canada, 
Feb.  to  Dec.  1760,  and  in  Capt.  William  Shepard's  company, 
April,  1761,  to  Jan.,  1762. 

Paul  Smith  In  Capt.  Moses  Porter's  company,  expedition 
to  Crown  Point.  1756.     In  expedition  to  Canada,  1759. 

David  Gra\-es,  Jr.  In  Capt.  Moses  Porter's  company,  expe- 
dition to  Crown  Point,    1756. 

Seth  Waite.  In  Capt.  Moses  Porter's  company,  expedition 
to  Crown  Point,  1756.  In  Capt.  Elijah  Smith's  compan}-,  expe- 
dition to  Crown  Point,  April,  1759,  to  Jan.,  1760. 

Ebenezer  Bardwell.  Lieutenant  in  Capt.  Moses  Porter's 
company,  expedition  to  Crown  Point,  1756,  also  in  Capt.  Joiia. 
Ball's  company,  same  year.  In  Capt.  Salah  Barnard's  com- 
pany, expedition  to  Canada,  1757  and  175S.  In  Capt.  John 
Burke's  company,  engaged  in  bringing  deserters,  from  30  March 
to  25,  Dec.  1759. 

Ebenezer  Bardwell.  Jr.  In  Capt.  Salah  Barnard's  company, 
expedition  to  Canada,  1757  and  1758. 

Joseph  Belden,  Jr.      In  Capt.   Whitcomb's  company,    1756. 

Nathaniel  Sartwell.  In  Capt.  Whitcomb's  company,  1756. 
In  Capt.  John  Burke's  company,  1757. 

Israel  Graves.     In  Capt.   Israel  William's  company,    1756. 

Salmon  White.  Corporal  in  Capt.  William  Lyman's  com- 
pany, 1756. 

Elisha  Frary.  Drummer  in  Capt.  .William  Lyman's  com- 
pany, 1756. 

Abner  Dickinson.  In  Capt.  William  Lyman's  company, 
1756. 

Joseph  Byrani.  In  Capt.  John  Burke's  company,  1757. 
Ensign  in  Col.  Jona.  Hoar's  regiment,  ij6i.  Ensign  in  com- 
mand of  Invalid  company  at  Crown  Point,  Nov.,  1761,  to 
March,  1762. 

Samuel  Bardwell,  brother"  of  Perez.  In  Capt.  Barnard's 
company,  1757.     In  expedition  to  Canada,  1758  and  1759. 

Oliver  Graves  and  Nathan  Graves.  In  Lieut.  Billings' 
company,  marched  for  relief  of  Fort  William  Henry,  1757. 

PpuI  Belden.  In  Capt.  John  Burke's  company,  expedition 
to  Canada,  1759. 

Silas  Smith.     In  Capt.  Burke's  company,  as  above. 

Jeremiah  Waite.  In  Capt.  Salah  Barnard's  company,  expe- 
dition to  Canada,  1760. 

War  of  the  Revolutiox,  i 775-1 7S3. — The  letters  of 
Thomas  Whately  and  Governor  Hutchinson,  copied  at  length  in 
a  preceding  ehapter,  have  given  intimation  of  an  impending 
struggle  between  the  colonies  and  the  mother  country. 

The  original  charter  of  the  American  colonies  were  under- 


213 

stood  to  guarantee  to  the  people  all  the  rights  and  liberties  of 
Englishmen.  One  of  the  dearest  of  these  rights  was.  immunity 
from  taxation,  except  by  their  own  consent,  i.  e.,  by  their  rep- 
resentatives in  Parliament.  And,  as  the  colonists  had  no  rep- 
resentation, they  claimed  that  they  were  rightfully  exempt. 
And  this  exemption  had  not  before  been  called  in  question.  For 
near  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  this  guarantied  privilege  had 
not  been  disturbed.  But  after  the  close  of  the  war  with  France 
in  1763,  Great  Britain  found  herself  burdened  alike  with  debts 
and  with  domestic  taxes,  and,  as  a  measure  of  relief,  the  minis- 
try devised  the  plan  of  raising  a  revenue  by  impost  and  other 
duties,  levied  on  articles  of  prime  necessity  to  her  American 
subjects. 

These  measures  were  resisted  by  the  colonies,  not  so  much 
because  the  burden  first  imposed  was  oppressive,  but  because  the 
right  to  raise  a  revenue  in  this  way  implied  the  right  to  levy 
more  direct  taxes,  and  thus  made  the  internal  management  of 
American  affairs  subject  to  the  will  of  Parliament.  It  was  a 
first  move  in   a   course  which  would    undermine   their  liberties. 

Remonstrances  and  petitions  and  appeals  to  the  king  were 
sent  home  and  had  their  effect.  The  first  revenue  laws  were 
repealed  or  modified,  or  allowed  to  remain  inoperative.  Rut  the 
repeal  of  the  Stamp  act  was  accompanied  with  the  passage  of 
an  act,  declaring  "That  Parliament  has,  and  of  right  ought  to 
have,  power  to  bind  the  colonies  in  all  cases  whatsoever." 

Other  plans  for  taxing  the  Americans  were  adopted,  and 
new  causes  of  irritation  sprung  up,  which  developed  and  tested 
the  temper  of  men  on  both  sides.  But  what  aroused  most  deeply 
the  spirit  of  the  colonies  was  an  address  to  the  king,  adopted  by 
Parliament  in  February,  1769,  requesting  that  orders  might  be 
sent  to  the  Governor  of  Massachusetts  to  transport  to  England 
for  trial  all  who  should  be  suspected  of  treason.  This  was  an 
unexpected  move,  and  was  looked  upon  as  hostile  and  vengeful. 
Nothing  could  be  more  odious  to  a  freeman,  who  had  all  his  life 
enjoyed  equal  ^rights  in  his  native  land,  than  the  idea  of  being 
torn  from  his  country  and  tried  for  his  life  by  strangers. 

The  British  view  of  this  measure  is  presented  in  the  letter 
of  Mr.  Whately.  The  American  view  of  this  and  the  measures 
that  immediately  followed  it,  is  set  forth  in  well-known  declara- 
tions of  the  colonial  legislatures,  in  the  destruction  of  the  tea  in 
Boston  harbor  and  the  war  of  the  Revolution. 

Massachusetts  was  the  first  of  the  colonies  to  resist  the  arbi- 


514 

trary  acts  of  Parliament,  and  her  capital  was  singled  out  as  the 
first  to  receive  exemplar}'  punishment.  She  led  the  \va}-  in 
devising  ways  and  means  of  revolution,  and  bore  her  full  share 
in  the  sacrifices  and  sorrows  of  the  contest. 

Although  the  people  of  the  Connecticut  vallex'  were  less 
directly  affected  by  tlie  restrictions  on  commerce,  and  the  pres- 
ence of  foreign  troops,  than  the* seaboard  towns,  }'et  the  princi- 
ples involved  were  felt  by  all  to  touch  the  vital  issues  of  civil 
life  and  political  liberty.  And  our  people  were  quick  to  respond 
to  the  alarm  of  danger,  and  entered  with  the  whole  heart  into 
the  struggle  for  independence. 

In  the  fall  and  winter  of  1772-73  a  plan  was  originated  by 
the  leading  patriots  of  this  state,  which  had  a  most  important 
bearing  on  the  progress  and  ultimate  success  of  the  revolution, 
and  the  subsequent  union  of  the  colonies.  This  plan  was  the 
appointment  of  a  central  committee  ot  correspondence  and 
inquin.'  in  Boston,  and  like  committees  in  every  town  in  the 
province.  Similar  committees  were  appointed  by  \*irginia  and 
other  colonial  assemblies.  By  this  means  the  counsels  and 
action  of  the  entire  people  were  brought  into  harmony,  and 
efficiency  and  strength  given  to  every  movement. 

A  circular,  accompanied  with  a  pamphlet,  wherein  "The 
rights  of  the  colonists,  and  the  infringements  thereof,"  are  set 
forth,  was  sent  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  several  towns  in  the 
state.  A  copy  of  this  was  received  b}-  the  W'hatelj'  authorities 
early  in  1773.  A  town  meeting  was  immediately  called,  and  a 
committee  of  three,  Edward  Brown,  Elisha  Frary  and  Joseph 
Belden,  Jr.,  was  chosen  to  answer  the  said  letter.  The  commit- 
tee drew  up,  and  forwarded  (by  vote  of  the  town)  the  following 
reply: 

Gentlemen:  The  proceedings  of  the  town  of  Boston  under 
the  present  exigencies,  we  esteem  very  laudable  and  worthy  of 
a  metropolis.  W'e  concur  in  general  with  3'our  sentiments  in 
stating  the  rights  of  the  colonists  and  province,  and  of  the  in- 
fringements of  these  rights.  We  hold  fast  loyalty  to  our  sover- 
eign, yet  we  groan  under  our  burden,  but  do  not  despair  of  re- 
dress. If  the  importunity  of  a  poor  ^-iciow  may  move  an  unjust 
judge  to  avenge  her  how  much  more  may  we  hope  for  redress 
by  frequent  applications  to  a  gracious  king.  We  shall  at  all 
times  heartily  join  with  you,  in  all  legal  and  constitutional  meas- 
ures, for  the  keeping  of  these  inestimable  pi;ivileges  wrested 
from  us,  and  firmly  to  secure  those  that  remain.  For  we  are 
sensible  that,  should  we  renounce  our  liberty  and  privileges,  we 
should  renounce  the  rights  of  man,  the  rights  of  humanity  and, 


215 

even  our  duty  to  God  and  man.  We  have  no  doubts  but  that 
the  Parliament  of  Great  Britain  will  hereby  understand  that  'tis 
not  the  discontedness  of  a  faction,  but  that  the  whole  people  are 
sensible  of  the  burdens  they  labor  under. 

This  letter  is  indicative  of  the  general  popular  sentiment. 
The  people  were  still  strongly  attached  to  their  sovereign,  and 
had  not  given  up  hope  of  securing  redress  for  their  grievances, 
but  they  were  ready  to  stand  by  their  leaders  and  to  defend  their 
ancient  rights  and  privileges.  In  this  town,  as  in  other  places, 
the  use  of  tea  and  most  West  India  goods,  had  almost  entirely 
ceased.  Foreign  calicoes  and  woolens,  which  had  largely  taken 
the  place  of  homespun,  were  now  discarded.  The  spinning- 
wheels  were  restored  to  their  places  in  the  living  rooms,  the  looms 
were  repaired,  and  the  younger  girls  became  ambitious  to  learn 
all  the  mysteries  of  making  and  dyeing  cloth,  and  men  and 
women  alike  returned  to  the  wool  and  flaxen  garments  of  their 
grandparents.  Great  care  was  taken  to  increase  the  number  of 
sheep.  The  acreage  of  flax  sown  was  doubled.  All  projected 
public  improvements  were  stayed,  and  family  expenses  were  cut 
down  to  the  lowest  point.  Lawsuits  were  taken  out  of  court 
and  settled,  alienated  neighbors  became  friends. 

1774.  This  was  a  year  of  active  preparation.  The  central 
committee  of  correspondence  called  for  mone}'  to  help. the  dis- 
tressed citizens  of  Boston,  and  further  the  plans  of  armament 
and  organization.  And  at  a  town  meeting  in  Wbately,  held  21 
July,  it  was  voted,  "To  pay  out  of  the  town  stock  the  sum  sent 
for  by  the  committee." 

Oliver  Graves  was  chosen  deputy  to  attend  the  Provincial 
congress  to  be  holden  at  Concord  the  second  Tuesday  in  Octo- 
ber. Elisha  Frary  was  delegate  to  the  second  congress,  held 
at  Cambridge,  5  Feb.,  1775,  Noah  Wells  and  Salmon  White 
went  to  the  third  congress,  which  met  at  the  meeting-house  in 
Watertown  the  last  of  May,  1775. 

During  this  fall — 177-I. — a  company  of  minute  men  was 
organized.  As  was  natural,  the  men  who  had  been  trained  in 
the  French  and  Indian  war  were  looked  to  as  best  fitted  to  lead 
in  this  new  struggle.  Lieut.  Ebenezer  Bardwell,  who  had  seen 
most  military-  service,  was  now  sixty-eight  years  old,  and  Henry 
Stiles,  now  in  the  prime  of  life  and  next  him  in  military  expe- 
rience, was  selected  to  command  the  company.  The  best  men 
of  the  town  enlisted  and  took  their  place  in  the  ranks. 

At  a  meeting  in  December  the  town  voted,  "To  provide  one 


2l6 

hundred  weight  of  powder,  two  hundred  weight  of  lead  and  two 
hundred  flints  for  the  use  of  the  town." 

1775.  Early  in  January  a  committee  of  correspondence  was 
chosen,  consisting  of  Oliver  Graves.  Benjamin  Smith,  Oliver 
Morton,  Joshua  Belden,  John  Smith,  Elisha  Frary  and  Paul 
Smith.  And  at  the  same  town  meeting  it  was  voted,  "To  raise 
money  for  the  minute  men." 

Voted,  "That  the  minute  men  be  allowed  Sd  for  each  half 
day  spent;  the  sergeants,  lod;   the  lieutenants,  i2d." 

\'oTED,  "That  the  minute  men  train  four  half  days  between 
this  and  the  first  day  of  May  next." 

The  Lexin'GTOX  Alarm. — The  battle  of  Lexington  was 
fought  April  19th,  and  the  news  reached  the  valley  late  in  the 
da}'  of  the  20th.  The  alarm  was  instantl}'  sounded,  and  the 
Whately  company  of  minute  men  was  ready  to  start  early  the 
next  morning.  They  marched  that  day  and  the  next  forenoon 
forty  miles,  and  receiving  intelligence  that  the  British  had 
retreated  and  that  their  services  would  not  be  required,  they 
returned  home  the  23d. 

The  roll  of  this  company,  found  in  the  state  archives,  is  as 
follows : 

Capt.  Henr\^  Stiles  Ebenezer  Dickinson 

Lieut.  jS.oah  Bardwell  Niles  Coleman 

Sergt.  John  Lamson  Roswell  Smith 

Sergt.  John  Brown  Benjamin  Smith 

Thomas  Sanderson  Joel  Waite 

Paul  Belden  Daniel  Wells 

Ebenezer  Bardwell,  Jr.  Salmon  White 
John  Waite,  Jr.                                '   Edward  Brown 

Simeon  Wells  David  Ingraham 

This  list,  however,  comprises  less  than  half  the  Whately 
men  that  marched  that  day  for  the  scene  of  strife.  The  Hatfield 
companies  were  made  up  largely  of  our  townsmen,  and  some  of 
the  Deerfield  company,  though  then  living  over  the  line,  should 
be  reckoned  to  our  account.  In  Capt.  Perez  Graves'  Hatfield 
company  were : 

Silas  Smith  Elisha  Smith 

John  Smith  Gideon  Dickinson 

Gains  Crafts  Gad  Waite 

Jonathan  Edson,  Jr.  Salah  Scott 


217 

"This  company  marched  to  Ware,  twenty-three  miles,  and 
returned  with  the  Whately  company. 

In  Capt.  Israel  Chapin's  company,  Colonel  John  Fellows' 
regiment,  that  marched  20  April,  and  was  out  seven  days,  were: 

Lieut.  Perez  Bardwell  Joseph  Crafts 

Sergt.  Nath'l'Sartwell  Noah  Field 

Sergt.  Joseph  Belden,  Jr.  Salah  Graves 

Corp.  Abel  Scott  Joel  Scott 

Drum'r  Phineas  Frary  Elijah  5icott 

Fifer  Eleazer  Frary  John  Sanderson 

Zenas  Field  Solomon  Snow^ 

Josiali  Brown  Elihu  Waite 

Abel  Bacon  Gad  Waite 

Simeon  Morton  Salah  Scott 
John  Crafts 

In  Capt.  Jonas  Locke's  company  of  Deerfield  minute  men 
w'ere  : 

Jonathan  Spafford 
Abel  Parker 

In  Capt.  N.  Leonard's  Sunderland  company  we  find; 

Ebenezer  Barnard 

In  Capt.  Seth.  Murray's  Hatfield  company,  Col.  Wood- 
bridge's  regiment,  that  marched  29  April  and  was  out  till  25 
August,  were  the  following  Whately  names: 

Jonathan  Edson 
Elisha  Wells 

In  Capt.  Stebbins'  company  we  find  :  Abraham  Parker. 
He  assisted  in  making  the  redoubts  on  Bunker  Hill  and  his 
company  was  in  the  battle  the  17th.  One  of  the  men  was  killed 
and  Capt.  Maxwell  was  wounded,  but  Parker  came  out  unin- 
jured. 

The  other  Whately  men  who  took  part  in  the  battle  of 
Bunker  Hill  were  : 

Jonathan  Edson  Jonathan  Spafford 

Jonathan  Edson,  Jr.  Elisha  Wells 

They  also  assisted  in  throwing  up  the  redoubts  the  night 
before  the  battle.  Perhaps  there  were  others,  but  our  careful 
search  has  failed  to  locate  them. 


2l8 

This  is  an  honorable  record.  The  number  of  males  in  town, 
at  this  date,  between  sixteen  and  sixty,  was  less  than  one  hun- 
dred. And  you  have  found  before  a  list  of  fifty  men  who  volun- 
teered to  march  at  a  minute's  warning  in  defense  of  their  char- 
tered rights.  And  the  fact  deserves  mention  in  this  connection 
that,  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  the  war,  Whatelv  was 
never  deficient  in  her  quota  of  men. 

We  however  claim  credit  for  Julius  Frary,  born  at  W'hately, 
27  July,  1755.  and  his  brother,  David  Frar>-,  born  12  Sept., 
1747.  sons  of  Moses  Frar_\'  who  first  built  where  George  B.  Mc- 
Clelan  now  li\-es,  and  Joel  Dickinson,  Jr.,  who  came  to  Whatelv 
with  his  lather,  Dea.  Joel,  but  who  had  remo^•ed  to  Conway, 
and  Jacob  \\'alker,  then  living  in  Hatfield. 

Some  of  the  companies  contained  father  and  son,  as  for  in- 
.stance,  Jonathan  Edson  and  son,  Jonathan,  Jr.,  Benjamin  Smith 
and  his  son,  Roswell  Smith.  Some  of  those  who  started  were 
only  out  a  few  days  and  then  returned,  as  they  were  not  needed, 
while  others  pulled  through  and  served  for  some  time,  drawing 
clothing  in  the  fall.  We  are  glad  to  note  that  five  of  them  were 
in  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill. 

About  this  time,  August,  1775,  Gen.  Gage  had  impris- 
oned several  outspoken  whigs  in  the  Boston  jail  and  was 
treating  them  as  felons.  Gen.  Washington  remonstrated  and 
said  unless  he  ceased  his  persecution  for  opinion's  sake,  he 
would  retaliate,  which  he  did  by  sending  several  naval  officers 
to  the  Hampshire  Co.  jail,  at  Northampton,  where  they  were 
held  for  sometime. 

The  artillery  regiment,  under  Col.  Thos.  Crafts,  was  ordered 
to  fortify  the  is'ands  in  Boston  harbor.  So  on  the  T3th  of  June, 
1776.  although  the  British  troops  had  evacuated  Boston,  yet 
their  fieet  la}-  off  the  harbor,  really  controlling  the  entrance  to 
the  port-  he  began  with  six  hundred  men,  and  the  first  night 
finished  the  earthworks  on  one  island  and  soon  had  cannon  and 
ammunition  ready  for  use.  This  was  on  Moon  island,  Haffs 
neck,  etc.  The  next  night  deft-nces  were  thrown  up  on  Long 
island  and  at  Xanta^ket  and  cannon  were  mounted  and  they 
began  to  play  on  the  British  fleet,  and  the  fleet  left  for  Halifax. 

After  partially  finishing  the  harbor  defences,  a  convo}-  of 
English  storeships  sailed  into  the  harbor,  and  -when  all  were 
safely  in,  they  were  amazed  to  find  that  the  army  had  evacuated 
Boston  and  the  fleet  had  been  compell-^d  also  to  give  up  the 
blockade,  and  they  too  surrendered.     The  storeships  were  loaded 


219 

with  war  material  and  con\-oyed  by  a  war  ship.  Its  officers  and 
crew  and  some  troops,  in  all  seven  hundred  men,  were  made 
prisoners. 

These  men.  or  a  portion  of  them,  were  quartered  in  Hamp- 
shire county,  an:ong  its  se\'eral  towns.  Several  officers  were 
quartered  at  the  old  red  hotel  in  the  Straits  (  Whately,  and  one 
of  them,  with  a  diamond,  cut  his  name  on  a  pane  of  glass  which 
Mrs.  Samuel  Bartlett  well  recollected  of  seeing.  She  was 
Sophia  Smith,  daughter  of  Gad  Smith  of  Whately.  and  born  in 
1790.  She  said  the  old  red  house  was  pulled  down  or  bur;  ed 
when  she  was  hut  a  young  girl,  but  she  distinctly-  remembered 
of  seeing  the  name  on  the  pane  of  glass  and  of  hearing  her  par- 
ents relate  the  fact  of  these  British  prisoners  being  quartered  at 
the  old  hotel.  It  is  confidently  claimed  that  some  or"  the 
Whatelv  soldiers  assisted  in  the  work  of  re-establishing  the  de- 
fences  in  Boston  harbor.  This  is  the  reason  for  alluding  to  the 
fortification  of  the  islands  in  Boston  harbor, 

The  act  of  the  British  troops  in  marching  from  Boston  for 
the  destruction  of  military  stores,  and  the  bloody  encounters  at 
Lexington  and  Concord,  virtually  extinguished  hope  of  recon- 
ciliation and  severed  the  bond  which  bound  the  colony  to  the 
king's  authoritv.  And  it  is  a  matter  of  interest  to  know  how  a 
people  suddenly  loosed  from  government  restraints  will  conduct 
themselves.  The  following  paper  will  show  v.-hat  was  the  first 
action  of  our  town's  people  :  "Whereas  the  law  of  the  Province, 
or  the  execution  of  it  is  ceased,  and  the  constables  have  not  had 
the  power  to  collect  the  rates  as  heretofore  :  These  are  to  let 
you  know,  as  constables,  that  this  town's  committee,  chosen  for 
that  purpose,  will  and  do  protect  you  in  the  collection  of  those 
rates  that  are  now  behind,  in  six  weeks  from  this  date,  or  the 
town  treasurer  shall  have  full  power  to  distrain  on  said  con- 
stables." 

Signed,  David  Graves,  Jr.,  Philip  Smith,  Joseph  Belden, 
Elisha  Belden,  John  Crafts,  Noah  Wells,  Oliver  Graves,  Benj. 
Smith,  Elisha  Frary,  Josiah  Allis. 

Whately,  May  ye  4th,  1775. 

1776.  Before  it  was  known  what  had  been  the  action  of 
the  Continental  congress,  at  a  town  meeting,  held  6  July,  1776, 
it  was  voted,  "That  in  case  the  Continental  congress  shall  de- 
clare the  colonies  to  be  an  independent  state  from  Great  Britain, 
we  will  support  the  declaration  with  our  lives  and  fortunes." 

Previous  to  this,  i.  e.,  on  the  25th  of  June,   an  order  had 


220 

been  issued  for  raising  five  thousand  men  for  immediate  service. 
The  troops  from  Hampshire  county  were  destined  to  march  to 
Canada.  The  quota  required  of  Whately  was  nine,  and  the  fol- 
lowing men  enlisted  : 

Bacon,  Philo  Sanderson,  Asa 

Crafts,  Joseph    '  Scott,  Phineas 

Dickinson,  Ebenezer  Scott,  Elijah 

Morton,  Joel  Scott,  Luther 

Morton.  Samuel  G. 

These  men  received  a  bounty  of  £-  from  the  state,  and  the 
town  voted  ^'54  "For  their  encouragement." 

As  soon  as  the  news  arrived  at  Boston  that  the  united  colo- 
nies had  declared  their  independence,  an  order  was  issued  (10 
July)  for  the  enlistment  of  every  twenty-fifth  man  in  the  state, 
to  re-enforce  the  northern  army.  The  town  records  do  not  give 
the  names  of  men  who  answered  to  this  call,  but  the  following 
list  contains  the  names  of  all  the  three  years  enlisted  and 
drafted  men  required  to  fill  the  town's  quota  from  1776  to  1779, 
inclusive: 

Bacon,  Abel  Harrington,  Thomas 

Bardwell,  Ebenezer,  Jr.  from  Shutesbury 

Belden,  Joab  Jones,  Henry 

from  Northfield  from ? 

Blackman,  Samuel  Snow,  Solomon 

from  Peru  Snow,  Rernice 

Bragg,  Joab  Snow,  Zephaniah 

Brown,  Edward  Phelps,  Bezaliel 

Fuller,  Amos  from  Worthington 

from  Peru  Train,  Oliver 
Hawley,  John 

Nine  Whately  men  and  substitutes. 

Oliver  Morton  and  others  (names  not  given)  went  on  an 
expedition  to  Ticonderoga  sometime  during  this  year. 

The  muster  roll  of  Capt.  Oliver  Lyman's  company  in  service 
at  Dorchester,  27  Nov.,  1776.  to  March,  1777,  contains  the  fol- 
lowing names : 

Brown,  William  Smith,  Adna 

Parker,  Benjamin  Smith,  Phineas 

Parker,  Abraham  Smith,  Bezaliel 

In  Capt.  Benjamin  Phillip's  company  at  Fort  Ticonderoga, 


221 

23  Dec,    1776,   to  24  Feb.,    1777,    were  tlie   following  Whately 
men :  1 

Frary,  Julius  Sanderson,  James 

Graves,  Mathew  Smith,  Hlisha 

Pratt,    Aaron,    was  of    Deerfield,    but    afterwards    lived  in 
Whately. 

In  Capt.   Thomas   French's  company,   expedition  to   Sara- 
t02:a,  were  these  Whatelv  men: 

Sanderson,  John  Smith,  Elisha 

Sanderson,  Jan:es  Graves,  Simeon 

Other  Whately  men  at  the  surrender  of  Burgoyne  were: 

Bardwell,  Ebenezer,  Jr.  Keyes,  Stephen 

Brown,  William  Frary,  Seth 

Field,  Zenas  Wells,  Elisha 
Parker,  Abraham 

Military  stores  were  scarce  and  the  several  towns  were 
called  upon  to  furnish  their  quota  of  blankets,  shirts  and  stock- 
ings, as  well  as  beef  and  bread.  In  one  of  the  first  calls  for 
four  thousand  blankets,  the  number  required  of  Whately  was 
seven.  The  method  of  collecting  these  was,  for  a  committee  to 
go  to  a  house  and,  after  inquiry  and  examination,  to  decide 
whether  the  family  ought  to  furnish  one,  two  or  three  blankets, 
make  the  demand  and  pay  a  specified  sum  in  the  paper  money 
of  the  day.  Sometimes  blankets  were  taken  directly  from  the 
beds  in  use.  Beef  was  collected  by  orders  upon  the  town 
authorities,  and  was  often  delivered  upon  the  hoof. 

1777.  Early  this  year  the  General  Court  passed  "An  act  to 
prevent  monopoly  and  oppression,"  in  which  the  selectmen  and 
committee  of  safety  of  the  several  tow-ns  were  directed  to  set  a 
price  upon  all  the  articles  usually  bought  and  sold,  and  also 
upon  labor.  "A  list  of  several  articles,  with  their  prices,  as 
delivered  to  the  town  clerk  of  Whately,  3  March,  1777,  by  the 
selectmen  and  committee  of  safety,  by  order  of  the  Court,  are 
here  given  :  Good  merchantable  wheat,  6s  per  bu.  ;  r\-e,  4s; 
Indian  corn,  2s,  Sd  ;  barley,  4s  ;  beans,  6s  ;  peas,  6s  ;  potatoes,  is  , 
4d  :  oats,  is,  Sd  ;  sheep's  wool,  2s  per  lb;  flax,  lod ;  salt  pork, 
8d ;  fresh  pork,  4d  ;  beef,  first  quality,  3^2  d  ;  butter,  8d  ;  cheese, 
6d ;  men's  yarn  stockings,  6s;  men's  common  shoes,  8s;  wom- 
en's shoes,  6s,  6d ;  cider  barrels,  sap  staves,  3s,  6d ;  common 
dinners,  gd  ;  horse  keeping  per  night,  loV^d  ;  New  England  flip, 
9d  per  mug ;  shoeing  horse  all  round,   in  the  best  manner,  6s; 


222 


rawhides,  3d  per  lb.  ;  raw  calfskins,  6d  ;  tanned  leather,  is,  3d  ; 
making  shoes,  common  sort.  3s  per  pair;  tow  cloth,  yd.  wide, 
2s,  3d  per  yard;  striped  flannel,  yd  wide,  3s,  6d ;  eotton  and 
linen  cloth.  3s.  6d  ;  weaving  tow  cloth,  5d,  3!  per  yard  ;  a  yoke 
of  oxen  per  day,  is,  4d  ;  riding  horse  per  mile,  2d  ;  cart  or  other 
carriage  per  mile,  2d  ;  2  qts.  oats,  2d,  2f ;  pasturing  a  horse  per 
week,  IS,  lod ;  do.  a  yoke  of  oxen,  2s,  2d;  common  summer 
labor,  2S,  8d  per  day;  winter  labor,  2s  per  day;  men's  board  per 
week,  5s,  4d  ;  English  hay  per  hundred,  2s,  2d;  and  all  other 
things  not  mentioned,  according  to  the  common  usage  and  cus- 
tom of  the  town." 

April  23.  An  order  was  issued  for  raising  two  battalions  of 
seven  hundred  and  fifty  men  each,  from  Hampshire  county,  for 
two  months'  service  at  Ticonderoga.  A  company  of  fifty-seven 
men  under  Capt  Salmon  White,  Col.  David  Wells'  regiment, 
was  onX  from  10  May  to  jo  July.  The  Whately  men  in  this 
company  appear  to  have  been  : 

Smith,  Elisha  Lamson,  John 

Brown,  Abijah  Morton,  Samuel  G. 

Coleman,  Samuel  Scott,  Joseph 

Field,  Zenas  Wells,  Simeon 

Morton,  Joel  Crafts,  Reuben 

Scott,  Elijah  Dickinson,  Jehu 

Wells,  Perez  Faxon,  Jacob  Allen 

Crafts,  Moses  Parker,  Benj. 

Bacon,  Philo         '  Scott,  Abel 

Carey,  Richard 

In  Capt.  Seth  Murray's  company,  expedition  to  Fort  Ed- 
ward and  Moses  Creek,  9  July  to  12  Aug.,  were  : 


Sanderson,  Thos.,  Lieut. 
Bardwell,  Noah,  Lieut. 
Waite,  John,  Sergt. 
Wells,  Eli.sha 
Waite,  Elihu 
Morton,  Simeon 
Graves,  Reuben 
Belden,  Paul 
Graves,  John 
Turner,  Abraham,  Jr. 
Waite,  Joel 
Frary,  Seth 
Crafts,  Graves 
Scott,  Salah 


Morton,  Daniel,  Jr. 
Edson,  Jona.,  Jr. 
Wells,  Lemuel 
Field,  Noah,  Sergt. 
Smith,  Phineas,   Corp. 
Morton,  Levi 
Walker,  Jacob 
Smith,  Eliiah 
Graves,  Salah 
Smith,  Roswell 
Scott,  Ebenezer 
Belden,  Paul,  Jr. 
Ingraham,  David 
Bardwell,  John 


223 

At  this  time  Gen.  Burgoyne,  in  command  of  the  British 
forces,  was  on  his  victorious  march  from  the  Canadian  frontier. 
Ticonderoga  was  invested  i  Juh',  and  abandoned  by  Gen.  St. 
"Clair  on  the  5th;  and  Gen.  Schuyler,  then  in  command  of  the 
northern  army,  was  slowly  retreating  on  Saratoga  and  the  mouth 
of  the  Mohawk.  Gen.  Horatio  Gates  was  appointed  4  Aug.  to 
succeed  Gen.  Schuyler,  and  immediately  issued  a  call  for  rein- 
forcements. The  march  of  Col.  Baum  on  Bennington  hastened 
the  alarm,  and  the  whole  country,  though  in  the  midst  of  early 
harvest,  turned  out.  The  defeat  of  Baum  by  Gen.  Stark,  16 
Aug.,  will  account  for  the  short  campaign  made  by  the  compa- 
nies next  to  be  mentioned. 

In  the  muster  roll  of  Capt.  Salmon  White's  compan}-  of 
militia,  that  marched  at  the  request  of  Gen.  H.  Gates,  17  Aug., 
and  was  discharged  by  orders,  ig  Aug.,  1777,  all  but  thirteen 
were  Whately  men  : 

White,  Salmon,  Capt.  Scott,  Gad 

Wells,  Elisha  Smith,  Benjamin 

Brown,  Edward  Bardwell.  Ebenezer,  Jr. 

Turner,  Ezra  Parker,  Benjamin 

Graves,  Israel,  Jr.  Wells,  Lemuel.  Sergt. 

Crafts,  Joseph  Crafts,  John,  Sergt. 

Dickinson,  Abner  Frary,  Elisha 

Smith,  Gad  Brown,  John 

Scott,  Joseph,  Jr.        ,  Brown,  Abijah 

Coleman,  Nathaniel  Graves,  Nathan 

Sanderson,  Asa  Graves,  Oliver 

Kellogg,  Joseph  Morton,  Samuel  G. 

Handy,  Levi  Frary,  Eleazer 

Smith,  Adna  Scott,  Elijah 

Crafts,  Reuben  Belden,  Joshua 

Morton,  Joel  Smith,  Philip 

White,  Salmon,  Jr.  Allis,   Russell 

In  Capt.   Russell  Kellogg's    company,    out    from    17  to   19 
Aug.,  on  the  Bennington  alarm,  were: 

Carey,  Richard  Graves,  .Amasa 

Waite,  John 

In    Capt.    Abel    Dinsmore's  company,   out   17  to    19   Aug., 
were : 

Sanderson,  James  Graves,  Mathew 

Graves,  Simeon  •  Sanderson,  John 


224 


In  Captain  John  Kirkland's  company  in  the  northern  army 
at  Saratoga,  from  i6  Aug.  to  14  Oct.,  1777,  were:  ,,^ 


Crafts,  Moses 
Scott,  Phineas 


Wells,  Simeon 


Some  of  the  W'hately  men  that  went  out  at  this  time  contin- 
ued in  ser\'ice  through  the  campaign,  till  after  the  surrender  of 
Burgoyne,  17  Oct. 

Muster  roll  of  Capt.  Salmon  White's  company  of  Massachu- 
setts Ba>-  militia.  Col.  Ezra  May's  regiment,  in  an  expedition  to 
Saratoga,  20  Sept.  to  14  Oct.,  1777  : 

White,  Salmon,  Capt. 


Sanderson,  Thos.,  Lieut. 
Bardwell,  Noah,  Lieut. 
Wells,  Lemuel,  Sergt. 
Crafts,  John,  Sergt. 
Frary,  Eleazer,  Sergt. 
Graves,  Martin,  Corp. 
Bardwell,  Eben'r,  Jr.,  Corp. 
Scott,  Elijah,  Corp. 
Wells,  Elisha,  Corp. 
Kellogg,  Joseph 
Dickinson,  Eben'r 
Smith,  Gad 
Belden,  Joshua 
Smith,  Adna 
Smith,  Phineas 
Bacon,  Philo 


Graves.  Nathan,  Jr. 
Crafts,  Reuben 
Allis.   Russell 
Scott,  Gad 
Brown,  Abijah 
Smith,  John 
Smith,  Jona. 
Handy,  Levi 
Ingraham,  David 
Graves,  Oliver 
Smith,-  Elisha 
Sanderson,  Asa 
Graves,  Nathan 
Bacon,  Benjamin 
Morton,  Samuel  G. 
Turner,  Ezra 


Waite,  Joel 

In  Capt.  Seth  Murray's  company,  expedition  to  Saratoga 
and  at  the  surrender  of  Burgoyne,  were : 

Frary.   Seth  Munson,  Moses 

Wells,  Elisha  sub.  for  Simeon  Graves 

sub.  for  Julius  Allis 

To  show  that  men  of  means  often  sent  some  one  as  a  substi- 
tute, I  will  copy  an  agreement: 

Whately,  27  Aug.,  17S2.  Reed,  of  John  Crafts  and  Lemuel 
'Wells  twenty-two  pounds,  in  a. note  of  hand,  for  which  I  prom- 
ise to  take  William  Giles'  place,  late  of  Whately,  now  in  the 
Continental  service,  and  there  serve  the  term  of  five  months 
after   taking    said     William   Giles'    place.       If    not    so    ser\'e 


225 

the    damage    is  the  sum  set  forth  in  this  obligation,    which  I 
promise  to  pay. 

Witness  my  hand, 

JOHN  BEMENT. 

N.  B.     The  class  is  to  draw  John's  wages. 

I  give  one  more  case  of  a  substitute.  In  1782  Benoni  Crafts 
was  drafted  to  serve  three  years  and,  as  he  was  well  advanced 
in  life,  he  hired  Oliver  Waite,  a  son  of  Jeremiah,  to  go  in  his 
stead,  as  his  sons,  Reuben  and  Asa  Crafts,  were  much  in  serv- 
ice. Oliver  Waite  was  discharged  for  disability  in  the  fall  of 
1782.     Copy  of  settlement : 

This  is  to  certify  all  persons  that  Benoni  Crafts  and  Reuben 
Crafts  have  settled  their  rates  with  me  for  my  sons  going  into 
the  army  for  the  terra  of  three  years,  as  witness  my  hand, 

JEREMIAH  WAITE. 
Whately,  Oct.  7,  1782. 

Oliver  Waite  died  of  consumption  in  about  eighteen  months, 
aged  21  years,  r  month,  15  days. 

1778.  The  town  voted,  8  January,  to  raise  ^90  for  four 
men  to  engage  in  the  service  of  the  United  States.  The  names 
are  included  in  the  list  of  three  years  men  already  published. 

An  order  of  the  General  Court  was  issued  20  April,  for  a 
levy  of  nine  months  men  to  complete  the  fifteen  battalions  re- 
quired of  Massachusetts.  Under  this  call  Whately  is  credited 
with  the  following  men  : 

Dickinson,  Nathaniel 
Edson,  Jonathan 

service  not  designated. 

In  Capt.  Abner  Pomeroy's  company,  Col.  Ezra  Wood's 
regiment,  were : 

Scott,  Abel,  Sergt. 
Carley,  Samuel,  Corp. 

In  Capt.  Joseph  Storrow's  company,   same  regiment,  was  : 

Sartle,  Nathaniel,  Lieut. 
This  regiment  had  headquarters  at  Peekskill,  N.  Y.,  Octo- 
ber to  February.     One  return    is    dated    "Soldier's    Fortune," 
N.  Y. 

In  Capt.  Woodbridge's  company  of  new  levies,  for  service 
in  Rhode  Island,  after  8  June,  was  : 

Philo  Bacon. 


226 

In  Capt.  Daniel  Pomeroy's  compan\-,  Gen.  Stark's  com- 
mand, from  I  July  to  5    Feb.,  1.779,  were  : 

Ingraham,  David 
Sanderson,  Isaac 

In  Capt.  Harrow's  company.  Col.  David  Wells'  regiment, 
were  ; 

Graves,  Moses 
Sanderson,  Isaac 

1779.  During  this  year  no  less  than  six  levies  of.  men  were 
ordered  by  the  General  Court.  The  term  of  enlistment  in  most 
cases  was  nine  months.  The  fine  for  refusing  to  g;o  when  drafted 
was  from  /"45  to  ^^50.  The  pay  of  a  soldier  was  ^16  per 
month,  in  addition  to  the  regular  Continental  pay,  with  allowance 
of  S6  for  blanket  and  6d  per  mile  travel.  In  the  requisition  for 
two  thousand  men  to  co-operate  with  the  French  allies,  a  bounty 
of  ^30  and  2s  mileage  was  allowed,  the  bounty  to  be  paid  by 
the  town.  This  town  voted,  "To  allow  three  men,  that  will  en- 
gage nine  months  in  the  Continental  army,  40s  per  month — 
equal  to  wheat  at  4s  a  bushel — with  addition  of  the  bounty 
and  mileage  allowed  by  the  Court."  The  men  who  enlisted 
were  Samuel  G.  Morton,  Gaidner  Marcy,  aged  17,  and  Simeon 
Wells.  At  the  same  time  Joseph  Scott  enlisted  in  the  Hatfield 
quota,  and  Abijah  Harding  and  Allen  Faxon  in  that  of 
Deerfield. 

« 

In  Capt.  Joseph  Cook's  company,  in  ser\nce  at  New  Lon- 
don, from  20  July  to  27  Aug.,  were : 

Scott,  Abel,  Sergt.  Wells,  Perez 

Bacon,  Philo  Frary,  Seth 

Brown,  Isaiah  Edson,  Jona.,  Jr. 

Frary,  Elisha  Smith,  Bezaleel 

Sanderson,  Asa  Waite,  Consider 
Graves,  Salah 

Dr.  Perez  Chapin  was  surgeon's  mate  in  Col.  Elisha  Por- 
ter's regiment,  at  New  London,  from  19  July  to  27  Aug.  Jona. 
Spafford  was  in  the  same  service  to  31  Aug.  Aaron  Pratt  and 
Rufus  Smith  were  in  the  same  service,  in  Capt.  Abel  Dinsmore's 
company,  to  31  Aug. 

Oct.  19.  The  town  voted,  "To  raise  two  thousand  four 
hundred  pounds  for  soldiers  gone  and  going  into  the  army." 

The  condition  of  public  affairs  at  the  close  of  this  and  the 


227 

opening  of  the  next  year  was  gloomy  and  disheartening.  The 
season's  campaign  was  remarkable  mainly  for  the  feebleness  of 
the  American  efforts  and  the  indecision  of  the  British.  The 
latter  did  little  in  this  vicinity  but  plunder,  ravage  and  burn  the 
defenceless  towns  on  the  seacoast.  Rhode  Island  remained  in 
the  hands  of  the  enemy  and,  since  the  failure  of  the  French  tieet, 
no  effort  had  been  made  to  get  possession.  Draft  followed  draft 
in  rapid  succession.  The  soldiers  received  their  bounties  in 
state  bills  and  town  notes,  and  their  pay  in  Continental  money, 
which  at  the  end  of  their  term  of  ser^-ice.  would  hardly  meet  the 
expenses  of  their  outfit.  If  the  father  enlisted,  his  family  must 
suffer  or  depend  on  the  town's  charity  ;  if  the  son  enlisted,  his 
wages  would  hardly  sufiice  to  pay  the  state  taxes. 

Perhaps  the  burden  that  weighed  heaviest  just  then  in  our 
community  was  the  depreciation  of  the  currency,  and  the  uncer- 
tainty and  distress  which  it  occasioned.  The  first  emission  of 
bills  of  credit  by  Congress  was  made  in  June,  1775 — the  amount 
first  authorized  was  two  millions  of  dollars.  At  the  expiration 
of  eighteen  months  twenty  millions  had  been  issued.  And  near 
the  close  of  1779,  nearly  two  hundred  millions  were  in  circula- 
tion. As  their  redemption  depended  on  the  ultimate  result  of 
the  war,  these  bills  began  to  depreciate  at  an  early  period.  By 
the  end  of  '77,  the  depreciation  was  two  or  three  for  one,  in  "78, 
it  was  six  for  one,  in  '79,  twenty-eight  for  one,  in  'So,  sixty  for 
one.  An  extract  from  Mr.  Wells"  account  book,  and  some  votes 
copied  from  the  records,  will  best  give  an  idea  of  the  condition 
of  things  in  this  town. 

1779.  "Whately  Town  Treasurer  to  Rufus  Wells,  Dr., 

To  one  year's  salary,  from  March  ye  ist,  1779,  to  March  ye   ist, 

1780.  in  hard  money,  £']i 
To  providing  my  fire  wood,  6 

—£n 

This  year  the  town  voted  me  sixteen-fold  in  Continental 
money  which,  when  I  received  it.  was  depreciated  seventy-five 
for  one. 

Balanced,  and  settled  by  a  note  from  ye  town  for  the  depre- 
ciation of  the  paper  currency. 

To  one  year's  salary,  from  March  ye  ist,  17S0,  to  March  ye  ist, 

1 78 1.  in  hard  money,  £li 
To  providing  my  fire  wood,  6 

—£l9 

For  this  year's  salary  and  fire  wood  ye  town  voted  me  the 


228 

nominal  sum  in  state  emission  which,   when   I  received  it,  was 
depreciated  six  for  one  in  part,  and  three  for  one  in  part. 

Balanced  and  settled  by  a  note  from  ye  town  for  the  depre- 
ciation of  the  paper  currency. 

17S0,  6  Jan.  The  town  chose  a  committee  to  settle  with  the 
men  that  went  in  the  service  to  New  London  and  those  that 
went  to  Claverack. 

May  II.  Voted,  "To  give  notes  on  interest  to  those  sol- 
ditrs  to  whom  the  town  is  indebted." 

\'oted,  "To  raise  a  bounty  of  three  hundred  and  thirty 
pounds  to  be  paid  to  each  soldier  that  shall  engage  in  the  army, 
also  to  give  each  soldier  three  pounds  per  month  in  silver  or  gold, 
to  be  paid  at  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  service  of  six  months. 
Benjamin  Scott,  Jr.,  offered  to  get  seven  hundred  dollars  to  give 
gratis  to  seven  soldiers  that  should  enlist." 

July  3.  Voted,  "To  make  the  two  Continental  men  that 
will  enlist  in  the  army  equal  to  the  seven  before  raised,  which  is, 
eleven  hundred  dollars  bounty,  and  three  pounds  per  month,  in 
silver  money."  The  seven  men  who  enlisted,  as  above,  were: 
Abel  Scott,  aged  29  ;  Oliver  Graves,  19  ;  Graves  Crafts.  20,  who 
was  one  of  the  detail  that  stood  sentry  over  Maj.  Andre  the 
night  before  he  was  hung  ;  Philo  Bacon.  22  ;  Salmon  White,  Jr., 
19  ;  Amasa  Edson,  16;  Abijah  Brown,  28.  The  two  were  Wil 
liam  Giles,  aged  18;  Stephen  Orcutt. 

July  3.  Voted,  "To  give  five  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  in 
hand,  and  three  pounds  per  month,  in  gold  or  silver,  to  soldiers 
that  will  enlist  for  three  months."  Paul  Harvey,  aged  18,  Beza- 
leel  Smith,  19,  Elijah  Smith,  18,  enlisted  on  these  terms,  and 
served  three  months  at  West  Point. 

August.  An  order  was  passed  by  the  General  Court, 
authorizing  the  selectmen  of  towns  to  purchase  blankets  and 
clothing  for  the  soldiers  then  in  the  field,  and  the  town  voted  to 
procure  the  needed  supply.  In  response  to  another  order  of  the 
Court,  the  towfi  voted,  "To  raise  three  thousand  six  hundred 
pounds  to  provide  beef  for  the  use  of  the  arm}-."  Committee  to 
purchase  the  beef:  Lieut.  Elisha  Frary,  Capt.  Salmon  White, 
Dr.  Perez  Chapin. 

Sept.  14.  Voted,  "To  raise  one  hundred  and  seventj-seven 
pounds  in  silver  mone}',  to  pay  the  soldiers  that  the  town  is  in- 
debted to,  for  ser\'ice  done  or  doing  in  the  army."  To  whom 
this  vote  applies  is  not  known,  but  the  following  Whately  men, 
in  addition  to  those  already  named,  were  in  the  service  during 


229 

this  year  :  Reuben  Crafts  and  Reuben  Graves,  in  Capt.  Ebe- 
■  nezer  Sheldon's  company,  from  23  July  to  10  Oct ;  John  Walls, 
or  Wallis,  aged  17;  Samuel  Mclntire,  17;  and  Moses  Crafts  (all 
credited  to  Whately)  detached  for  three  months  service,  from 
Col.  Israel  Chapin's  regiment;  John  Brown  and  Jona.  Bacon, 
in  Capt.  Adams  Bailey's  company,  from  i  Jan.  17S0.  to  19  Jan., 
'81.  Henry  Green  enlisted,  but  who  he  was  and  whether  he 
was  mustered  in,  does  not  appear. 

1 78 1.  In  response  to  the  requisition  of  the  General  Court, 
for  four  men  to  enlist  in  the  Continental  army  for  three  years, 
the  town  paid  two  hundred  and  ninety-three  pounds,  seven  shil- 
lings, in  silver,  bounty  money,  as  follows: 

April,  to  Jonathan  Bacon,  sixty  pounds. 

May  6,  to  Bernice  Snow,  eighty-one  pounds,  seven  shillings. 

June  14,  to  Stephen  Keyes,  sixty  pounds. 

June  14,  to  Gerrish  Keyes,  sixty  pounds. 

In  answer  to  another  requisition,  the  town  voted,  "To  raise 
^"6  in  silver  money  to  purchase  horses  for  the  army." 

Sergt.  Abel  Scott  Avas  in  service  this  year  from  6  July  to 
14  Dec.  Elisha  Belden  was  a  member  of  Capt.  John  Carpenter's 
company  of  guards,  stationed  at  Springfield,  and  was  detached 
for  field  duty  from  i  May  to  30  Sept.  In  a  company  01  militia. 
under  command  of  Lieut.  Col.  Barnaba^)  Sears,  in  service  iroiu 
17  July  to  8  Nov.,  were  :  Oliver  Shattuck,  captain  :  Abial  Hard- 
ing, sergeant;  Abel  Bacon  and  Abraham  Parker,  privates.  The 
surrender  of  Cornwallis,  19  October,  virtually  closed  the  war. 

Some  Revolutionarv'  soldiers  afterwards  settled  in  Whately. 
Among  them  was  Josiah  Gilbert  who  enlisted  from  Murrayfield. 
now  Chester,  at  the  age  of  18,  in  Capt.  Jos.  McNiell's  company, 
for  service  in  Rhode  Island  ;  was  also  in  Capt.  W'illiam  Scott's 
company,  of  six  months  men,  from  22  Jul}-,  1780. 

Dr.  Francis  Harwood,  then  of  Windsor,  went  out  first  in  his 
father's  company,  probably  at  the  age  of  14.  He  enlisted  in 
Gapt.  Hezekiah  Green's  company  for  service  at  vSaratoga,  in 
1781.  His  father,  Capt.  Nathan  Hanvood,  was  born  at  I'x- 
bridge,  1737  ;  enlisted  for  service  in  the  French  war,  1756:  was 
lieutenant  in  Capt.  William  Ward's  company,  1777  :  captain  in 
command  of  a  company  that  marched  from  Windsor  to  Manches- 
ter, Vt.,  and  was  out  from  19  t©  31  July,  1777  ;  was  at  Saratoga 
at  the  surrender  of  Burgoyne.  Joseph  Barnard  is  credited  with 
service  at  "The  castle,"  Boslon  harbor,  from  i  April  to  30 
June,  1783. 


230 

When  the  colonies  threw  off  the  yoke  of  the  British  rule, 
they  found  themselves  without  an  acknowledged  central  govern- 
ment and,  in  the  emergency,  the  leading  spirits  organized  them- 
selves into  a  "Committee  of  safety,"  and  called  upon  the  towns 
throughout  the  province  to  elect  corresponding  local  commit- 
tees. This  measure  was  prompted  by  necessity  and  proved  a 
wise  expedient.  These  committees  were  composed  of  the  best 
and  most  patriotic  citizens.  Rut  the  responsibility  was  new,  and 
neither  its  ad\-antages  nor  dangers  were  fully  comprehended, 
and  it  is  not  strange  that  having  been  entrusted  with  power, 
they  found  it  easy  to  magnify  their  office,  and  hard  to  persuade 
themselves  that  they  could  err  on  the  side  of  patriotism  and  per- 
sonal liberty.  Tlie  same  spirit  of  devotion  to  the  countrA-'s  wel- 
fare, which  prompted  the  order  to  the  constables  by  our  town's 
committee,  dated  4  May.  1775,  ( alread}'  quoted)  also  prompted 
other  similar  measures  equally  significant  and  vital  in  their 
character. 

And  so  after  the  failure  of  the  expedition  against  Canada  in 
'76,  the  committees  of  safety  of  thirty-eight  towns  in  Hamp- 
shire county  met  in  convention  at  Northampton,  5  Feb.  r777, 
"For  the  purpose  of  taking  into  consideration  the  suffering  con- 
dition of  the  northern  army."  Among  other  things,  the  con- 
vention advised  the  committee  of  supplies  to  forward  at  once 
whatever  was  necessary  for  the  comfort  of  the  army,  "Not 
doubting  that  the  General  Court  will  approve  thereof."  It  com- 
mended the  action  of  the  legislatur'e  in  setting  up  courts  of  the 
general  sessions  of  the  peace  in  the  country,  recommended  to  all 
innholders  that  they  refuse  to  entertain  persons  traveling  unnec- 
essarily on  the  Sabbath,  and  set  forth  a  plan  for  securing  uni- 
formity of  prices.  In  a  petition  to  the  General  Court,  the  con- 
duct of  "inimical  persons"  in  the  country  is  severely  censured — in 
that  they  sympathize  with  the  British,  cast  reflections  on  the 
honorable  Court,  pay  no  regard  to  the  committees  of  safety,  use 
their  utmost  endeavors  to  destroy  the  currency  of  our  paper 
money  and  to  prevent  the  raising  of  new  levies  of  men. 

The  doings  of  this  convention  are  thus  set  forth  in  detail  for 
the  purpose  of  showing  how  wide  a  range  of  subjects  it  acted 
upon,  and  the  authority  it  claimed  for  the  general  and  local 
committees  of  safety.  The  record  is  important  also,  as  fore- 
shadowing the  part  which  conventions  of  these  committees,  and 
other  delegate  conventions  copied  from  them,  were  to  play  in 
succeeding  years.     These  committees  of  safety  became  a  power 


in  the  state,  whose  authority  in  local  matters  was  sometimes 
greater  than  that  of  the  legislature,  and  their  action  was  recog- 
nized as  binding  bv  the  courts. 

The  reference  above  made  to  "inimical- persons"  in  the 
count}'  deserves  notice  in  this  connection.  At  the  time  the  war 
broke  out,  all  military  and  civil  officers  held  commissions 
granted  in  the  name  of  the  king.  This  official  relation,  added 
to  the  attachment  which  had  always  been  cherished  for  the 
mother  country-,  was  a  strong  bond,  especially  to  men  who 
were  by  nature  conservative.  The  men  of  good  estate  plainly 
foresaw  that,  in  any  event,  their  pecuniary  interests  must  suffer 
from  the  war,  and  human  nature  is  always  sensitive  under  such 
a  prospect. 

Men  differ  in  methods  of  reasoning  and  in  judgment  as 
much  as  in  character.  One  consults  the  past  for  his  guide, 
another  looks  at  the  signs  of  the  present,  and  another,  of  san- 
guine temperament,  watches  the  promise  of  the  future  and  rushes 
to  meet  it.  Under  the  circumstances  which  existed  in  1775, 
entire  unanimity  of  thought  and  action  on  the  part  of  the  Amer- 
ican people,  would  have  been  an  anomaly  in  the  world's  history. 

Actuated  bv  the  usual  varietv  of  motives  it  is  not  strange 
that  there  were  persons  in  almost  every  town  who,  from  personal 
interest,  ol"  through  regard  to  the  established  government,  or 
fear  of  the  failure  of  the  attempt  of  the  colonies  for  independ- 
ence, stood  aloof,  or  entered  with  faint  hearts  into  the  struggle. 

It  is  not  strange  that  there  were  some  who  were  ready  to 
sell  themselves  to  the  highest  bidder  or  who  waited  for  some 
decisive  battle  before  taking  sides.  And  it  is  not  strange  that 
the  ardent  patriots,  who  had  accepted  the  issue  and  had  staked 
their  all,  should  make  small  allowance  for  difference  of  motives 
and  temperament,  and  reckon  all  who  did  not  keep  pace  with 
their  bold  aggressive  movements  as  inimical  to  the  country. 

A  few  of  our  town's  people  were  at  one  time  suspected  of 
being  loyalists  at  heart,  and  the  town  required  certain  specific 
declarations,  or  test  oaths,  of  them,  which  they  all,  it  is  believed, 
freely  took. 

An  incident  which  occurred  about  the  middle  of  the  war 
will  show  the  temper  of  the  town.  A  man  by  the  name  of  John 
Trask  came  to  Whately  and  built  a  hut  on  the  river  bank  near 
the  outlet  of  Hopewell  brook.  No  one  knew  his  business  or 
intentions,  and  he  generally  kept  himself  aloof  from  society,  but 
in  an  unguarded  moment  he  boasted  that  he  had  helped  to  hang 


232 

some  Yankees  who  were  captured  by  the  British.  The  next 
day.  when  he  returned  from  a  stroll,  he  found  a  paper  nailed  to 
his  door,  on  which  was  written,  "Death  to  the  hangman!"  He 
took  the  hint  and  left  for  parts  unknown. 

The  expenses  of  the  war,  the  depreciation  of  the  paper 
issues  of  money,  the  heavy  taxation  and  the  extent  of  town  and 
individual  debts,  began,  two  or  three  years  before  the  close  of 
the  war.  to  awaken  a  spirit  of  popular  discontent  in  Massachu- 
setts. Everybody  was  behindhand.  Real  estate  was  unsalable, 
provisions  and  clothing  were  scarce  and  dear,  the  hard  money 
had  gone  for  public  uses,  and  the  paper  bills  had  lost  their 
credit.  The  soldiers  came  home  poor  and  were  urgent  that  the 
town  should  redeem  its  pledges,  on  the  strength  of  which  they 
had  enlisted.  Very  likely  the  soldiers'  creditors  were  not  dis- 
posed to  grant  them  unusual  indulgence,  and  wait  for  the  tardy 
action  of  the  town.  ' 

The  state  levied  taxes,  the  town  levied  taxes  and  the  real 
estate  owners  were  called  to  bear  the  chief  burden  of  this  direct 
taxation.  The  commercial  interest  was  the  first  to  feel  the 
pressure  of  the  war.  and  the  landed  interest  suffered  less,  but 
now  it  was  reversed  ;  commerce  began  to  revive  at  once  with  the 
success  of  our  arms,  but  the  heavy  taxes,  scarcit}'  of  help  and 
high  wages  swallowed  up  all  the  farmer's  resources.'  He  could 
not  conceal  his  farm  from  the  assessor,  the  taxgatherer  or  the 
sheriff.  And  this  pressure  upon  the  agricultural  industry' 
accounts  for  the  distress,  disorder  and  opposition  to  state  taxes, 
which  showed  itself  in  the  central  and  western  counties,  and 
ripened  into  open  resistance.  Ever>'body  pleaded  poverty  and 
put  off  the  payment  of  his  debts.  Legal  prosecutions  became 
frequent  and  oppressive.  The  courts  were  the  means  relied  on 
to  compel  settlements,  and  not  unnaturally  incurred  odium,  and 
became  the  objects  of  popular  vengeance. 

A  calm  review  of  the  situation  will  not  find  reason  for  sur- 
prise that  disturbances  arose,  but  the  wonder  is  that  the  new 
state — crippled  in  its  resources,  loaded  down  with  debts,  weak- 
ened by  conflicting  interests,  and  with,  a  financial  sj^stera  to 
adjust,  if  not  to  devise,  and  a  form  of  government  to  establish  on 
the  basis  of  equal  rights — the  wonder  is  that  the  new  state  sur- 
vived the  perils  of  its  birth. 

The  success  of  the  earlier  conventions  of  the  committees  of 
safety  indicated  the  most  direct  way  of  carrying  out  schemes  for 
opposing,    as   well    as   supporting,  the   constituted  authorities. 


233 

Conventions,  "To  consult  upon  the  subject  of  grievances,"  a 
word  quick  to  catch  the  popular  sympathy,  began  to  be  held  in 
Hampshire  county  as  early  as  1781.  They  were  made  up  of  del- 
egates chosen  by  the  several  towns,  and  thus  had  a  semi-official 
character.  For  a  time  these  delegates  were  men  of  the  highest 
respectability  and  influence,  and  the  meetings  were  moderate  in 
their  counsels,  while  firm  in  the  determination  to  secure  what 
they  held  to  be  their  just  rights.  P>ut  prudence  and  wisdom  were 
not  always  in  the  ascendant.  These  delegate  conventions  degen- 
erated, and  irregular  conventions  were  held,  which  became  the 
instruments  of  faction  and  mob  rule,  and  culminated  in  the  Shays 
rebellion. 

The  histon,'  of  one  of  these  earlier  uprisings  must  ser^-e  as  a 
sample  of  all,  and  is  selected  because  a  Whately  man  played  an 
important  part  in  it.  In  April,  1782,  one  Samuel  Ely,  a 
deposed  preacher,  of  Somers,  Conn.,  got  together  a  so-called 
convention  at  Northampton,  at  the  time  when  the  Supreme 
Judicial  Court  and  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  were  holding 
sessions  there.  For  an  attempt  to  prevent  the  sitting  of  the 
Court  of  Common  Pleas  and  for  disturbing  the  peace  generally, 
Ely  was  arrested,  and  pleading  guilty  to  the  indictment  against 
him,  was  condemned  to  a  term  of  imprisonment  at  .Springfield. 

It  seems  that  he  was  an  artful  demagogue — though  at  the 
time  a  favorite  with  a  considerable-portion  of  the  people — and. 
watching  their  opportunity,  a  band  of  his  friends  attacked  the 
jail  and  released  him.  Three  persons,  believed  to  be  ringleaders 
in  the  rescue,  were  arrested  and  committed  to  jail  in  Northamp- 
ton. These  were:  Capt.  Abel  Dinsmore,  Lieut.  Paul  King 
and  Lieut.  Perez  Bardwell.  And  it  was  proclaimed  that  they 
would  be  held  as  hostages  till  the  body  of  Ely  was  delivered  to 
the  sheriff.  The  three  arrested  were  military  men,  who  had  seen 
large  service  in  the  war,  and  the  spirit  of  their  old  comrades  in 
arms  was  aroused,  and  about  three  hundred  of  their  friends 
assembled  at  Hatfield,  under  Capt.  Reuben  Dickinson  as  leader. 
Sheriff  Porter  of  Hadley  called  out  twelve  hundred  of  the 
militia  for  the  protection  of  the  jail.  After  maturing  his  plans, 
Capt.  Dickinson  sent  three  messengers,  15  June,  to  Northamp- 
ton, with  a  proposition  that  the  sheriff  should  send  a  committee 
to  meet  him  at  a  place  one  mile  from  the  jail,  in  two  and  a  half 
hours  from  the  deliver^'  of  the  message.  The  sheriff  declined 
acceding  to  the  demand,  and  the  next  morning  Captain  Dickin- 
son sent  the  following  pretty  explicit  note:     "The  demands  of 


234 

our  body  is  as  follows:  "That  you  bring  the  prisoners  that  are 
now  in  jail,  viz.  : — Capt.  Dinsmore,  Lieut.  King  and  Lieut. 
Bardwell, /o>i/i7i//// .  That  you  deli\-er  up  Deacon  Wells'  bonds 
and  any  other  that  may  be  given  in  consequence  of  the  recent 
disturbance.  The  above  men  to  be  delivered  on  the  parade, 
now  in  our  possession,  the  return  to  be  mnde  in  half  an  hour." 

For  reasons  which  are  not  known,  but  from  motives  which 
were  approved  by  the  state  authorities,  this  demand  was  com- 
plied with,  and  the  three  men  were  released  on  their  parole  of 
honor,  agreeing  to  deliver  up  the  body  of  Samuel  Eh'  to  the 
sheriff,  or  in  default  thereof,  their  own  bodies,  on  the  order  of 
the  General  Court.  In  after  years.  General  Porter  was  greatly 
blamed  for  his  conduct  in  this  matter,  but  the  General  Court, 
at  its  session  in  November,  emphatically  endorsed  it  and  granted 
a  pardon  to  all  concerned  in  the  affair  except  Ely.  It  is  to  be 
borne  in  mind  that  this  outbreak  was  wholly  an  irregular  pro- 
ceeding, in  which  the  towns,  as  such,  were  not  concerned. 

In  the  autumn  following  (29  Sept.,  17S2,)  a  meeting  of  the 
committees  of  seven  of  the  northerly  towns  in  the  county 
was  held  at  Deerfield,  "To  take  into  consideration  the  deplorable 
situation  that  the  people  of  the  county  and  the  Commonwealth 
are  in,  and  the  more  deplorable  situation  they  are  soon  like  to 
be  in,  b\'  reason  of  the  great  scarcity  of  a  circulating  medium." 
The  question  was  also  raised  of  dividing  the  count}',  or  fixing 
upon  Northampton  as  the  single  county  seat,  the  courts  beings 
held  up  to  this  time  at  Springfield  and  Northampton  alternately. 
The  latter  question  seemed  to  make  a  convention  of  the  whole 
county  necessary,  and  this  meeting  issued  a  call  for  delegates 
from  the  several  towns  to  meet  at  Hatfield,  on  the  20th  of  Octo- 
ber, at  the  house  of  Seth  ^Marsh. 

In  response  to  this  call,  delegates  from  twenty-seven  towns 
in  the  county  met  and  discussed  the  matter  of  a  county  seat  and 
the  subject  of  both  national  and  state  debts,  also  the  matter  of 
the  commutation  of  officers'  pay — the  half  pay  for  life,  first 
offered,  having  been  by  resolve  of  Congres,<  commuted  to  a  sum 
equal  to  five  years'  full  pay.  This  body  was  moderate  in  the 
expression  of  opinions  and  judicious  in  its  recommendations.  It 
admitted  the  necessity  of  the  iuV  payment  of  all  public  as  well 
as  private  debts,  and  urged  the  good  people  of  the  country,  b}^ 
industry  in  their  general  callings,  to  acquire  the  means  for  the 
prompt  payment  of  all  taxes,  etc.,  but  at  the  same  time  inti- 
mated that  in  its  opinion  such  prompt  paA'ment  was  impossible. 


235 


at  the  rate  then  demanded  by  the  government.  Whateiy  sent 
three  delegates  to  this  convention  :  Sahiion  White,  Xoah  Wells 
and  Benjamin  Smith. 

This  may  be  taken  as  a  sample  of  the  numerous  delegate 
conventions  held  in  the  next  two  years.  They  were  the  com- 
bined efforts  of  the  people"  struggling  to  maintain  their  dearly 
bought  liberties,  under  burdens  of  taxation,  and  the  uncertain 
bearing  of  well-meant  but  crude  legislation.  The  state  debt,  at 
this  time,  amounted  to  /,"i, 300.000.  There  was  due  the  Massa- 
chusetts troops  alone  not  less  than  ,£"250,000.  The  proportion 
of  the  Federal  debt,  for  which  this  state  was  responsible,  was 
over  ,£"[,500,000.  The  conflict  of  opinion  between  the  landed 
interest  and  the  commercial  interest,  already  alluded  to.  made 
the  adjustment  of  impost  duties  and  taxation  extremely  difficult. 

The  "Tender  Act,"  of  July,  1782,  passed  in  the  interest  of 
private  debtors,  which  made  neat  cattle  and  other  articles  a  legal 
tender,  rather  increased  the  evil  it  was  intended  to  cure.  By  its 
ex  post  facto  operation  and  its  suspension  of  existing  lawsuits, 
it  complicated  all  questions  of  debt  and  credit. 

A  convention  was  held  at  the  house  of  widow  Lucy  Hub- 
bard, in  Hatfield,  19  March,  1783.  This  town  voted  to  send  as 
delegates,  Nathaniel  Coleman  and  Joseph  Nash. 

April  7,  1783.  The  town  voted  to  send  Noah  Wells  dele- 
gate to  a  convention  to  be  holden  at  Hadley  the  third  Wednes- 
day of  the  current  month. 

June  9,  1783.  The  town  chose  Capt.  Henry  Stiles  and 
Nathaniel  Coleman  delegates  to  a  convention  to  be  holden  at 
Springfield  on  the  second  Wednesday  of  June  instant. 

October  16,  1783.  Chose  Oliver  Graves  and  John  Smith 
delegates  to  a  convention  to  meet  at  the  inn  of  Col.  Seth  Murray, 
in  Hatfield,  on  Monday,  the  20th  instant. 

It  might  well  be  supposed  that  in  times  of  such  excitement 
and  conflicting  interests,  the  citizens  would  attend  in  a  body  all 
town  meetings,  and  take  part  in  the  election  of  state  ofhcers.  but 
it  appears'to  have  been  the  reverse  in  Whateiy.  Only  a  small 
minority  took  part  in  the  popular  elections.  The  following 
statistics  are  given,  for  the  study  of  those  who  are  curious  to 
trace  out  political  causes  and  effects.  The  number  of  legal  vot- 
ers in  town,  at  the  time  under  consideration,  could  not  have 
been  less  than  ninety.  Perhaps  twenty  of  these  were  in  the 
army,  leaving  seventy  at  home.  At  the  first  state  election,  4  Sept. , 
17S0,  the  whole  number  of  ballots  cast  for  governor  was  seven- 


236 

teen.  The  same  number  of  ballots  was  cast  in  '82  and  '83.  In 
1784,  the  total  number  was  fourteen;  in  '85,  seven;  in  "86, 
eight;  in  '87,  nine;  in  '88,  twenty-four. 

The  town  voted  not  to  send  a  representative  to  the  General 
Court,  till  1783,  when  John  Smith  was  chosen  at  the  regular 
meeting,  but  afterwards  the  vote  was  reconsidered. 

The  So-called  Shays  Rebellion.  The  causes  that 
led  up  to  the  defiance  of  the  laws  for  the  collection  of  debts,  had 
man}-  justifiable  reasons  for  the  action,  in  part,  of  the  people. 
Money  was  almost  an  unknown  commodity  among  the  common 
people.  Taxes  were  heavy  and  the  cash  to  pa}'  them  was  only 
among  the  wealthy  classes.  Those  holding  bills,  notes  or 
accounts  against  their  destitute  neighbors  were  bringing  suits 
for  their  collection.  The  tax  collectors  were  inexorable.  The 
poor  men's  cows  were  seized  and  sold  for  cash  down,  and  I  heard 
one  old  gentleman  say  that  he  knew  of  cows  being  sold  for  twenty- 
five  cents  each.  Men  who  held  small  farms  were  sold  out  of 
house  and  home.  They  asked  for  a  stay  law,  but  this  was  de- 
nied them,  and  measures  of  relief  were  denied. 

Then  the  wrong  step  was  taken.  They  broke  up  the  courts 
and  prevented  in  that  way  the  immediate  collection  of  debts. 
They  formed  in  battle  array  to  compel  the  class  of  greed  to  re- 
spect their  rights.  And  here  they  failed,  as  they  might  have 
known  they  would.  While  we  do  not  uphold  them  in  this  last 
resort,  yet  we  can  see  that  they  had  many  justifiable  reasons  for 
their  course.  It  would  have  been  far  better  to  have  used  ballots 
rather  than  bullets. 

Mr.  Temple  says:  "The  town  records  are  nearly  silent  on 
the  subject."  This  is  so  :  A  great  majority  of  our  people  were 
participants  in  the  overt  acts  or  real  sympathizers  with  them, 
and  as  a  result  many  men  left  the  town  and  state.  When  Mr. 
Temple  says  :  "Probably  a  part  of  those  'warned  out  of  town' 
in  1791  were  of  this  class,  and  the  town  took  this  method  to 
show  its  displeasure  at  their  course."  Really,  he  knew  better 
than  this,  for  elsewhere  he  says:  "It  was  only  a  measure  to 
prevent  them  from  becoming  in  any  way  chargeable  in  the  event 
of  pauperism." 

One  of  our  citizens,  Jacob  Walker,  was  killed  in  a  skirmish 
at  Bernardston,  16  Feb.,  1787,  by  Captain  Jason  Parmenter. 
"He  and  Walker  both  raised  their  guns,  took  deliberate  aim  and 
fired  simultaneously  and  Walker  fell  mortally  wounded." 

The  town  furnished  various  supplies  in  1787  for  the  commis- 


237 

sary  department  of  the  state  :  Sixty-six  pounds  of  beef,  seventy- 
six  pounds  of  pork,  ninety-seven  pounds  of  bread,  one  bushel 
of  peas  and  three  different  quantities  of  New  England  rum: 
The  first,  thirty-two  and  a  half  gallons ;  the  next,  thirt}^  one 
and  five-eighths  gallons  ;  and  then,  thirty-six  and  one-fourth 
gallons;  in  all,  one  hundred  and  three-eights  gallons  of  rum. 
What  a  commentary  on  the  advocates  of  law  and  order. 

Three  men  who  had  fought  valiantly  in  the  Revolutionary 
army,  Capt.  Abel  Dinsmore  of  Conway,  Lieut.  Perez  Bardwell 
of  Whatelv  and  Lieut.  Paul  King  were  selected  as  hostasres  for 
the  delivery  of  Elder  Ely  of  West  Springfield,  who  had  been 
active  in  fomenting  rebellion,  and  they  were  confined  in  the  jail 
at  Northampton,  contrary  to  the  terms  agreed  upon.  The  result 
was  that  a  mob  collected  and  demanded  the  release  of  the  hos- 
tages. But  the  sheriff  had  collected  a  strong  guard  to  prevent 
the  deliver\%  and  men  who  had  stood  shoulder  to  shoulder  in 
the  ranks  of  the  Revolutionary  army  were  bound  to  release  their 
comrades.  But  this  ended  in  more  talk  than  the  use  of  ^un- 
powder. 

Later,  three  Revolutionary  officers,  Capt.  Dickinson  of 
Hatfield,  Capt.  Stiles  of  Whately,  and  another  officer  from  Wil- 
liamsburg, with  a  two-horse  sled  and  some  straw,  drove  to 
Northampton  and  called  upon  the  jailer  to  release  the  hostages. 
This  he  declined  to  do,  when  Capt.  Dickinson  turned  to  Capt. 
Stiles  and  ordered  him  to  bring  up  a  section  of  artillery  and  bat- 
ter down  the  prison  door.  He  started,  but  just  then  the  jailer's 
courage  failed  him,  and  he  gave  up  the  hostages  and  they  were 
speedily  conveyed  to  places  of  safety. 

Lieut.  Perez  Bardwell  soon  became  an  inhabitant  of  New- 
York  state  and  Whately  lost  a  valuable  citizen.  We  had  some 
abandoned  farms  in  consequence  of  the  farms  being  sold  off  to 
pay  small  debts  that  the  owners  could  not  raise  money  to  pay. 
These  were  either  added  to  the  purchasers'  farms  or  speedily 
turned  into  pastures.  So  we  account  for  many  abandoned 
farms. 

The  Draft.  As  I  differ  widely  from  the  statement  of  Mr. 
Temple  I  will  give  an  account  of  the  matter  as  recorded  in  the 
Book  of  Records  kept  by  the  company,  which  is  in  my  posses- 
sion, going  back  to  the  May  training,  3  May,  1814. 

"As  the  company  was,  commanded  by  Capt.  Lucius  Graves, 
it  consisted  of  three  commissioned  officers,  eight  non-commis- 
sioned officers,  forty-six  privates,  fifty-one  muskets,  fifty  bayo- 


238 

nets,  fifty  cartridge  boxes,  fifty  iron  rammers,  fifty  scabbards 
and  belts,  150  flints,  forty-nine  wires  and  brushes,  thirty-nine 
knapsacks,  one  rifle  with  equipments,  five  men  absent." 

May  19.  A  company  training,  attended  at  eight  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  four  absent  men. 

Sept.  10,  1 8 14.  Agreeable  to  regimental  orders  of  the  9th 
instant,  the  following  men  were  detached  from  this  company 
and  ordered  to  march  on  the  12th  : 

Sanderson,  Elijah,  Ens'n  Wells,  Israel 

Smith,  Phineas  Allis,  Daniel,  Jr. 

Dickinson,  Giles  Allis,  Harris 

Gunn,  Levi  Smith,  Ashley 

Waite,  Joel,  4th  Jenney,  Reuben 

Leonard,  William  Bunce,  Richard 

Crafts,  Thomas  Waite,  Enos 

After  reading  the  order  for  furnishing  one  ensign  and  eleven 
men,  the  captain  ordered  the  music  to  march  around  for  volun- 
teers. Sergt.  I'hineas  Smith  and  Thomas  Crafts  fell  in  as  vol- 
unteers. The  captain  then  ordered  the  draft  to  commence. 
The  company  was  divided  into  nine  squads  and  each  squad  was 
to  furnish  one  man.  This  was  done  by  drawing  lots  and  the 
quota  was  soon  filled.  Some  substitutes  were  furnished  at  once 
and  "others  later.  Daniel  McCoy  went  in  place  of  Levi  Gunn 
and  Isaac  Marsh  went  later  for  Thomas  Crafts  who  was  called 
home  on  account  of  the  sickness  and  death  of  one  of  the  family. 

Then  politics  ran  pretty  high.  My  uncle,  Capt.  Lucius 
Graves,  was  a  violent  Federalist  while  my  father  was  always  a 
Democrat  and,  of  course,  a  warm  supporter  of  James  Madison. 
To  show  the  feeling  that  animated  partisans  I  will  quote  a  co\i- 
ple  of  short  articles  from  a  copy  of  the  Hampshire  Gazette,  the 
first,  printed  under  date  of  30  Nov.,  1814,  says  :  "On  or  before 
the  fourth  of  July,  if  James  Madison  is  not  out  of  office,  a  new 
form  of  government  will  be  in  operation  in  the  eastern  section  of 
the  union.  Instantly  after,  the  contest  in  many  of  the  states  will 
be  whether  to  adhere  to  the  old  or  join  the  new  government. 
Like  every  thing  foretold  years  ago  and  which  is  verified  even.-- 
day,  this  warning  will  also  be  ridiculed  as  visionary.  Beit  so. 
But  Mr.  Madison  cannot  complete  his  term  of  sennce  if  the 
war  continues.  It  is  not  possible  and,  if  he  knew  human  nature, 
he  would  see  it." 

Feb.  8,  1815.     The  Gazette  had   the    following  announce- 


^39 

ment :  "Peace  I  Peace!  !  From  our  heart  we  congratulate  our 
readers  that  the  wanton,  wicked  and  disastrous  conflict  into 
which  the  infatuated  rulers  of  this  -ill-fated  country,"  etc.,  etc. 

As  a  further  fact,  showing  the  partisan  feeling  that  per- 
vaded the  town  and  all  that  region,  "At  a  meeting  of  the  com- 
pany to  choose  officers  26  April,  1813,  Thomas  Crafts  was 
chosen  captain.  He  w-as  a  private,  and  his  brother-in-law  was 
lieutenant  and  the  authorities  refused  to  commission  him,  and 
in  Sept.,  1S13,  Lieut.  Lucius  Graves  was  commissioned  as  cap- 
tain." My  father  was  often  called  captain,  but  to  me  it  seemed 
to  be  a  misnomer.  These  facts  are  from  the  company  records 
which  I  have.     Then  I  fully  understood  the  matter. 

The  War  of  1S12.  This  war  was  unpopular  with  the 
majority  of  the  people  in  the  western  part  of  the  state.  Public 
sentiment  in  this  town  was  about  equally  divided,  though  a  ma- 
jority was  on  the  side  of  the  opposition. 

To  secure  concert  of  action,  steps  were  taken,  soon  after  the 
declaration  of  war,  by  the  towns  of  the  three  river  counties  hav- 
ing Federal  majorities,  to  hold  a  convention  at  Northampton, 
Delegates  from  ftfty-seven  towns  met  there  14  July,  1S12. 
Phineas  Frar\'  was  sent  from  Whately. 

The  convention  recommended  the  appointment  of  county 
and  town  committees  of  safety  and  correspondence,  the  calling 
of  a  state  convention  to  be  composed  of  four  delegates  from  each 
county,  and  adopted  a  memorial  to  the  President  of  the  United 
States,  and  a  set  of  twenty-one  resolutions,  setting  forth  in 
explicit  terms  the  views  of  the  members  and  their  constituency. 
The  fact  is  recited  that  the  basis  of  the  Federal  Union,  is  the 
common  interest  of  all,  and  that  that  Union  is  endangered  by 
sectional  and  partial  legislation.  The  government  is  charged 
with  deviating  from  the  course  pursued  by  Washington  in  his 
intercourse  with  foreign  nations,  with  sacrificing  vital  interests, 
with  aggravating  the  wrongs  received  from  Great  Britain,  and 
palliating  those  committed  by  France,  with  declaring  an  unjust 
and  unnecessary  war  in  opposition  to  the  opinions  and  interests 
of  a  vast  majority  of  the  commercial  states.  It  is  denied  that 
Congress  has  power  to  call  out  the  militia,  except  "To  execute 
the  laws  of  the  Union,  suppress  insurrections  and  repel  inva- 
sions." 

The  governor  of  Massachusetts,  Cabel  Strong,  was  in  full 
sympathy  with  the  views  expressed  by  this  convention,  and 
declined  to  order  out  the  state  troops  on  a  requisition  from  the 


iS40 

war  department.  The  grave  questions  involved  in  this  conflict 
between  the  state  and  the  Federal  authorities,  and  their  bearing 
on  the  party  politics  of  the  da}',  need  not  be  recited  here.  As  a 
consequence  of  Governor  Strong's  position,  the  United  States 
troops  were  withdrawn  from  Massachusetts,  and  the  entire  coast 
was  left  exposed  to  hostile  invasion.  In  this  emergency,  early 
in  the  fall  of  1814,  the  governor  called  out  the  chartered  compa- 
nies and  made  a  requisition  for  troops  to  be  drafted  from  the 
state  militia. 

In  answer  to  this  call,  the  Whately  Rifle  Greens,  under 
command  of  Capt.  Amos  Pratt,  marched  15  Sept.,  18 14,  for  a 
three  months'  campaign.  They  were  stationed,  most  of  the 
time,  "On  the  South  Boston  shore  opposite  Fort  Independence," 
and  were  attached  to  the  battalion  in  command  of  Maj.  William 
Ward  of  Worthington.     The  company  was  discharged  28  Oct. 

Muster  roll  of  the  Whately  Rifle  Greens,  who  went  to  Bos- 
ton, Sept.,  1S14 : 


Pratt,  Amos,  Capt. 
Parker,  Asa,  Lieut. 
Graves,  Pliny,  Ensign 
Loomis,  Jona.  C,  Sergt. 
Graves,  Perez,  Sergt. 
Woods,  Martin,  Sergt. 
The  other  not  indicated. 
Reed,  Simeon,  drummer 
Morton,  Sylvester,  fifer 
Bartlett,  Samuel,  bugler 
Adams,  Jona.  S. 
Belden,  Joseph 
Bodman,  Theophilus 
Carley,  Samuel 
Dixon,  John 
Graves,  William 
Graves,  Rowland 
Graves,  Justus 
GraveS;  John 
Graves,  Reuben 
Graves,  Charles 
Graves,  Oliver 
Gillette,  Jona.  A. 
Hannum,  Henry 


Hannum,  Spencer 
Hillman,  Erastus 
Hubbard,  Erastus 
Ingraham,  Quartus 
Larrabee,  Benjamin 
Loomis,  William 
Morton,  Arnold 
Morton,  Calvin 
Munson,  John 
Nash,  Phineas 
Phelps,  Edward 
Sanderson,  Samuel 
Smith,  Horace 
Smith,  Justin 
Smith,  Chester 
Smith,  Robert 
Starks,  Justus 
Starks,  Willard 
Stearns,  John 
Train,  Roswell 
Taylor.  Otis 
Woods,  Jonathan 
Wade,  Amasa,  Jr. 
Warner,  Luther 


241 

Four  Whately  men  who  served  in  the  army  in  the  war  of 
18x2-16 — in  the  regular  government  troops: 

1.  Aaron  Waite,  son  of  Landlord  Joel  Waite,  enlisted  for 
three  years,  or  during  the  war,  and  served  on  the  northern 
frontier.  He  died  on  his  journey  home,  in  18 15,  when  within 
thirty  or  forty  miles  of  his  home,  aged  thirty-five  years. 

2.  Chester  Nash  was  a  son  of  Joseph.  What  became  of 
him  I  do  not  know,  but  think  that  he  returned  from  his  service 
in  the  army. 

3  and  4.  Michael  and  Alvin  Smith  were  sons  of  Philip  and 
Rebecca  (Tower)  Smith  of  Whately.  After  his  return,  Michael 
was  drowned  while  working  at  boating  at  or  near  Warehouse 
Point,  Conn.,  17  May,  1S21.  They  enlisted  at  Amherst,  and  a 
few  incidents  relating  to  this  are  worthy  of  reciting.  Michael 
was  over  to  Amherst  and,  after  imbibing  as  much  flip  as  he 
could  well  carry,  he  became  very  patriotic  and  enlisted.  As  he 
failed  to  come  home,  Alvin  went  to  see  what  the  trouble  was. 
Then  he  tried  to  have  the  recruiting  officer  give  him  up,  but  he 
objected,  so  to  win  his  good  graces,  he  asked  the  officer  to  drink 
with  him.  The  result  was,  that  after  a  series  of  drinks,  Alvin 
also  became  ver\'  patriotic  and  enlisted.  In  a  day  or  two,  their 
father  found  out  that  they  had  both  enlisted  and  he  went  to 
Amherst  and  demanded  his  sons,  as  they  were  under  age.  The 
wily  official  didn't  like  to  give  them  up,  so  to  placate  the  wrath 
of  the  father,  he  asked  him  to  take  a  friendly  glass  with  him 
and  followed  it  up  with  other  friendly  glasses,  until  the  father 
also  became  so  patriotic  that  he  enlisted.  The  next  day  the 
officer  talked  over  the  situation  and  told  the  older  Smith  he 
could  go  home,  but  he  must  let  the  boys  go.  To  this  the  father 
assented  and  he  w^ent  home. 

The  Rebellion  of  1861-1865.  Of  the  interest  taken  by 
Whately  in  this  struggle,  perhaps  it  is  sufficient  to  say,  that  the 
town  promptly  filled  her  quota  under  each  and  every  call  for 
troops.  The  number  that  enlisted  under  the  call  for  nine 
months  men  was  twenty-eight;  the  number  of  enlisted  men  and 
recruits,  under  the  various  calls  tor  three  years  men,  was  seven- 
ty-five ;  reducing  the  nine  months  service  to  its  equivalent  in 
three  years  service,  the  total  number  of  three  years  men  credited 
to  Whately  is  eighty-two. 

The  men  who  enlisted  during  the  first  year  of  the  war  ap- 
pear to  have  received  no  bounties.  Those  that  went  out  in  1862 
on   the    nine   months   service    received    each   $100   as    bounty 


242 

money,  and  the  town  paid  Sioo,  or  $125,  to  most  of  the  volun- 
teers after  this  date.  The  total  sum  paid  by  the  town  for  en- 
listed men  and  recruits,  under  all  calls,  was  $12,100. 

As  the  whole  business  of  enlistment  and  drafting  was  under 
the  exclusive  control  of  the  United  States  provost  marshal,  the 
state  archives  furnish  no  data  by  which  the  quota  of  the  towns, 
under  the  severals  calls,  can  be  ascertained.  And  as  during  the 
last  years  of  the  war,  recruits  were  obtained  without  regard  to 
residence,  and  by  sharp  competition,  it  often  happens  that  men 
are  wrongly  credited,  hence  the  difficulty  in  getting  reliable 
statistics. 

The  list  of  soldiers,  here  given,  is  made  up  from  the  minutes 
kept  by  the  selectmen  of  the  town,  and  from  the  records  col- 
lected by  the  adjutant  general  of  the  state.  It  is  believed  to  be 
substantially  correct. 

Nine  months  men  from  Whately  who  served  in  the  52d  Reg. 
Infantry,  M.  Y .  M.  Companies  D,  G,  H  and  I  were  mus- 
tered in  II  Oct.,  1S62,  and  discharged  14  Aug.,  1S63: 

Xiime.  Age.        Date   of  Enlistment.    Company. 

Charles  M.  Elder,  24  Aug.  27,  1862  D 

Charles  A.  Macomber,-  '19  "  G 

Chester  G.  Crafts,  Corp.  31  Sept.  8,  1S62  D 

Luther  Crafts,  30  "  D 

Edwin  M.  Belden,  1st  Sergt.  31  "  D 

Henry  C.  Belden,  24  "  D 

James  A.  Crump,  post  stew'd  43  "  I 

Stephen  R.  Harvey,  37  "  D 

Edward  E.  Smith,  24  "  D 

William  F.  Rhoads,  37  "  D 

Bela  K.  Crafts,  20  "  D 

Asa  A.  Smith.  Sergt.  29  Sept.,  1862  D 

Sumner  W.  Crafts,  21  "  D 

William  D.  Adams,  29  "  I 

Josiah  H.  Potter,  22  "  I 

Charles  B.  Newton,  18  "  D 

Ira  N.  Guillow,  20  "  I 

John  N.  Miner,  23  "  D 

Albert  S.  Fox,  25  "  D    , 

Elbridge  G.  Smith,  22  "  D 

Samuel  S.  Smith,  39  "  D 

Lorenzo  Z.  Payne,  19  "  D 

Died  Baton  Rouge,  La..  Jan.  20,  1763. 

William  A.  Pearson,  24  Sept.  17,  1862  I 

Joseph  L.  Longly,  38  muster'dOct.  11,  1862  D 

Henry  Lj'man,  27  "  D 

Died  Baton  R(^uge,  La.,  May  2,  1863. 

George  M.  Crafts,  Corp.  27  "                  '    H 

Francis  G.  Bardwell,  20  "  I 


243 

John  Brown,  aged  42,  enlisted  Sept.,  1S62,  in  Co.  H,  Eighth 
Regiment  Infantry. 

Three  years  men  who  served  in  Co.  C,  27th  Reg.  M.  V.: 

Irving  B.  Crafts.  iS,  enl.  24  Sept.,  '6r,  dis.  31  Mar.,  63, 'sickness. 

\Vm.  McCoy,  30.  enl.  23  Aug.,  '61,  dis.   30  May,  '63,  sickness. 

Arthur  A.  Waite.  20,  enl.  15  Mar.,  '62,  d.  Portsmouth,  N.  C, 
27  Jan.,  '63. 

Bartholomew  O'Connell,  19,  enl.  iS  Sept.,  '61,  prom,  to  rst 
Sergt.,  12  June,  '63,  discharged  to  re-enlist  23  Dec,  '63. 

Bartholomew  O'Connell,  21,  re-enl.  24  Dec,  '63,  killed  Kings- 
ton, N.  C,  8  Mar.,  "65,  was  in  command  of  his  company 
when  killed. 

Patrick  Murphy,  30,  enl.  24  Sept.,  '61,  dis.  30  Aug.,  '63,  disa- 
bility. 

Patrick  Murphy,  32,  re-enl.  i  Dec,  '63,  died  Andersonville,  Ga., 
16  Mar.,  '65. 

Andrew  M.  Wetherell,  22,  enl.  24  Sept.,  '61,  died  Anderson- 
ville, Ga.,  20  Aug. 

Three  years  men  who  served  in  the  21st  Reg.  Inf.  M.  V.: 

Charles  R.  Crafts,  2r,  enl.  23  Aug.,  '61,  in  Company  G,  dis- 
charged I  Jan.,  '64,  expiration  of  service. 

Charles  R.  Crafts,  24,  re-enl.  2  Jan.,  '64.  in  Company  G,  dis- 
charged 12  Aug.,  '64,   disability. 

James  L.  Waite,  21,  enl.  12  Mar.,  '62,  in  Co.  I,  deserted. 

John  Huxley,  24,  enl.  3  Mar.,  '62,  in  Co.   I,   dis.    15   Mar.,    '64. 

John  Huxley,  26,  re-enl.  15  Mar.,  '64,  in  Co.  I,  transf.  to  36th 
Reg.,  transf.  to  56th  Reg.,  dis.  12  July,  '65,  expiration  of 
ser\'ice. 

David  Amell,  18,  enl,  7  Mar.,  '62,  in  Co.  F,  d.  23  Aug.,  "62. 
'  James  Lyndon,  19,  enl.  26  Feb.,   '64,  in  Co.   I,  transf.  to  36th 
Reg.,  tran.sf.  to  56th  Reg.,  dis.    12  July,   '65,  expiration  of 
service. 

Three  years  men  who  served  in  the  37th  Reg.  Inf.  M.  V.: 

Chauncey  Waite,  33,  enl.  21  July,  '62,  Co.  F,  died  of  wounds. 
Wilderness,  Va.,  27  June,  '64. 

Charles  S.  Bardwell,  Sergt.,  26,  enl.  22  July,  '62,  Co.  F,  prom. 
2d  Lieut.  20  June,  '63,  rst  Lieut.  15  May,  '64,  acting  Capt., 
Sept.,  '64,  died  at  Winchester,  W.  Va.,  6  Oct.,  '64,  of 
wounds  received  in  battle  19  Sept. 

Stephen  G.  Stearns.  21,  enl.  22  July,  '62,  Co.  F,  dis.  21  June. 
'65,  expiration  of  service. 

Nehemiah  J..Tilden,  42,  enl.  22  July,  '62,  Co.  K,  died  at  White 
Oak  Swamp,  Va.,  28  Dec,  '62. 

Henry  Amell,  23,  enl.  22  July,  '62,  Co.  F,  dis.  21  June,  '65,  ex- 
piration of  service. 

Luther  G.  Steams,  28,  enl.  22  July,  '62,  Co.  F,  dis.  21  June, 
'65,  expiration  of  service. 


244 

Samuel  E.  Sanderson.  iS,  enl.  22  July,  '62,  Co.  F,  dis.  21  June, 

'65,  expiration  of  service. 
Ernest  A.  Allis,  19,  enl.  22  July,  '62,  Co.  F,  dis.   10  Mar.,   '63, 

sickness. 
John  F.  Pease,  21,  enl.  21  July,   '62,   Co.  F,  dis.   21  June,   '65, 

expiration  of  service. 
Edgar  W.  Field,  18,  enl.   21  Juh',   '62,   Co.   F,  died  Anderson- 

ville,  15  Aug.,  '64. 
Edward    E.    Sanderson,    24,  enl.    21  July,    '62,  Co.   F,    dis.  9 

June,  '65. 
Orange  Bardwell,  19,  enl.  23  July,  '62,   Co.   F,   killed,  battle  of 

the  Wilderness,  \'a.,  6  ^lay,  '64. 
Austin  A.  Waite,  19,  enl.  23  July,  '62,  Co.  F,  dis.  21  June,  '65, 

expiration  of  ser\'ice. 
Frederick  A.  Farley,  Sergt.,  30,  enl.  i   Aug.,  '62,  Co.  F,  prom. 

2d  Lieut.,  21  May,  '65,  dis.  i  July,  '65. 
Robert  Brown,  18,  enl,  10  Nov.,  '63,  Co.  F,  transf.  to  2otb  Reg. 

Inf.,  21  June,  '65,  dis.  28  July,  '65. 
Charles  H.  Walker,  18,  mustered  23  Nov.,   '63,  Co.  H,  dis.   2 

May,  '65,  disability. 
Henry  M.  Wood,  20,  mustered  9  Oct.,  '64,  unassigned,  dis.  28, 

Aug.,  '65,  expiration  of  ser\nce.  x 

Three  years  men  who  served  in  the  loth  Reg.  Inf.  M.  V.  : 

William  A.  P.  Foster,  24.  enl.  17  Aug.,  '61,  Co.  C,  transf.  to 
37th  Reg.,  dis.  31  Aug.,  "64,  expiration  of  service. 

Dwight  Morton,  33,  enl.  13  July,  '63,  Co.  C. 

Frank  D.  Bardwell,  20,  enl.  28  Aug.,  '62,  Co.  H,  dis.  i  July, 
'64,  expiration  of  ser\-ice.  Had  arm  shattered  in  first  day's 
fight  in  the  Wilderness,  Virginia. 

Three  3'ears  men  who  served  in  the  17th  Reg.  Inf.  M.  V.: 

Henry  R.  Sanderson,  21,  enl.  11  April,  '62,  Co.  G,  dis.  5  Sept., 

'62,  disability. 
Wm.  T.  Parks,  Sergt.,  26,  mustered  17  Nov.,   '64,  Co.  D,  dis. 

22  July,  '65. 

Three  years  men  who  served  as  indicated  : 

Sylvester  R.  Walker,  40,  enl.   20  Nov.,   '61,    Co.  C,  31st  Reg. 

Inf.,  dis.  31  Aug.,  '63,  disability. 
Henry  R.  Sanderson,  Corp..  re-enl.   18  Feb.,   '64,  Co.  C,  57th 

Reg.  Inf.,  dis.  3  Dec,  '64,  disability. 
Henr}-  D.  Smith,  21,  enl.  8  Aug.,  '62,  Co.  G,  ist  Mass.  Cavalry, 

dis.  31  Oct.,  '64,  expiration  of  service. 
William  A.  Pearson,  enl.  12  Nov.,  '63,  Co.  C,  ist  Mass.  Heavy 

Art.,  transf.  to  Navy,  28  April,  '64. 
Foster  Meekins,  Sergt.,  31,  enl.  22  Jan.,   '62,  Co.  F,  34th  Reg. 

Inf.,  dis.  16  June,  '65,  expiration  of  service. 
Dwight  L.  Dickinson,    19,  enl.  31  July,   '62,  Co.  G,  34th  Reg. 

Inf.,  dis.  16  June,  '65,  expiration  of  service. 


-45 

Alonzo  J.  Hale,  26,  enl.  4  Jan.,  "64,  5th  Battery  Light  Art.,  dis. 

12  June,  '65.  expiration  of  service. 
Samuel  S.  Smith,  40,  re-enl.  25  June,  "64,  Co.  E,  57th  Reg.  Int.. 

dis.  30  July,  '65,  expiration  of  service. 
John  Brown,  43,  re-enl.  25  Jan.,  '64,   Co.   E,   57th  Reg.  Inf.,  d. 

Andersonville,  Ga.,  12  Oct.,  '64. 
Franklin  E.  Weston,   21,   enl.   22   Nov.,    '6r,   Co.   B,   31st  Reg. 

Inf.,  dis.  22  Nov.,  '64.  expiration  of  sen'ice. 
William  R.  Waite.  24,  enl.  5  Jan.,    '64,   Co.    B,   32d   Reg.    Inf., 

killed.  Petersburg,  \'a.,  18  June,  '64. 

Three  j-ears  men,  recruits  credited  to  Whately,  whose  place  of 
birth  and  residence  are  unknown  : 

James  Barrett,  38,  enl.  21  July    '64,  2Sth  Reg.  Inf.  M.  V. 
Alfred  Micollete,  21,  enl.  21  July,  '64,  28th  Reg    Inf.  M.  \'. 
William  Whiting,  21.  enl.  8  Oct.,  '64,  Co.  B,  55th  Reg.  Inf.  M. 

\'.,  dis.  29  Aug..  '65.  expiration  of  service. 
John  Doherty,  42,  enl.    12  Jan.,    '64,   Co.    E,   56th  Reg.  Inf.  M. 

v.,  died  at  Boston,  lo  Feb.,  '64. 
James  Anderson,  21,  enl.  25  Feb.,  '64,  Co.  K.  56th  Reg.  Inf.  'Si. 

v..  dis.  4  Sept.,  '65,  disability. 
Charles  W.  Ellis,  19,  enl.  25   Feb.,    '64,   Co.   K.   56th  Reg.  Inf. 

M.  v.,  dis.  16  June.  '65. 
Jacob  Nelson,  24,  enl.   25   Feb.,  '64,   Co.   K,   56th  Reg.  Inf.  M. 

\'.,  dis.  15  June.  '65. 
William  Tassell,  24.  enl.  25  Feb.,  '64.  Co.  K,  56th  Reg.  Inf.  M. 

\'.,  deserted  20  April,  '64. 
Joseph  Perro.  23,  enl.  10  Feb.,  '64,  Co.  I,  57th  Reg.  Inf.  M.  \'., 

dis.  30  July,  '65,  expiration  of  service. 
John  Ryan,  28,'  enl.  30  Nov.,  '64,  Co.  D,  24th  Reg.  Inf.   M.  \'., 

dis.  20  Jan.,  '66,  expiration  of  service. 
David  Sheilds.  18,  enl.  3  June,  "64,  Co.  I,  19th  Reg.  Inf.  M.  \'., 

dis.  30  June,  '65,  expiration  of  service. 
James  Prince,  19,  enl.  30  June,   '64,   Co.   G,   20th  Reg.  Inf.  M. 

v.,  dis.  12  June,  '65. 
Thomas  Doody,  20,  enl.  30  June,  '64,  Co.  I,  20th  Reg.  Inf.   M. 

v.,  died  of  wounds,  i  Oct.,  '64. 
Lewis  Rushey,  20,  enl.  13  July,  '64,   Co.   K.   20th  Reg.  Inf.   M. 

\'.,  dis.  28  July,  '65,  expiration  of  service. 
Charles  Williams,  25,  enl.  31  Oct.,  '64,  15th  Battery  IJght  Art., 

deserted  i  Jan.,  '65. 
Charles  Toomey.  3U  enl.  26  Aug.,    '64,   Co.   B,  2d  Reg.   Heavy 

Art.,  dis.  26  June,  '65,  expiration  of  service. 
George  Shannon,  19,  enl.  30  Dec,  '63,  Co.  D,  2d  Reg.  Cavalry, 

deserted  23  Feb.,  "65. 
Julius  Schneider,  23,  enl.  2  Jan.,  '64,  2d  Reg.  Cavalr\'. 
Anton  Braun,  2)3,  enl.  19  Feb.,    '64,   3d  Reg.   Cavaln.-,  deserted 

May,  '64. 
Richard  F.  Stanton,  25,  enl.  29  Jan.,  '64,  Co.  B,  5th  Reg.  Cav- 
alry, dis.  31  Oct.,  '65,  expiration  of  ser\'ice. 


246 

John  Stewart,  26,  enl.  29  Jan.,   '64,   Co.   B,  5th  Reg.  Cavalry, 

deserted  20  Maj',  '64. 
Frank  Strothers,  24,  enl.  24  Feb..  '64,  Co.  F,  5th  Reg.  Cavalry, 

dis.  31  Oct.,  '65,  expiration  of  ser\nce. 
Robert  Robinson,  25,  enl.  20  Oct.,  '64,  5th  Reg.  Cavalry. 
John  Choiswell,  41,  enl.  25  Oct.,  '64.  Veteran  Reserve  Corps. 
James  B.  Kennedy,  20,  enl.  31  Oct.,  '64,  Veteran  Reser\'e  Corps. 
Charles  Robinson,  20,  enl.  21  Oct.,  '64,  \'eteran  Reserve  Corps. 
Thomas  McDonald,  22,  enl.  14  June,  '64,  27th  Reg.  Inf.   M.  V. 

Names  of  Whately  men  who  were  in  service  as  indicated. 
Most  of  them  enlisted  from  other  states,  but  they  deserve  a 
place  in  our  annals  : 

Moses  W.  Jewett,  enl.  for  three  years.  20  Aug..  '61,  in  Co.  B, 
6th  Conn.  Vol.,  transf.  22  Feb..  '63,  to  Co.  D,  ist  U.  S. 
Art.  ;  re-enl.  for  three  years,  4  Feb.,  '64,  dis.  4  Feb.,  '67, 
expiration  of  service.  Was  in  twenty-five  engagements,  be- 
ginning at  Hilton  Head,  S.  C,  and  ending  q  April.  '65, 
with  the  surrender  of  Gen.  Lee. 

Henr}'  A.  Brown,  Sergt.,  24,  enl.  for  three  years  from  Northamp- 
ton. 21  June,  '61,  in  Co.  C,  loth  Mass.  Reg.  Inf.,  prom.  2d 
Lieut.,  29  Sept.,  '62. 

Frederick  R.  Brown.  30,  enl.  for  three  years  from  Boston,  3 
Nov.,  "63,  in  Co.  G,  12th  Mass.  Reg.  Inf.,  died  Culpepper, 
Va,,  17  Jan.,  '64. 

Francis  C.  Brown,  enl.  from  Rockford,  Winnebago  Co.,  111.,  in 
Co.  G,  74th  111.  Reg.  Inf. 

James  E.  Brown,  enl.  in  Co.  C,  93d  Reg.  Ohio  Inf.,  sei^ved  three 
years.  Was  taken  prisoner,  escaped,  was  re-taken,  and 
held  eighteen  months  at  Andersonville,  Ga.,  and  Florence. 

Henry  A.  Dickinson,  21,  enl.  for  nine  months  from  Hatfield, 
II  Oct.,  '62,  in  Co.  K,  52d  Reg.  Mass.  Inf.,  died  Baton 
Rouge,  La.,  22  March,  '63. 

Oscar  F.  Doane,  23,  enl.  for  two  years,  21  May,  '61,  from 
Gaines,  N.  Y.,  Co.  H,  27th  Reg.  N.  Y.  Vols.,  dis.  31  May, 
'62,  re-enl.  for  three  years,  14  Dec,  '63,  Co.  C,  8th  Reg. 
N.  y.  Heavy  Art.,  killed  on  the  picket  line  in  front  of 
Petersburg,  Va.,  22  Nov.,  '64. 

Lucius  AUis,  21,  enl.  for  three  years,  23  Feb.,  '65,  from  Marl- 
boro, in  Co.  C,  31st  Reg.  Mass.  Inf.,  died,  Mobile,  Ala.,  23 
June.  '65. 

Dwight  W.  Bardwell,  21,  enl.  for  three  years  from  Deerfield,  8 
Oct.,  '63,  Co.  F,  2d  Reg.  Mass.  Heaw  Art.,  died  7  Dec, 
'64,  Newbern,  N.  C. 

Wells  Clark,  18,  enl.  for  three  years,  from  Hatfield,  26  Dec, 
'6r,  in  Co.  G,  31st  Reg.  Inf.  M.  V.,  re-enl.  17  Feb.,  '64, 
died  of  wounds,  23  May,  '64,  New  Orleans,  La. 

Alvah  S.  Frary,  18,  enl.   '62,  died  23  July,   '63,  at  Vicksburg. 

A  list  of  recuits,  mostly  colored  men,  to  fill  our  quota  at  Boston : 


HI 


Henry  R.  Egtion, 
Duncan  R.  Morrill, 
James  Stanton, 
Alexander  Ross, 
William  Hill. 
Ambrose  McKenna, 
William  M.  Shaw, 
Edward  Coburn, 
James  Gorman. 
John  Stewart, 
William  Hill. 
Alexander  McDonald. 


6th  Reg., 


colored. 


5th  Cavalr\'. 
I  St  Battery  Heavy  Artillery. 

59th  Reg.' 


These  men  cost  the  town  from  $125  to  $175  each,  the  latter 
sum  being  paid  for  the  larger  proportion  of  them;  and  nine 
other  men.  previously  mentioned,   enlisted  on  the  same  terms. 


CHAPTER    XIII. 

LOCAL    INDUSTRIES. 

The  ineclianical  industries  of  every  locality  are  always  im- 
proved where  suitable  facilities  are  furnished  for  water  power. 
This  seems  to  be  the  most  natural  and  easily  acquired  source 
for  the  encouragement  of  mechanical  work  of  all  kinds,  and  our 
early  settlers  seemed  to  fully  appreciate  the  advantages  to  them 
of  the  proper  improvement  of  the  town  by  utilizing  the  several 
privileges  afforded  for  the  erection  of  mills  on  the  West  brook. 

This  stream  rises  in  Conway  and  enters  Whately  at  its  ex- 
treme northwestern  limit  and  runs  through  the  western  part  of 
the  town  in  a  southeasterly  direction  until  it  falls  into  the  Capa- 
wong,  or  jSIill  river,  some  fifty  rods  east  of  Chestnut  Plain 
street.  In  this  distance,  of  some  over  three  and  a  half  miles,  it 
falls  nearly,  or  quite,  350  feet,  and  in  this  distance  fourteen 
privileges  have  been  improved  first  and  last,  while  other  oppor- 
tunities exist  that  have  never  been  improved.  Those  that  have 
been  used  are  said  to  average  seventeen  feet  fall.  The  largest 
fall  is  at  the  one  we  designate  as  No.  13,  where  a  forty  feet  fall 
is  obtained,  and  if  this  was  conveyed  by  a  conduit  pipe  to  the 
level,  a  fall  of  125  feet,  at  least,  could  be  obtained. 

This  stream  is  formed  by  the  union  of  Aver}-  brook,  the 
western  branch,  and  Sinkpot  brook,  the  eastern  branch,  a  half 
mile  or  so  in  Conway  and  from  there  it  takes  the  name  of  West 
brook.  Into  it  flow  a  number  of  smaller  brooks  and  man^^ 
small  runs  furnished  by  springs.  The  largest  of  these  brooks 
has  long  been  known  as  Harve^^'s  brook.  This  rises  in  Wil- 
liamsburg and  is  of  such  magnitude  as  to  afford  considerable 


249 

water  power.  Mr.  Harvey  used  it  for  years  in  his  mill,  or  shop, 
where  he  carried  on  quite  a  business.  Other  brooks  come  in 
from  Williamsburg  way,  while  on  the  north  side  we  have  Todd's 
brook  and  Poplar  Hill  brook,  both  rising  in  Conway  and  flow- 
ing southerly  unite  with  West  brook.  On  Poplar  Hill  brook 
old  Mr.  Moses  Munson  and  his  son,  Joel  Munson,  built  a  mill, 
or  shop,  where  they  manufactured  cider  mill  machinery  of  wood, 
consisting  of  the  needed  screws  and  beam  for  pressing  and  the 
nuts  for  grinding  the  apples,  and  many  other  articles,  as  cheese 
presses,  chairs,  coffins,  etc.  The  hills  bordering  the  West 
brook,  which  form  its  water  shed,  are  somewhat  steep  and  this 
causes,  in  times  of  heavy  rains,  sudden  rises  or  the  water  and 
sometimes  damage. 

Beginning  up  the  stream,  the  following  is  the  list  of  the 
several  privileges  that  have  been  occupied  and,  as  near  as  may 
be,  the  dates  when  first  occupied  and  the  purpose,  or  use,  con- 
templated and,  as  far  as  we  can,  the  subsequent  owners.  The 
numbers  prefixed  are  arbitrary  and  are  used  for  the  sake  of  con- 
venience in  referring  to  them  : 

No.  I.  A  sawmill  was  built  by  Dexter  Morton,  south  from 
the  house  of  Rufus  D.  Waite  some  fifty  rods, on  the  Dry  Hill  road, 
about  1S30.  At'ter  the  death  of  Mr.  ^Morton,  the  farm  was  sold 
off  in  sections  and  the  mill  property  was  purchased  by  Elliot  A. 
Warner. 

No.  2.^  On  the  West  brook,  Reuben  Jenney  and  his  son, 
Reuben,  Jr.,  bought  26  May,  1S16,  this  privilege  where  had 
long  been  carried  on  the  blacksmith  business,  with  a  trip  ham- 
mer attachment,  by  James  Cutter,  but  who  built  it  I  do  not 
know.  For  many  years  Elisha  A.  Jenney,  son  of  Reuben,  Jr., 
has  used  it  for  wood  turning. 

No.  3.  This  is  not  on  West  brook,  but  a  tributary-  of  West 
brook  that  comes  down  from  Williamsburg,  often  called  Har- 
vey's brook.  On  this  Elihu  Harvey  built  a  large  shop  that  had 
been  used  for  various  purposes,  for  the  manufacture  of  broom 
handles,  brush  handles  and  a  variety  of  wood  turning,  garden 
rakes,  saw-sets,  etc.  Then  for  a  husk  mill  and,  after  the  death 
of  the  Han'ey  family,  Lieut.  Oscar  W.  Grant  bought  and  used 
it  as  a  repair  shop.      It  was  burned  in  1883. 

No.  4.  A  mill  was  built  on  the  Harvey  brook,  near  the 
house  of  Elisha  A.  Jenney,  but  then  owned  by  Ashley 
Smith.  Here,  about  182S  or  '29,  Hiram  Smith  carried 
on  the  manufacture  of  many  implements  of  iron  and  steel  ma- 


250 

chinist  tools,  etc.  This  was  afterwards  used  by  Thomas  Nash 
to  manufacture  satinet  cloth.  It  was  burned  about  1850  and 
never  rebuilt. 

No.  5.  This  was  occupied  long  before  Jonathan  Waite  owned 
it.  Who  built  it  I  do  not  know,  but  Nathaniel  Moore  and  his 
son,  John,  manufactured  spinning  wheels  and  many  other  arti- 
cles here  as  early  as  1792.  As  Capt.  Seth  Bardwell's  mother 
was  a  daughter  of  Nathaniel  Moore,  and  as  Capt.  Bardwell  well 
knew  of  his  grandfather's  ownership,  he  must  have  written  up 
these  industries  for  Mr.  Temple.  The  Moores  sold  out  to  Pliny 
Merrick,  the  clothier,  22  Jan.,  1795,  also  a  house  known  as  the 
Elijah  Sanderson  house.  In  1823,  Capt.  Seth  Bardwell  bought 
it  and  carried  on  cloth  dressing  until  1829,  when  he  commenced 
manufacturing  woolen  cloth,  with  power  looms,  starting  with 
four.  He  sold,  in  1S33,  to  the  Nashes.  It  has  long  been  owned 
by  Sumner  Smith  and  his  heirs,  and  used  for  the  manufacture 
of  cabinet  ware  and  cane.  On  the  south  side  of  the  brook,  at 
No.  5,  Nathan  Starks  had  a  blacksmith  shop,  with  a  power 
trip  hammer,  after  him  James  Cutter,  then  Solomon  Graves  and 
another,  whose  name  I  don't  recall.  Elijah  Sanderson  had 
wood  turning,  making  wagon  hubs,  broom  handles,  and  doing 
a  general  wheelwright  business.  Nathan  Starks  probably  occu- 
pied his  blacksmith  shop  here  as  early  as  1784,  or  earlier.  He 
removed  to  Williamsburg  about  18 16. 

No.  6.  A  sawmill  was  built  about  1765  by  Edward  Brown 
and  sons.  About  1792,  Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell,  Asa  Sanderson 
and  Moses  Munson,  Jr.,  bought  the  property  and  run  it  for  the 
sawung  of  lumber.  Later  Rufus  Sanderson  owned  it,  then 
Luther  Sanderson,  then  Charles  E.  Bardwell  and  now,  I  think, 
Arthur  A.  Atkins  is  operating  it. 

>ro.  7.  Moses  Munson,  Jr..  built  a  gristmill  here  as  early 
as  1784,  and  had  a  shop  in  which  he  manufactured  a  variety  of 
wooden  implements  such  as  vises,  cheese  presses,  chaise  springs 
and  other  materials.  In  1806,  Dea.  James  Smith  bought  the 
property,  and  the  gristmill  was  run  until  about  1830.  An  addi- 
tion was  built  and  the  power  was  used  in  the  manufacture  of 
bits,  gimlets  and  similar  goods,  for  about  ten  years,  employing 
ten  or  twelve  hands.  Since  then  his  son,  J.  R.  Smith,  has  put 
in  a  planing  machine  and  used  the  plant  for  general  jobbing 
work.  In  1875,  Asa  T.  Sanderson  bought  the  property  and  C. 
A.  Covin  manufactured  basket  rims  and,  while  thus  occupied, 
the  old  mill  was  burned. 


251 

i^o.  S.  About  twenty  or  twenty-five  rods  down  the  stream, 
Capt.  Amos  Pratt  built  a  clothier's  shop  before  rSoo.  The  ma- 
chinery was  moved,  about  1S29,  up  to  No.  5.  Since  then  the 
power  has  not  been  used.  It  has  always  been  claimed  that  the 
first  wool  carding  and  rolls  in  town  were  made  at  this  place. 
This  was  a  great  improvement,  as.  ever\-  housewife  spun  her 
yarn  for  all  her  household  wants.  The  statement  that  it  was 
moved  to  No.  5,  I  have  some  doubts  about,  as  I  well  recollect  that 
when  Justin  R.  Smith  was  married,  he  lived  from  1S31  to  about 
1837  in  that  old  mill,  altered  into  a  house.  It  is  probable  that 
Capt.  Seth  Bardwell  bought  and  moved  the  machinery  to  Xo.  5. 
It  seems  as  though  the  building  was  wrecked  at  the  time  of  a 
great  freshet  and  then  pulled  down. 

No.  9.  Luther  Warner,  an  uncle  of  Elliot  A.,  built  a  mill, 
in  1824,  on  the  line  of  the  new  road  built  up  the  brook.  He 
probably  built  his  house  and  mill  about  1S27.  The  mill  was 
used  for  several  years  for  the  manufacture  of  carpenters'  bits 
and  augers.  Then  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Samuel  B.  White. 
In  J 849,  George  C.  Holden  hired  the  mill  of  Mr.  White  and 
made  woolen  yarn  and  satinet  cloth,  and  then  Davis  Graves,  a 
great-grandson  of  Dea.  Nathan  Graves,  rented  the  property  and 
made  woolen  cloth.  It  is  now  owned  by  Charles  A.  Covill, 
who  runs  a  sawmill  and  makes  rims  for  a  Northampton  basket 
factor\-. 

N'o.  10.  In  1S33,  Capt.  Seth  Bardwell,  in  company  with 
Levi  Bush,  Jr.,  and  David  Wells,  built  a  woolen  mill  on  this 
privilege.  It  had  ten  looms.  This  was  burned  in  1S39,  and 
Capt.  Bardwell  rebuilt  the  factory  and  run  twenty  looms.  This 
fell  into  the  hands  of  Henry  L.  James,  who  operated  it  until  it 
was  burned  in  March,  1872,  and  has  never  been  rebuilt. 

No.  II.  Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell  built  an  oil  mill,  about 
1780,  which  was  used  for  this  purpose  until  about  1805,  when  a 
flax  dressing  machine  was  put  in.  Aside  from  this,  some  iron 
casting  was  done  here,  probably  by  Charles  Bardwell,  a  son  of 
Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell,  before  his  removal  to  Stafford,  Conn. 
A  new  building,  owned  by  Capt.  Seth  Bardwell,  was  built  near 
the  site  of  the  oil  mill  and  rented  to  a  firm  for  making  fine  cut 
tobacco.  They  used  Kentucky  tobacco.  Then  Capt.  Bardwell 
made  wool  yarn,  and  then  fitted  it  up  to  make  files  and  to  cut 
over  old  ones.     It  was  burned  in  1877. 

No.  12.  Kiram  Smith  first  occupied  this  privilege  about 
1848,  where  he  had  lathes  for  wood  turning,   then  later  it  was 


252 

used  as  a  husk  mill.      It  lias  been  used  as  a  cider  mill,  and  now 
as  a  o^ristmill  b\-  Harvev  Moore  and  son. 

No.  13.  This  is  the  best  privilege  on  the  brook,  having  a 
fall  of  about  forty  feet.  A  sawmill  and  gristmill  were  built  here 
by  Reuben  Belden  of  Hatfield,  as  early  as  1767.  After  his  de- 
cease, in  1776,  these  mills  passed  into  the  hands  of  his  cousin, 
Samuel  Belden.  About  1792,  a  company  was  formed,  of  which 
Col.  Josiah  Allis  was  the  head  man,  and  they  bought  of  Samuel 
Belden  the  mills.  At  that  time  the  general  government  was 
looking  for  a  place  to  build  an  armor\-  for  the  manufacture  of 
firearms  and,  for  a  time,  it  was  thought  to  be  a  sure  thing  that 
this  privilege  would  be  purchased,  but  Springfield  was  finally 
taken.  Col.  Allis  died  in  April,  1794.  The  propert}'  was  sold, 
about  179S,  to  Isaac  Frary  and  it  is  thought  that  he  run  the 
mills  awhile  before  he  purchased.  They  have  since  been  owned 
by  Maj.  \Vm.  Hale,  Dea.  David  Saunders,  Foster  Y.  Warner, 
then  by  Charles  and  P.  M.  Wells  and  now  by  Dea.  Samuel 
Wilder  and  son.     The  mills  were  wrecked  by  a  freshet  about 

1875. 

No.  14.  This  is  the  •  site  of  a  gristmill  built  by  Charles 
Wells  and  Justin  Waite.  Mr.  Waite  sold  out  his  share  to  P. 
M.  Wells  and  the  "Wells  brothers  carried  on  an  extensive  busi- 
ness of  from  $20,000*10  over  $30,000  per  year.  Wells  brothers 
sold  to  Dea.  Samuel  Wilder  and  son  about  1SS5. 

No.  i^.  This  site  has  had  a  great  number  of  owners  and 
many  kinds  of  business  has  been  carried  on  here.  Stephen 
Orcutt  had  a  clothier's  shop  here  about   1805.     Then  Hannum 

&  Taylor  had  a  shop  for  cloth  dressing  and  wool  carding,  in 
1810.  Mr.  Fairman  was  in  the  same  business  from  1820  to  '26. 
Mr.  Cowan  continued  the  business  and  was  here  for  several 
years.  In  1832,  a  new  factory-  was  built  and  used  as  a  pocket 
comb  factor^'.  This  was  commenced  by  Col.  R.  B.  Harwood, 
Wright  Boyden  and  Josiah  Allis.  After  a  few  years  they  sold 
out  and  it  was  used  for  the  manufacture  of  woolen  goods  by  Buf- 
fum  &  Harding,  and  afterwards  owned  by  Justin  Brown,  a  Mr. 
Sykes  and  Justus  Starks.  It  was  burned  about  1840.  It  was 
afterwards  bought  by  Justin  Waite,  who  built  the  present  plan- 
ing mill.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Frank  J.  Waite,  and 
it  is  now  owned  by  Luman  S.  Crafts  who  runs  a  planing  mill,  a 
general  repair  shop  and  builds  new  wagons  and  sleds,  with 
needed  blacksmith  work,  and  makes  about  1500  to  2000  barrels 
of  cider  a  year. 


253 

No.  i6.  This  was  the  place  used  by  Reuben  Belden  of 
Hatfield  for  his  iron  works,  and  it  stood  about  where  Charles 
Potter's  barn  was  built.  This  was  quite  a  large  establishment. 
He  not  only  used  iron  ore  and  smelted  it  here,  but  did  a  large 
and  profitable  business  by  pounding  scrap  iron  into  bar  iron. 
When  he  died,  in  1776,  the  iron  works  were  appraised  at  ^240, 
while  his  gristmill  and  sawmill,  on  No.  13,  were  inventoried  at 
^102.  "In  1789,  the  town  laid  a  road  beginning  at  Hatfield 
line  at  West  brook  bridge,  running  north  from  said  bridge  one 
rod,  then  west  two  and  one-half  degrees,  north  fifteen  rods,  then 
west  thirty-one  degrees,  north  seven  rods  to  the  northeast  cor- 
ner of  the  mill,  then  north  five  rods  to  the  top  of  the  hill  for  the 
convenient  turning  of  teams."  The  mill  here  alluded  to  was 
the  building  used  for  grinding  the  grain  used  for  making  rye 
gin.  This  was  carried-on  for  some  years  by  a  company  formed 
for  that  purpose,  consisting  of  Gen.  Seth  Murray,  Gen.  Dickin- 
son, Seth  Bardwell,  Samuel  Belden,  Aaron  Dickinson  and  one 
other.  They  sent  to  Providence,  R.  I.,  and  obtained  a  compe- 
tent foreman,  Mr.  Abial  Harding,  formerly  of  Whately,  for 
that  purpose.  This  was  said  to  be  the  first  gin  distillery 
in  Massachusetts.  It  was  here  that  Abial  Harding's  son,  Ches- 
ter Harding,  commenced  sketching  the  profiles  of  parties  bring- 
ing loads  of  rye,  upon  the  sides  of  the  mill.  He  was,  in  after 
years,  a  renowned  portrait  painter.  I  have  heard  my  father, 
who  was  intimately  acquainted  with  Mr.  Harding,  speak  of 
theseoffhand  portraits,  drawn  on  the  rough  boards  of  the  mill, 
as  being  neatly  done. 

After  these  industries  had  been  given  up,  Stephen  Orcutt 
carried  on  a  pottery  on  the  same  premises,  grinding  his  clay  by 
water  power.  The  water  was  brought  several  rods  in  board 
troughs  about  fifteen  inches  wide  and  deep,  and  elevated  ten  or 
twelve  feet  on  trusses.  The.se  were  in  use  as  late  as  1830  by 
the  Waites,  who  succeeded  Orcutt. 

Isaac  Frary's  bark  mill  was  what  we  used  to  call  the  lower 
mill  on  No.  13  that  could  only  run  while  the  upper  mill  was  in 
use,  as  it  used  over  the  water  that  ran  the  upper  mill.  It  was 
built  for  grinding  bark  for  the  tanneries.  William  Wing  at  one 
time  ran  Orcutt's  clothier's  or  carding  mill  on  shares. 

Hopewell  brook.  The  only  valuable  privilege  on  this 
brook,  or  combination  of  streams  flowing  from  springs  all  along 
under  Hopewell  Hill ,  was  the  site  of  the  Belden  mill .  A  bout  100 
years  ago,  in  1798,  Joshua  Belden  started  in  a  rude  way  a  saw- 


254 

mill.  This  was  not  used  many  years.  In  1850,  Charles  D. 
Stockbridge  started  here  a  factory  for  making  paste  blacking 
and  also,  at  a  later  time,  a  factory  for  making  stockings  and 
employed  at  least  ten  or  fifteen  girls,  perhaps  more.  After  this, 
Elihu  Belden  used  this  factory  for  the  preparation  of  colors  for 
fresco  painting,  and  had  ovens  for  baking  the  umber  and  sienna, 
as  this  changed  the  colors. 

Roaring  brook.  Saw  and  gristmills  were  early  built  on  this 
stream  by  Adonijah  Taylor.  George  Sheldon  says,  "before 
1766."  This  was  a  great  accommodation  to  those  living  in  the 
north  part  of  Whately  which,  when  those  were  built,  was  in 
Deerfield.  There  was  at  first  a  gristmill  some  ways  up  the 
stream,  while  the  sawmill  was  near  his  house,  and  now  the  saw 
and  gristmill  are  contiguous,  near  the  house  of  George  E.  San- 
derson. Eli  Sanderson  had  a  cloth  dressing  and  wool  carding 
shop  still  further  down  the  stream. 

Poplar  Hill  brook.  Joel  Munson,  usually  called  "Silver 
Joel,"  to  designate  him  from  Joel,  the  son  of  Reuben,  built  on 
this  brook  a  .shop  in  which  he  and  his  father  worked  a  portion 
of  their  time,  in  making  cider  mill  screws  of  wood,  and  also  the 
blocks,  or  nuts,  that  crushed  the  apples.  These  screws  were 
about  four  and  a  half  feet  long,  and  six  or  eight  inches  in  diam- 
eter. Also  the  beams,  some  eighteen  to  twenty  inches  or  more 
square,  made  of  hard  maple.  They  also  made  coffins  and  many 
other  things,  as  plows,  ox  yokes,  etc.,  etc. 

Tanneries  were  generally  built  where  there  was  a  small 
stream  or  brook.  Paul  Belden,  before  the  organization  of  the 
town,  had  built  on  the  road  leading  from  Samuel  Wells'  house 
to  the  Baptist  meeting-house,  a  tannery,  and  used  it  until 
his  removal,  about  1795,  to  Brookfield,  Vt.  After  he  left,  I 
think  George  Rogers  used  it.  Dea.  Thomas  Sanderson  built  a 
tannery  on  the  east  side  of  Canterbury  road,  and  also  carried 
on  an  extensive  shoemaking  business  during  the  Revolutionary 
war,  or  until  his  removal  to  Indian  Hill  in  1803.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son,  Maj.  Thomas,  and  he  by  his  son,  John 
Sanderson.  Solomon  Atkins,  Jr.,  built  a  tannery  on  Gutter 
Hill  brook,  just  west  of  the  bridge,  and  used  it  many 
years.  He  was  succeeded  by  Stalham  Allis,  both  in  the 
tannery  and  shoe  business,  and  Mr.  Allis  was  followed  by 
Dexter  Frary,  who  carried  on  the  business  on  a  larger  scale 
than  his'predecessors.  Asa  Sanderson  was  a  tanner  and.  shoe- 
maker and,  as  he  bought  the  Noah  Field  property  in  1783,  he 


255 

probably  started  a  tannen,'  soon  after  his  removal  to  the  west 
part.  I  well  recollect  his  tanyard  and  shoe  shop  as  early  as 
1825.  Graves  Crafts  had  a  small  tannerv-  in  connection  with  his 
shoeraaking  business.  Capt.  Eleazer  Fran,-  carried  on  a  tannery 
nearwherehe  built  the  house  now  owned  by  Lincoln  B.  San- 
derson. Phineas  Graves  lived  where  C.  R.  Chaffee  does  now 
and  was  a  tanner  and  shoemaker,  his  tannery  being  west  of  Mr. 
Chaffee's  barn.  Stephen  Orcutt  was  a  tanner  and  shoemaker 
and  was  always  doing  something  at  it,  but  not  as  a  regular 
business. 

Blacksmiths.  John  Lamson,  in  1773  or  '74,  had  a  shop 
near  the  Samuel  Lesure  place  and  continued  it  until  1791. 
About  the  same  time  a  blacksmith  shop  was  built  at  the  Straits, 
but  by  whom  occupied  I  have  never  learned.  Jehu  Dickinson 
built,  near  his  house,  a  large  shop  and  here  his  son,  Eurotus, 
David  Graves  and  several  others  learned  the  trade,  about  179S 
to  1803.  He  started  in  business  as  early  as  1782.  David  Cook 
had  a  shop,  I  think  in  the  Straits  about  1792,  and  was  in  town 
about  four  \'ears.  Oliver  Morton,  Jr.,  built  a  nice,  commodious 
shop  near  his  house  in  179S.  Among  his  apprentices  was  Levi 
Gunn,  who  removed  to  Conway.  The  Morton  shop  has  had 
many  occupants,  the  most  prominent  being  Leander  Clark  and 
Horace  B.  Fox,  the  latter  carrying  on  the  business  there  a  good 
many  years.  Isaac  Chapman  had  a  shop  near  his  residence  on 
the  Easter  road.  Roswell  Train  had  a  shop  near  his  house  on 
Poplar  Hill  road,  about  1807.  James  Cutter,  in  1804,  probably 
succeeded  Nathan  Starks,  who  had  a  blacksmith  shop  at  (the 
city)  West  Whately,  with  trip  hammer,  and  used  the  West 
brook  for  his  power.  This  shop  was  bought  by  Reuben  Jenney 
Jr.,  Mr.  Cutter  selling  to  him  and  removing  to  Hatfield,  about 
1818  or  '20.  Israel  Scott,  who  was  born  in  1766  and  lived  on 
the  Capt.  Fay  place,  had  his  shop  near  his  house,  between  that 
and  the  house  of  Benjamin  Cooley.  Justin  Smith  had  a  shop  in 
the  Straits.  S.  W.  Fox  run  a  shop  at  the  Straits  some  years  ; 
Michael  Kenned}',  several  years.  At  Claverick,  Chester  Wells 
opened  a  shop  south  of  Perez  Wells'  house,  about  1S03,  and 
Benjamin  Larrabee  continued  it  until  after  18 16.  Mr.  Wells 
removed  to  Chestnut  Plain  street,  bought  the  William  Cahill 
place  and  carried  on  an  extensive  business  with  Leander  Clark, 
his  brother-in-law.  Later  a  syndicate  of  citizens  built  a 
shop,    in    the    rear    of    the    Town    house,  which     has     been 


25^ 

run  by  several  different  parties,  among  them  we  will 
name  Henry  D.  Smith,  son  of  Col.  Oliver,  who,  after  his 
service  in  the  ami}-,  came  here  and  occupied  that  shop.  Herbert 
L.  Bates  succeeded  him,  and  later  Fred  L.  Graves.  Arthur  L. 
Atkins  opened  a  shop  in  Christian  Lane,  and  later  H.  L.  Bates 
run  it  for  several  years.  Now  owned  by  Fred  L.  Graves.  This 
does  not  include  all  of  the  trade,  as  it  is  well  known  that  S.  W. 
Fox  had  a  shop  on  Lover's  Lane.  Several  of  the  Barnards  were 
blacksmiths,  as  was  probably  Luther  Warner. 

Hatters.  A  hatter  named  Amasa  Smith,  came  to 
Whately  not  far  from  1785  and  worked  at  his  trade  here  six  or 
seven  years.  In  1799,  Benjamin  and  Joseph  Mather  had  a  shop 
at  the  southeast  corner  of  the  C.  R.  Chaffee  lot,  on  Chestnut 
Plain  street.  Joel,  Benjamin  and  Osee  Munson  had  a  shop 
south  of  the  southwest  schoolhouse  as  long  ago  as  I  can  remem- 
ber. It  was  an  old  building  and  has  been  gone  more  than  sixty 
years.  It  was  a  two-story  building  and,  if  I  recollect  aright, 
was  painted  red.  Jerry  Allis  learned  his  trade  there  about  1798 
to  1-803.  Then  it  was  common  to  carry  all  the  furs  to  this  shop 
and  they  made  the  hats  on  shares  or  bought  the  furs,  as  one 
chose. 

Brick  Making.  In  1778,  the  town  voted,  "That  John 
Locke  have  liberty  to  make  brick  in  the  road  near  the  house  of 
Capt.  Henry  Stiles."  Daniel  Morton  and  Lewis  Stiles  carried 
on  the  business  from  1782  to  about  1795,  and  then  Daniel  Mor- 
ton and  Capt.  Henr>'  Stiles  were  in  company  in  1799.  After 
this  Daniel  Morton  continued  the  business  until  1827.  Thomas 
Crafts  and  John  White  made  brick  together  and  built  two 
schoolhouses  of  brick  in  i8ro,  one  for  each  of  the  center  dis- 
tricts. Justus  Crafts  and  Chester  Wells  were  probably  in  com- 
pany with  Capt.  Luke  Wells,  on  Capt.  Wells'  land,  near  Mill 
swamp.  Oliver  Dickinson  made  biick  on  the  West  side  of 
Chestnut  Plain  road,  below  the  Whites,  for  several  years. 
About  1832,  Levi  Bush,  Jr.,  made  brick  on  the  south  side  of  the 
crossroad,  I  think,  about  two  years,  each  year  a  kiln  of  about 
200,000.  His  foreman  was  Jehiel  Barber.  Since  then  a  smaller 
quantity  has  been  made  at  the  Drain  Tile  works  on  James  M. 
Crafts'  place,  east  of  the  Connecticut  River  road. 

Pottery  Ware.  In  1797,  Stephen  Orcutt  commenced  the 
manufacture  of  common  brown  earthenware.      Prior  to  his  com- 


•      257 

« 

mencing  this  business  Jonathan  Pierce  had  a  shop  just  south  of 
the  line  in  Hatfield,  Orcutt  built  the  place  since  known  as  the 
Lem.  Waite  place.  It  was  here  where  the  first  pottery  was 
established.  This  was  carried  on  for  many  years  by  the  sons  of 
Mr.  Waite.  About  1802  Thomas  Crafts  commenced  in  the  pot- 
tery business  near  where  Lyman  A.  Crafts  now  resides,  but 
removed  it  to  Claverack  in  1806,  and  was  interested  as  owner 
or  in  company  with  others  until  1847,  manufacturing  common 
brown  earthenware  until  1821.  From  then  until  1832,  he  kept 
six  or  eight  hands  at  work  making  black  teapots  to  the  value  of 
some  $4000  per  annum.  He  remodeled  his  shops  and  commenced, 
in  1833,  the  manufacture  of  stoneware,  continuing  fifteen  years; 
then  James  M.  Crafts  and  brother  continued  the  business  some 
years.     They  were  followed  by  E.  A.   Crafts  in  company  with 

D.  D.  and  I.  N.  Wells,  and  they  by  Martin  Crafts,  and  it  was 
closed  out  entirely  about  i860.  Quartus  Graves  had  a  potter}^ 
where  Fred  L.  Graves  now  owns,  for  about  ten  years.  A  pot- 
tery was  built  on  the  Quinn  place — who  built  or  started  it 
I  never  knew — but  Heman  Swift  was  the  last  occupant.  Mr. 
Orcutt,  in  company  with  Obadiah  and  Luke  Waite.  started  a 
stoneware  pottery  south  of  the  McClelan  place,  on  land  now 
owned  by  Samuel  Wilder.  This  was  never  successful  for  rea- 
sons which  I  need  not  relate.  Sanford  S.  Perr}-  &  Co.  built  a 
pottery  and  made  black  teapots,  not  far  from  1820.  This  too, 
was  not  run  on  strictly  business  principles  and  only  continued 
about  three  years.  The  shop  was  bought  by  Simeon  Reed, 
moved  from  the  lot  now  owned  by  Mrs.  M.  W.  Jewett  and  used 
by  him  for  a  wheelwright  shop.  It  is  now  owned  by  David  ^al- 
lahan.  A  small  pottery  was  built  on  the  Israel  Wells  place, 
then  owned  by  Thomas  Crafts,  and  occupied  first  by  Justus 
Crafts,  about  1825,  and  afterwards  by  Rufus  Crafts.  About 
1831,  Justus  Crafts  built  a  house  on  Claverack,  north  of  the 
Allen  Belden  place,  and  used  one  end  of  it  for  a  pottery.     Ralph 

E.  Crafts  built  a  small  pottery  on  land  of  Thomas  Crafts,  which 
was  used  for  making  flower  pots,  burned  in  1843,  and  he  re- 
built, in  1844,  on  his  own  land.  This  was  afterwards  used  for 
a  broom  shop.  At  that  time  the  pottery  business  added  much 
to  the  town,  giving  employment  to  a  good  many  men,  there 
being  twenty-one  native  bom  potters  in  town,  aside  from  many 
journeymen,  but  now  there  is  not  a  single  one  of  that  occupation 
here. 


25S 

Carriages  and  Wagons.  Two-wheeled  carriages,  or 
chaises,  came  in  use  before  those  with  four  wheels,  but  they 
were  not  made  in  Whately.  Rev.  Rufus  Wells  owned  the  ftrst 
chaise  in  town  as  early  as  1784;  Dea.  Thomas  Sanderson  had 
one  very  soon  after.  Prior  to  this,  the  only  mode  of  travel  was 
either  on  foot  or  horseback,  the  roads  not  being  worked  to  per- 
mit any  other  method  of  travel,  except  on  routes  from  one  large 
town  to  another.  It  is  said  that  in  the  old  Hampshire  county, 
as  late  as  1753,  there  were  only  two  private  carriages,  the 
county  then  including  Hampden  and  Franklin  counties.  These 
were  owned  by  Col.  Israel  Williams  of  Hatfield  and  Moses  Por- 
ter of  Hadley.  Horse  sleds,  or  sleighs,  were  simply  a  box  with 
a  seat  set  on  runners  used  for  winter  travel.  When  Moses  Mun- 
son  canje  from  Farmington,  Conn.,  in  17S4,  all  his  household 
goods,  his  wife  and  children  came  upon  a  one-horse  sled,  these 
being  in  use  before  carriages  on  wheels.  Lieut.  Perez  Bardwell 
had  what  was  called  a  pung  of  extra  finish,  in  1773,  and 
Salah  Graves  had  one  in  1782,  Col.  Allis  had  a  pung  that  was 
painted  in  1776,  Dr.  Dickinson  had  a  sleigh  in  1790  and  Dr. 
Francis  Harwood  had  one  about  the  same  time,  though  I  never 
saw  Dr.  Harwood  on  his  rounds  visiting  his  patients  except 
astride  his  faithful  horse  and  in  his  old  age  he  sat  so  firm  that 
he  seemed  really  a  part  of  the  horse,  with  his  saddle  bags  con- 
taining his  medicines.  Jacob  Rosefield  had  a  shop  opposite 
Bartlett's  corner,  where  he  made  cart  wheels,  about  1790. 
Coming  down  to  a  later  date,  about  1808  or  '09,  Elijah  Sander- 
son came  from  Conway  and  he,  soon  after,  had  a  shop  on  the 
sou^h  side  of  the  brook,  on  privilege  No.  5,  where  he  turned 
hubs  for  wheels  and  commenced  manufacturing  one-horse  pleas- 
ure wagons,  and  about  the  same  time  Charles  Bardwell,  who 
lived  where  George  W.  Moore  does  now,  commenced  making 
wagons.  In  1812,  Thomas  Crafts  had  several  hands  at  the 
work.  Simeon  Graves  in  Christian  Lane,  Sylvester  Morton, 
Chester  Wells  and  his  brother  Luther,  and  perhaps  others  were 
engaged  m  making  and  selling  these  vehicles,  and  salesmen 
were  sent  all  over  the  territory  where  they  could  dispose  of 
their  goods.  One  horse  would  draw  about  four  of  them  over 
our  poor  roadways.  In  1807,  there  were  eleven  carriages  and 
wagons  assessed  to  the  following  persons:  Lieut.  John  Brown, 
one,  Isaiah  Brown,  one,  Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell,  one,  Charles 
Bardwell,  one,  Reuben  and  Aaron  Belden,  one,  Capt.  Seth 
Frary,  one,  Maj.  Phineas  Frar>^  one,  Martin  Graves,  one,  Maj. 


259 

Thomas  Sanderson,  one,  David  Stockbridge,  one,  Capt.  Salmon 
White,  one.  These  wagons  were  built  strong  and  were  inno- 
cent of  any  kind  of  springs,  except  the  seat,  which  had  a  slight 
spring. 

But  it  was  a  long  time  before  the  horse  block  could  be 
dispensed  with,  as  people  as  late  as  1S24,  went  to  meeting  Sun- 
days husband  and  wife  on  the  same  horse,  the  man  on  the  sad- 
dle, the  wife  on  the  pillion,  perhaps  with  a  baby  in  her  arms, 
and  thus  they  traveled.  When  Erastus  Crafts  and  Maria  Lam- 
son  were  married  4  Nov.,  1817,  Uncle  Erastus  related  the 
incident  to  me;  he  said  that  Uncle  Graves  Crafts  made  a  string 
of  verses  about  them.  They  rode  horseback,  his  bride  seated 
upon  the  pillion.  The  horse  was  known  as  old  "White  eye," 
and  he  had  borrowed  old  Doctor  Harwood's  loaded  whip  for  the 
occasion  and  instead  of  going  to  Europe  or  some  great  city  they 
went  to  Rowe.     I  have  one  stanza  which  runs  as  follows : 

"There's  Erastus  and  Mrs.  Maria 

They  both  can  have  their  heart's  desire  ; 

The  Doctor's  whip  will  make  "White  eye"  go 
And  they  w-ill  gallop  straight  for  Rowe." 

I  mention  this  incident  to  show  conditions  as  they  then 
existed  as  a  sort  of  ah  exhibit  in  contrast  to  the  present  fashion 
of  managing  such  marriage  trips  now-a-days.  Erastus  Crafts 
was  a  highly  respected  citizen,  as  well  informed  as  men 
in  general,  and  his  wife  was  one  the  best  of  women.  They  lived 
together  as  husband  and  wife  over  fifty-four  years. 

In  1803  or  '04,  there  were  no  chaises  or  wagons  taxed  in 
town,  though  Rev.  Rufus  Wells  had  a  chaise,  he  was  not  taxed 
for  any  of  his  property.  Dea.  Thomas  Sanderson  then  lived  on 
Indian  Hill,  in  Deerfield,  which  has  since  been  annexed  to 
Whately. 

Saltpeter  was  made  at  the  part  of  the  town  on  the  road 
leading  from  the  Straits  to  the  Frank  D.  Belden  place,  on  land 
formerly  owned  by  James  Whalen,  on  a  small  flat  piece  of 
ground  partly  down  Hopewell  Hill.  Another  site  for  this  busi- 
ness was  some  twenty  rods  north  of  the  Giles  Dickinson  place, 
just  across  the  bridge  over  Roaring  brook,  and  the  hill  there  has 
long  been  known  as  "Pete  Hill."  These  places  seem  to  have 
been  selected    for  boiling  the  lye.     This  was  procured  by  leach- 


26o 

ing  soil  from  underneath  buildings  and  similar  sources.  Then 
the  high  price  for  such  commodities  doubtless  ser\'ed  as  the 
incentive,  as  well  as  its  need  for  the  manufacture  of  powder. 

Nail  Making.  Spencer  Graves,  when  in  his  ninetieth 
year,  told  me  that  he  well  recollected  when  a  boy,  of  going  to 
the  mill  on  Indian  Hill  and  seeing  Amos  Marsh  and  his  son, 
Thomas,  who  not  only  attended  the  mill,  but  also  engaged  in 
making  nails,  and  he  had  often  seen  a  Mr.  Hicks,  who  succeeded 
the  Marshes,  at  work  with  the  machine  cutting  nails.  The  iron 
was  in  strips  of  sufficient  width  to  slice  off  a  nail  of  the  size  to 
be  made,  then  these  were  headed  b}'  hand.  The  machine,  he 
thought,  was  worked  by  lever  power.  This  was  the  wa}'  in 
which  Asa  Marsh,  "the  aged,"  made  nails,  about  1804  or  '05. 

Tar  Kilns.  There  were  two  or  three  of  these  kilns,  one 
being  owned  by  Graves  Crafts  and  was  a  little  north  of  the 
north  center  schoolhouse  on  the  east  side  of  the  road  ;  another 
by  Dea.  Thomas  Sanderson,  and  we  learn  from  his  account  book 
that  he  employed  Nathaniel  Sartwell  at  his  tar  kiln,  in  1778. 
Where  they  disposed  of  the  tar,  or  the  amount  produced,  I  do 
not  know,  but  in  the  east  part  of  the  town  there  was  a  heavy 
growth  of  yellpw,  or  pitch  pine,  and  as  they  cut  off  the  forests  the 
stumps  and  roots  that  were  charged  with  pitch  were  used  for  its 
manufacture. 

Potash  was  made  near  the  residence  of  Col.  Josiah  AUis, 
bj'  whom  I  do  not  know,  but  have  supposed  by  Col.  AUis. 
Then  there  was  another  potash  works  near  the  house  of  Paul 
Belden,  but  whether  this  was  carried  on  by  Mr.  Belden,  George 
Rogers  or  by  some,  other  party  I  have  no  means  of  determining. 

Needles.  About  1806,  Widow  Elizabeth  Phelps  came 
from  Northampton  and  bought  the  house  where  William  Bard- 
well  lived.  Later  it  was  sold  to  L.  S.  Wilcox  and  raised  up  a 
stor}'.  Mr.  Phelps  was  a  silversmith  and  from  him  their  son, 
Edward,  obtained  much  of  his  skill  in  mechanics.  At  one  time 
he  undertook  to  manufacture  sewing  needles.  How  long  he 
continued  in  this  business  I  do  not  know,  or  whether  he  con- 
sidered it  a  success.  The  writer  has  samples  of  his  make,  and 
I  am  certain  the  market  for  them   now  would  be  rather  small. 

Distilleries.  When  cider  became  abundant  in  Whately, 
the  market  was  quite  limited.     So  to  dispose  of  the  surplus,  dis- 


26l 

tilling  became  quite  common.  Cider  brandy  was  Gent  bv  the 
boats  to  Hartford  and  by  large  vessels  to  New  York.  Some 
years  the  quantity  was  quite  large,  amounting  to  fifty  barrels  or 
more.  The  distillery  on  the  east  side  of  Gutter  bridge,  near 
where  the  road  to  South  Deerfield  branches  off  from  Chestnut 
Plainstreet,  was  run  for  manv  vears  bv  Rev.  Daniel  Hunting-- 
ton,  Edward  Phelps  and  Leonard  Loomis.  They  were  partners, 
running  a  general  merchandizing  and  the  distilling  of  cider 
brandy.  They  dissolved  partnership  about  1825  to  "27,  Phelps 
keeping  the  distillery.  Prior  to  this,  Reuben  and  Aaron  Belden 
run  a  distillery  some  years,  Zenas  Field  early  in  this  century-, 
Lieut.  John  Brown  before  1S20,  Dexter  and  Xoah  Crafts,  Jerre 
Graves,  John  E.  Waite,  G.  \V.  and  A.  J.  Crafts  and  now 
Luman  S.  Crafts.    Possibly  there  were  others,  that  I  do  not  recall. 

Merchants  ix  Whately.  Dea.  Simeon  Waite  and  his 
son,  Gad  Waite,  kept  a  small  assortment  of  goods  and  groceries 
where  Calvin  S.  Loomis  lives  and  sold  intoxicating  liquors, 
soon  after  he  came  to  the  town  in  [760.  They  sold  by  the  quart 
or  gallon,  or  they  mixed  and  sold  flip  by  the  mug,  etc.  Samuel 
Grimes  opened  a  store,  in  1797,  where  he  kept  dry  goods,  gro- 
ceries and  liquors,  mixed  flip  and  sold  to  customers.  Gad  Smith 
opened  a  store  in  the  Straits  as  soon  as  177S,  and  David  Stock- 
bridge  about  J  So  I.  The  Straits  was,  for  many  years,  the  most 
populous  and  enterprising  part  of  the  town.  Levi  Bush,  Jr., 
came  in  1823  or  '24,  selling  dry  goods  and  groceries,  including 
intoxicating  liquors,  until  about  182S.  Eurotus  Morton  came 
about  that  time,  1828,  and  associated  with  him  was  Samuel  B. 
White  at  the  center,  east  of  the  old  meeting-house.  They  kept  an 
assortment  of  merchandise,  including  spirits.  William  W.  San- 
derson sold  dry  goods  and  groceries,  Samuel  Lesure  the  same. 
The  Whately  Co-operative  store  was  in  existence  several  years, 
from  1859  or  '60,  to  '66,  then  Ashley  Hayden,  Darius  Stone, 
and  since  him  A.  W.  Crafts,  Micajah  Howes  and  son,  Ryland 
C,  have  had  possession.  E.  H.  Woods  opened  a  store  near 
Ashley  G.  Dickinson's,  but  soon  went  to  the  railroad  station. 
After  this  there  was  a  union  store,  with  thirty  or  forty  owners, 
then  Caleb  L.  Thayer,  Horace  H.  Hastings,  Eugene  E.  Wood, 
John  H.  Pease,  Henry  C.  Ashcraft  and  it  is  now  owned  by 
Arthur  J.  Wood. 

At  West  Whately  we  first  had  a  Mr.   Lull  on  Poplar  Hill, 
Reuben  Wiuchell  at  the  center.  Childs  &  Jenney  at  the  west 


26.? 

part,  then  some  one  who  bought  them  out  whose  name  I  forget. 
At  the  centre  Huntington,  Phelps  «S:  Loomis,  and  earlier  still, 
at  the  center,  Lemuel  and  Justus  Clark  had  a  store  near  the 
stockade  monument.  They  bought  out  Dr.  Perez  Chapin  who, 
I  think,  kept  a  grocery  store.  Elijah  x\llis  and  Chester  Wells 
run  a  general  store,  and  after  them  Salmon  White  AUis,  and 
perhaps  others  that  I  don't  recall. 

PoCKETBOOKS.  This  branch  of  business  was  for  many  years 
a  very  important  one,  furnishing  work  for  a  large  number  of  the 
women  and  children  of  the  town  besides  those  who  were  kept  in 
constant  employment  at  the  factory.  This,  it  must  be  remem- 
bered, was  before  the  invention  of  the  sewing  machines  and  all 
the  stitching  upon  thousands  of  dozens  of  pocketbooks,  wallets 
and  bill  books  had  to  be  done  by  hand.  This  work  was  given 
ont  to  be  done  at  the  homes  of  our  people,  while  the  cutting, 
pasting  and  pricking  the  holes  for  the  stitches  was  done  at  the 
factory,  as  well  as  other  needful  work  in  finishing  and  packing 
the  work  for  the  market.  There  was  a  force  of  from  five  to 
seven  men  and  probably  a  dozen  or  more  young  ladies  in  con- 
stant employment,  and  a  much  larger  force  of  stitchers  scattered 
over  the  town.  Col.  Harwood  was  a  great  manager  and  under 
his  management  the  town  was  much  benefitted.  True,  the  pay- 
ment to  the  outside  help  was  paid  from  the  store,  yet  many  a 
boy  and  girl  was  able  by  their  own  labor  to  obtain  many  nice 
articles  of  wearing  apparel,  while  the  employment  of  their  spare 
time  and  the  earning  of  this  money  taught  them  a  useful  lesson, 
raised  their  self  respect  and  exerted  a  refining  influence  that  was 
far  reaching.  All  of  this  will  apply  to  the  manufacturing  by 
Stephen  Belden  and  Lemuel  Graves.  They  were  each  doing 
the  same  kind  of  business,  but  not  on  so  large  a  scale.  Between 
them  all  they  probably  had  as  many  as  sixty  families  engaged 
in  the  work  of  stitching,  and  were  distributing  thousands  of  dol- 
lars each  year  for  this  purpose.  Aside  from  these  there  were 
some  others  from  South  Deerfield  that  used  to  send  out  a  team 
with  work  to  be  done.  Then  our  old  friend,  Miles  B.  Morton, 
was  in  the  same  business  seven  or  eight  years,  and  William  F. 
Bardwell  took  contracts  to  manufacture  for  Luman  Pease,  I 
think  of  South  Deerfield,  and  Samuel  W.  Steadman  and  his 
brother-in-law,  R.  B.  Hawks,  did  some  business  in  the  same 
line. 


263 

Broom  Corn  and  Brooms.  Broom  corn  was  planted,  at 
first  as  a  curiosity,  as  early  as  1780  to  'S5.  Sylvester  Judd 
mentions  its  growth  at  these  early  dates,  but  its  worth  was  not 
appreciated  by  the  public,  as  they  were  apparently  satisfied  with 
their  birch  brooms.  Broom  corn  is  probably  a  species  of  sor- 
ghum, or  guinea  com,  with  a  jointed  stem  like  the  sorghum  and 
Indian  corn,  and  grows  to  the'  height  of  eight  or  nine  feet 
according  to  the  fertility  of  the  soil.  The  head  or  brush  pro- 
duces a  seed  like  the  sorghum  plant  only  the  brush  is  longer 
and,  when  allowed  to  ripen,  is  used  for  grinding  with  corn  for 
provender.  When  the  seed  ripens  the  brush  turns  to  a  reddish 
color,  and  is  more  brittle  and  of  less  worth  than  when  harvested 
in  the  blossom.  The  first  one  mentioned  by  Mr.  Judd,  to  com- 
mence its  cultivation  with  a  view  of  utilizing  it  for  manufactur- 
ing brooms  was  Levi  Dickinson  of  Hadley.  This  was  about 
1797.  His  first  brooms  were  sold  by  peddlers  through  the 
ardjoining  towns.  Its  culture  soon  spread  through  the  river 
towns,  and  in  1805,  several  Whately  men  commenced  to  culti- 
vate it.  The  most  prominent  at  this  early  period  were  Reuben, 
Aaron  and  Francis  Belden,  three  brothers.  They  not  only  grew 
the  corn,  but  essayed  to  manufacture  the  brooms,  but  they  did 
not  meet  with  popular  approval  on  account  of  their  poor  manu- 
facture. They  would  soon  get  loose  on  the  handle,  and  the 
women  did  not  like  them.  The  method  of  making  them  was  to 
take  a  sapling  of  suitable  size,  peel  off  the  bark  and  after  it  was 
seasoned  they  would  attach  a  string  to  the  side  of  the  room, 
long  enough  to  fasten  the  brush  for  a  broom,  then  fastening  the 
string  to  the  handle  commence  to  walk  forward,  rolling  the 
broom  around  and  drawing  it  as  closely  as  the  strength  of  the 
string  would  allow  until  sufficient  brush  was  used  to  make  the 
broom  of  the  proper  size.  These  were  of  course  round  and  then 
to.  flatten  them  they  used  an  axe  or  a  heavy  mall,  and  later  flat- 
tened them  under  the  cider  mill  press.  About  1820,  they  began 
to  use  a  spool,  or  as  they  termed  it  roller,  some  fifteen  inches 
long.  On  this  the  t\vine  was  wound  and  the  workman  sat  at 
his  bench  and  held  the  spool  under  his  feet  and  by  properly 
placing  the  brush  and  using  a  suitable  implement  called 
a  "pounder"  the  broom  was  made  flat.  This  "pounder" 
was  made  of  steel,  about  two  and  one-half  inches  wide  and  six 
inches  long  with  edges  a  quarter  of  an  inch  thick,  and  weighed 
fully  two  pounds.  This  was  used  to  crush  down  the  stalks  of 
the  brush  so  as  to  fasten  the"brooni  so  tight  that  it  would  seldom 


264 

eet  loose.  Then  when  sewed  the  broom  was  placed  in  between 
the  jaws  of  the  sewing  horse  and  allowed  to  spread  sufficiently 
to  meet  the  wishes  of  the  workman  and  then  sewed  with  twine, 
as  at  present  done. 


CHAPTER  XIV. 

AGRICULTURE. 

It  would  seem  passing  strange  if  I,  to  the  farm  born,  should 
neglect  to  say  something  upon  this  very  important  topic.  The 
fact  that  Whately  has  always  been,  and  now  is,  a  farming  town 
no  one  will  for  a  moment  dispute.  Our  first  settlers  were  all 
farmers,  obtaining  their  bread  by  industriously  stirring  mother 
earth  to  induce  the  best  and  richest  returns  in  exchange  for 
their  tireless  labor  and  watchful  care. 

The  soil  of  course  is  varied,  the  eastern  portion  containing 
the  rich  alluvial  meadows  skirting  the  Connecticut  river,  and 
the  second  level  all  free  from  stone,  but  of  a  lighter  and 
more  sandy  nature,  yet  warm,  quick  to  respond  to  culture,  and 
where  it  is  fertilized  is  among  its  best  lands.  The  ease  of  culti- 
vation induced  its  owners  to  sow  it  with  rye  continuously  until  it 
was  ryed  to  death.  Then  they  used  to  let  it  lay  over  a  year  and 
then  sow  rye  again.  If  by  chance  a  piece  was  planted  with 
com  and  from  four  to  six  loads  of  pretty  poor  compost  put  in 
the  hill  often  twenty-five  to  thirty  bushels  of  corn  would  be  har- 
vested. But  fearful  that  some  of  the  manure  used  would  leach 
from  the  soil  the  land  would  be  sowed  to  rye  again  as  soon  as 
the  corn  could  be  put  into  the  stook,  and  the  much-abused  land 
would  yield  eight  or  ten  bushels  of  rye  to  the  acre.  Then  the 
straw,  for  which  there  was  no  market,  was  often  put  in  the  barn- 
yard on  top  of  the  muck  or  soil,  and  at  every  clearing  of  the 
yard  earth  was  removed. 

The  land  was  flat  or  level,  not  admitting  of  drainage,  and 
the  cattle  and  cows  would  go  to  the  bottom  at  every  step,  so  then 


266 

the  straw  would  be  littered  over  the  porridge-like  barnyard,  and 
by  the  time  that  it  would  freeze  so  as  to  bear  up  the  cattle,  ihe 
straw  would  be  to  some  extent  mixed  with  the  muck  and  the 
dropj)ings  of  the  cattle.  The  cattle,  by  the  way,  were  turned 
into  the  yard  to  drink  at  about  lo  o'clock  a.  m.,  and  cold  oi 
storm,  left  there  to  hook  and  chase  each  other  until  the  boys 
came  home  from  school.  Then  they  were  tied  up,  and  either 
hay  or  corn  stalks  were  fed,  the  men  going  to  the  barn  generally 
twice  to  feed  after  the  boys  were  through. 

The  milking  was  not  a  long  job.  I  very  well  recollect  that 
my  sister  and  I  had  to  milk  the  four  cows  and  the  amount  of 
milk  would  not  exceed  eight  quarts  in  the  morning  and  less  at 
night.  They  were  fed  no  grain  or  mess  of  any  kind  and  the 
amount  of  butter  fat  would  only  make  comment  b\^  its  paucity. 
Most  even,-  year  an  old  cow  that  had  been  to  pasture  out  on  the 
hills  during  the  latter  portion  of  the  season  was  fed  come  fall 
and  winter  until  killed,  a  peck  basket  full  of  small  potatoes 
morning  and  night  and  I  had  to  do  that  as  part  of  my  chores. 
The  oxen  when  worked  were  fed  corn  on  the  ear.  The  horses 
were  fed  as  much  as  two  quarts  of  oats  per  day  as  a  rule. 

It  was  somewhat  difficult  to  make  what  butter  our  large 
family  wanted,  but  it  had  to  go  as  none  would  be  bought.  Our 
methods  were  simply  typical  of  many  others. 

The  ground  planted  was  fertilized  by  the  manure  drawn 
out  of  the  yards  in  the  fall,  it  being  placed  in  piles,  six  or  eight 
loads  in  each,  so  as  to  be  handy  for  use  in  the  planting  time, and 
almost  invariably  used  in  the  hill  for  all  kinds  of  hoed  crops. 

Seventy  to  seventj'-five  years  ago  the  principal  thing  sold 
from  the  farm  was  stock,  cattle  and  pork,  aside  from  a  small 
amount  of  butter  that  was  taken  at  the  stores  in  exchange  for 
goods.  Then  rye,  corn,  oats  and  broom  corn  were  the  principal 
crops.  Some  few  raised  flax,  but  that  soon  ceased.  The  broom 
corn  was  usually  or  quite  frequently  used  on  the  farm,  as  broom 
makers  were  seemingly  as  numerous  as  shoemakers  in  Lynn, 
and  it  was  thus  turned  into  cash  together  with  needful  labor. 

Tobacco  from  Virginia  pressed  into  plugs  sold  at  about  five 
centsaplugor  thirteen  cents  per  pound.  Butter  in  1 8 16  was  twelve 
and  one-half  cents,  in  1811  oats  sold  for  2s  6d,  or  fort\'  two 
cents  when  sold  by  the  single  bushel,  corn  fifty  cents,  rye 
sixty-seven,  wheat  seventy-five.  The  market  for  grain  was  largely 
local,  as  there  was  no  means  of  transporting  it  except  by  teams. 
As  for  butter,  the  stores  would  buy  it  at  from  ten  to  twelve  and 


267 

one-half  cents,  work  it  all  over,  pack  it  in  firkins  or  tubs  and 
send  it  by  teams  to  Boston. 

The  people  of  to-day,  with  railroads  traversing  the  country 
in  every  direction,  even  carrying  milk  by  the  thousands  of  cans 
to  Boston  and  meats  by  hundred  of  car  loads,  also  butter  and 
cheese,  at  but  a  modicum  of  the  former  cost  receive  a  much 
larger  price  for  their  commodities.  Then  there  were  only  the 
local  markets,  now  Northampton,  Holyoke,  Chicopee  and 
Springfield  afford  excellent,  as  well  as  near-by  markets,  for  any 
surplus  products  the  fanner  may  have. 

Formerly  fruit  was  only  raised  for  home  use.  Apples  it  is 
true  yielded  some  income,  as  the  cider  would  sell  at  from  seven- 
ty-five cents  to  one  dollar  a  barrel  for  drinking  purposes  and  dis- 
tillation and  large  quantities  of  cider  brandy  were  sent  to  Hart- 
ford and  New  York,  going  by  boat  down  the  river.  Eggs  were 
seldom  sold  for  more  than  twelve  and  one-half  cents  a  dozen  and 
then  only  in  the  heighth  of  the  season. 

TOBACCO. 

Tobacco  was  raised  by  most  of  the  farmers  to  a  greater  or 
less  extent  from  the  earliest  settlement  of  the  Connecticut  val- 
ley, and  was  a  source  of  trade  mostly  confined  to  a  sort  of  retail 
trade  among  the  people  living  in  hill  towns.  This  was  prepared 
for  market  by  sweating  it  in  a  rather  primitive  manner.  It 
seems  that  it  was  hung  up  to  dry  or  cure  for  awhile,  and  then 
when  it  had  begun  to  cure  they  took  it  down  and  piled  it  in 
smallish  heaps  to  induce  heat  or  fermentation  until  it  was  in 
condition  for  use,  occasionally  repacking  it  so  as  to  secure  as 
even  a  sweat  as  possible  in  that  way.  When  the  sweat  was  fin- 
ished the  leaves  were  stripped  from  the  stalks  and  done  up  in 
hands  and  packed  away  to  keep  moist  until  winter.  Those  who 
made  a  business  of  sending  out  peddlers  would  in  the  winter 
strip  out  the  center  stem  and  either  braid  it  in  rolls,  or  in  some 
other  way  make  it  attractive  and  thus  dispose  of  it. 

After  the  Revolutionary  war  the  crop  was  more  extensively 
grown,  and  I  recall  the  fact  of  a  purchase  of  quite  a  large 
tract  of  land,  some  sixty  acres,  by  Reuben  and  Asa  Crafts,  pay- 
able one-third  in  silver  money,  one-third  in  tobacco  and  the 
balance  in  stock.  I  have  this  from  a  son  of  Reuben  Crafts,  his 
uncle  Asa  taking  the  silver  monej'  and  carr^nng  it  on  his  horse 
to  some  town  in  New  York  state  and  paid  the  first  installment. 
This  is.  in  part  the  valuable  lands  now  owned  by  the  Hon. 
Lyman   A.  Crafts  near  the   railway  station  in  Whately. 


268 

Mr.  Sheldon  says :  Tobacco  was  raised  in  Deerfield  in 
1696,  and  Daniel  Belden  had  hun.s:  a  portion  of  his  crop  in  the 
attic  to  dry  before  the  Indians  attacked  Belden 's  house  in  Sep- 
tember of  that  year,  and  some  of  his  children  hid  among  it  and 
they  in  that  way  escaped  capture  by  the  savages." 

After  the  incorporation  of  the  town,  in  1771,  we  find  that 
the  young  minister,  Rev.  Rufus  Wells,  was  accustomed  to  raise 
quite  a  quantity,  selling  it  to  anyone  wishing  to  buy.  The 
price  for  the  hand  not  stripped  was  usually  six  pence  per  pound. 
He  however  sold  some  to  Parson  Emerson,  the  Conway  minister, 
for  five  pence,  but  sometimes  his  price  was  eight  pence  a  pound. 

Among  the  largest  growers  in  town  were  Joshua  Belden,  his 
sons,  Reuben  and  Aaron  Belden,  Dea.  Levi  Morton,  Reuben 
and  Asa  Crafts  and  Perez  Wells.  It  isn't  probable  that  at  that 
period  the  whole  acreage  dev'oted  to  tobacco  culture  would  ex- 
ceed fifteen  acres.  After  the  introduction  of  plug  or  pressed 
tobacco  from  \'irginia  the  growing  entirely  ceased,  except  in 
isolated  instances  where  some  one  who  was  accustomed  to  the 
use  of  the  leaf  raised  a  supply  for  his  own  use. 

About  1843,  Stephen  Belden  procured  some  tobacco  seed 
and  raised  a  quantit}'  of  tobacco  in  1S44,  shipping  it  to  New 
York  with  his  brooms.  His  tobacco  was  packed  in  barrels  and 
he  sold  it  for  four  cents  a  pound.  This  was  the  commencement 
of  raising  Connecticut  seed  leaf  tobacco  in  Whately.  The  next 
year  Lewis  Wells,  S.  and  H.  Dickinson  and  Isaac  Frary,  Jr., 
each  commenced  with  a  small  patch  of  tobacco  and  after  it  was 
cured  they  drove  over  to  Hadle}'  where  they  sold  it  for  six  cents 
a  pound  to  Loomis  of  Sufl&eld.  The  next  year  they  had  about 
an  acre  each,  and  Mr.  Loomis  came  to  Whately  and  bought 
their  crops,  paying  about  twelve  cents  for  the  wrappers  and  four 
cents  for  the  fillers.  The  amount  of  monej'  brought  to  these 
men  for  their  crops  induced  others  to  commence  its  growth,  and 
at  the  end  of  ten  years  there  were  about  seventy  acres  devoted 
to  its  culture.  Prices  varied  from  ten  to  fourteen  cents,  average 
about  twelve  and  one-half  cents  a  pound.  These  prices  stimu- 
lated its  production.  In  1865,  we  had  some  over  300  acres  in 
cultivation. 

Of  course  values  were  increased  as  a  result  of  the  deprecia- 
tion of  our  paper  money,  though  if  reduced  to  a  gold  basis  they 
Were  very  low.  The  price  in  1865  was  about  twenty  cents  per 
pound  in  greenbacks,  really  less  than  ten  cents  in  silver  or  gold. 
As  paper  depreciated  the  price  rose  so  that  one  year  I  sold  my 


269 

crop  at  thirty-five  cents  and  the  world  seemed  to  go  wild  over 
our  profits  and  ever>'  effort  was  used  to  increase  the  acreage. 

New  and  valuable  buildings  were  erected  for  curing  the 
crop,  at  great  expense,  in  the  place  of  old  and  tumbled-down 
structures  and  in  this  present  year  (1899)  new  and  elegant 
buildings  are  being  erected.  It  is  claimed  that  ten  large  barns, 
of  from  seventy-five  to  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  feet  by 
thirty,  having  a  hanging  capacity  of  at  least  forty  acres,  have 
been  erected. 

The  methods  of  fertilization  have  kept  pace  with  the  march 
of  investigation  by  our  agricultural  experiment  stations  and  in- 
stead of  fertilizing  wholly  with  stable  manures  and  Peruvian 
guano,  they  now  use  extensively  cotton  seed  meal  and  potash 
in  ^ome  available  form  as  it  is  an  absolute  necessity  to  produce  a 
leaf  that  can  be  used  for  a  wrapper  in  order  to  obtain  a  price 
that  will  compensate  the  grower  for  his  outlay  of  time  and 
money.  A  good,  desirable  leaf  always  finds  buyers  and  those 
that  don't  haggle  over  a  reasonable  price.  This  is  by  far  the 
leading  interest  of  our  townsmen  and  we  have  occupied  consid- 
erable space  to  trace  its  history. 

Now  I  will  close  with  a  little  incident  of  church  inteference. 
Rev.  C.  N.  Seymour  came  to  Whately  and  was  installed,  9 
March,  1853,  and  remained  about  six  years.  He  was  a  liberal 
preacher  and  well  liked  by  the  townspeople.  During  his  stay  in 
town  the  association  of  ministers  met  in  Whately  and  among 
the  ultra-pious  men  were  many  that  believed  it  was  an  awful  sin 
to  use  the  vile  Indian  weed  and  of  course  that  added  the  men 
who  grew  it  to  a  sinful  class.  They  discussed  the  question 
with  much  eloquence,  and  it  ended  in  resolutions  recommending 
the  ministers  in  the  tobacco  growing  towns  to  use  every  effort 
by  prayer  and  exhortation  to  stop  raising  it,  and  they  called  on 
their  good  Brother  Seymour  to  give  his  views.  Until  then  he 
had  maintained  a  discreet  silence,  but  he  arose  and  all  eyes 
were  upon  him,  and  he  very  wittily  remarked,  "That  he  didn't 
particularly  care  what  his  parishioners  raised  if  they  would  only 
raise  his  salary,"  and  took  his  seat. 

The  panic  of  1873  was  successful  in  ruining  most  of  the 
parties  living  in  town  who  had  entered  into  the  trade  in  tobacco. 
Tobacco  that  cost  nearly  or  quite  thirty  cents  a  pound  dropped 
down  to  some  eight  or  ten  cents  a  pound,  carrying  most  of  the 
local  dealers  in  Franklin  and  Hampshire  counties  into  insol- 
vency. We  mention  this  to  show  the  unfavorable  side  of  the 
tobacco  trade. 


270 

ABANDONED    FARMS    IN    WHATELV    AND    THE 
CAUSES    LEADING    THERETO. 

This  is  a  topic  on  which  there  are  a  variety  of  opinions. 
We  do  not  expect  to  solve  the  problem  yet  will  give  some  salient 
reasons  for  at  least  a  portion  of  them.  It  seems  as  though  one 
hundred  years  ago  the  young  men,  not  desiring  to  remove  awa}' 
from  all  their  associates  and  relatives,  sought  to  occupy  lands 
wholly  unsuited  for  a  productive  farm  upon  which  they  could 
support  a  constantly  growing  family,  were  afterwards  actually 
compelled  to  seek  some  other  location. 

To  illustrate  my  idea  I  will  mention  one  instance :  Daniel 
Wells  born  about  1749,  marrying  Aphia  Dickinson,  had  a  log 
house  on  the  Easter  road  to  Conway,  on  -the  west  side  of  the 
road  well  to  the  north,  near  where  Sylvester  and  Horace  Graves' 
sugarhouse  stood.  His  land  ran  west  of  the  hill.  His  house 
stood  on  a  small  level  spot,  a  part  of  the  level  patch  being  little 
better  than  a  mudhole.  They  had  one  cow  and  before  she 
dropped  her  calf,  he  let  her  have  the  run  of  the  level  patch  at 
nig:ht.  One  morning  he  found  her  mired  and  dead  and  the  calf 
also.  He  then  remarked  that  "He  would  not  live  on  a  farm 
where  there  wasn't  a  suitable  place  for  a  cow  to  calve  on."  He 
removed  and  left  an  abandoned  farm. 

Very  many  of  these  abandoned  farms  were  wholly  unsuited 
for  a  farm,  being  fit  only  for  woodland  or  pasturage.  When  the 
land  was  new  and  freshly  burned  over  comfortable  crops  were 
produced  for  awhile,  but  the  fertility  was  not  kept  up  by  the 
application  of  fertilizers.  The  places  served  simply  as  a  shelter 
at  night  for  those  who  were  employed  by  neighbors  who  had 
lands  suited  for  farm  purposes.  When  the  time  came  that  farm 
machinery  took  the  place  of  hand  labor,  then  indeed  was  there 
an  exodus  to  some  factory  village  where  a  man  and  his  numer- 
ous family  could  live  comfortably. 

As  for  an  illustration :  Before  the  mowing  machine,  tedder 
and  the  horserake,  all  of  our  larger  farms  gave  employment  to 
many  hands  to  cut  and  make  the  hay.  It  was  a  common  thing 
to  see  from  three  to  five  or  more  hands  industriously  swinging 
the  scythe  all  the  forenoon  to  cut  over  a  piece  of  land  that  a  man, 
and  a  pair  of  horses  attached  to  a  mowing  machine,  would  easily 
cut  in  much  less  time.  Then  in  the  afternoon  the  rake  and 
pitchfork  had  to  be  handled  lively,  while  with  the  tedder  and  a 
single  horse  the  hay  is  better  turned  than  a   man    can  do  it. 


271 

Then  shifting  to  the  horse  rake  the  crop  is  soon  in  shape  for 
draudng,  and  two  men  and  a  boy  will  put  more  hay  into  the  barn 
than  the  ftve  or  six  men,  to  say  nothing  about  the  boys,  could 
do  then.  The  result  is  that  the  labor  that  was  formerly  hired  is 
dispensed  with,  and  then  the  reaper  and  thresher  came  in  to 
further  lessen  the  need  of  so  much  extra  help. 

In  the  winter  men  were  employed,  usually  on  shares,  to 
thresh  out  the  rye  and  wheat  crops,  and  the  music  of  the  flails 
was  heard  in  man}'  a  barn  from  early  morning  until  we  would 
get  home  from  school.  These  jobs  now  are  gone,  and  the  man 
living  on  a  piece  of  land  that  would  not  furnish  a  family  with 
but  little  beyond  caring  for  a  cow,  or  perhaps  two  cows,  and 
potatoes,  the  buildings  going  to  decay  and  ruin,  has  at  last 
abandoned  it,  the  land  being  sold  for  pasturage  or  to  grow  up 
to  wood. 

In  1888  I  assisted  in  cutting  white  pines  that  yielded  five 
12-foot  logs  for  boards,  the  butt  cut  making  boards,  square 
edged,  22  inches  wide,  from  land  that  when  I  was  a  boy  of  ten 
years  was  used  for  a  cow  pasture,  having  formerly  been  culti- 
vated with  corn  and  grain.  About  [S2S  to  1S34  there  was  a 
western  boom  that  struck  our  town  as  Vv-ell  as  others  ;  such 
stories  of  the  marvelous  richness  of  those  distant  lands,  that  many 
sold  off  their  farms  and  they  were  soon  made  into  pastures,  and 
the  houses  either  torn  down  or  removed. 

I  have  one  such  instance  in  my  thoughts  now:  A  father 
had  built  a  two-story  house,  but  never  plastered  a  room;  went 
upstairs  by  means  of  a  ladder,  had  no  well,  drew  the  water  for 
the  house  with  his  oxen  and  sled  or  stone  boat,  letting  the  cattle 
go  to  the  brook  thirty  rods  away.  They  had  twelve  children. 
Then  his  son  lived  in  the  same  way,  same  house,  and  also  had 
in  his  family  twelve  children.  Then  they  moved  to  another 
farm.  The  land  was  sold,  the  house  taken  down  and  set  up 
again  over  two  miles  away,  put  into  comfortable  condition,  and 
was  recently  sold  to  a  young  man  who  now  has  a  comfortable 
home. 

Other  farms  after  the  death  of  the  owners,  have  been  divided 
and  subdivided  and  sold  off  in  small  strips,  thus  destroying  the 
farm,  the  land  being  now  added  to  the  possessions  of  some  well- 
to-do  farmer.  This  will  account  for  quite  a  number  of  aban- 
doned farms.  If  we  go  back  to  the  tax  list  of  1771  we  find  that 
the  seventy-one  poll  tax  payers  had  ninety-nine  cows.  There 
was  practically  no  sale  for  butter,  and  only  enough  cows  were 


272 

kept  to  supply  the  family.  In  iSio  the  tax  list  shows  that  with 
231  poll  tax  payers  they  had  increased  the  number  of  cows  to 
307  ;  they  had  also  increased  their  population  from  320  in  1771  to 
890  in  I  Sic.  Butter  was  worth  Sd  in  1777,  in  18 10  about  ten 
cents,  and  from  1S25  to  1S30  about  twelve  and  one-half  cents. 
It  is  probably  true  that  I  can  name  three  men  in  Whately  who 
manufacture  and  sell  more  butter  than  all  that  was  made  and 
sold  in  iSio,  or  it  produces  more  money.  Considering  the  con- 
ditions under  which  our  people  struggled,  the  wonder  is  that  so 
few  farms  were  abandoned. 

The  facilities  for  sending  our  surplus  products  to  market 
are  now  such  that  there  is  no  trouble  in  sending  milk,  cream, 
butter,  eggs,  poultry-  and  even,-  kind  of  perishable  produce  to  a 
speedy,  as  well  as  a  lucrative  market.  Tobacco  that  is  now 
grown  in  a  year  would  be  worth  more  than  all  the  crops  they 
raised  in  a  year.  Now  we  shall  expect  to  see  some  of  the  best 
farms  that  were  abandoned  rehabitated  and  very  few  ever  again 
abandoned.  Many  of  them  have  abundance  of  good  natural 
pasturage,  but  are  deficient  in  good  mowing  lands.  When  corn 
for  ensilage  can  be  grown  a  silo  laughs  at  one  who  has  only  hay 
to  depend  upon. 

A    SEQUEL    TO    OUR    ABANDONED    FARMS. 

While  traveling  over  our  little  town  enumerating  the  peo- 
ple, in  accordance  with  the  laws  of  our  state,  I  was  compelled  to 
pass  place  after  place  where  once  a  dwelling  stood,  where  once 
busy  feet  pressed  the  soil  of  a  once  busy  farmhouse,  and  its  sur- 
roundings, where  parents  with  their  laughing  boys  and  blush- 
ing girls  filled  the  home  with  their  gladsome  voices  ;  where  once 
was  busy  life,  now,  alas,  is  naught  but  the  partially  filled  cellar 
hole  and  all  is  silent,  as  though  the  surrounding  hills  had  never 
reverberated  the  gladsome  laugh  or  sent  back  in  echoes  the 
merr>'  songs  of  a  once  numerous  and  happy  progeny. 

I  was  going  from  the  center  of  the  town  by  the  Irvdng  Allis 
place,  thence  over  the  old  Easter  road  to  West  Whately,  some- 
thing over  a  half  mile  from  Mr.  Allis',  by  the  roadway  passing 
the  "coon  dens"  and  rising  the  Easter  Hill,  reached  the  first  of 
the  abandoned  farms.  The  ruins  consist  of  a  partially  filled  cel- 
lar some  fifteen  feet  by  about  twenty-four,  thus  indicating  the 
size  of  the  house.  Here  I  stopped  and  sat  down  on  a  beautiful 
plot  of  grass,  going  back  in  memory  to  its  early  occupants  and 
tracing   their   history  and  life  work,  and  theti  their  sons  and 


273 

daughters,  their  children  and  grandchildren,  and  as  I  thought 
aloud  and  mentioned  names  so  I  will  now  do  the  same. 

In  the  year  1775  my  great  uncle,  John  Crafts,  built  a  dairy 
house  here.  In  1779  Joseph  Crafts,  after  faithful  service  in  the 
Revolutionary  army,  married  and  soon  after  occupied  this  dairy 
house  and  the  adjacent  lands.  Here  his  family,  consisting  of 
three  daughters  and  six  sons,  was  born.  The  two  oldest  chil- 
dren were  daughters,  then  came  Chester  Crafts  who  was  the 
father  of  Josephus,  Chester,  Jr.,  David  W.,  Roswell  P.  and 
Albert  W..  all  of  them  wealthy.  Roswell  P.  has  twice  served 
Holyoke  as  its  efficient  mayor ;  three  of  them  have  been  direct- 
ors in  different  banks,  and  all  of  them  much  in  office  and  held 
in  high  esteem.  The  daughters,  sisters  of  these  parties,  were 
married  to  men  of  good  and  reputable  standing  at  Northampton. 

Then  in  my  mind  I  traced  another  of  the  sons  of  Joseph 
who  married  and  removed  to  Ohio.  He  was  by  trade  a  black- 
smith and  also  carried  on  the  business  of  manufacturing  agricul- 
tural implements;  sold  out  and  removed  to  Illinois;  was  con- 
tractor on  the  Central  Illinois  railroad.  His  wife  died  and  he 
was  prostrated  with  typhoid  fever  and  died,  leaving  eight  chil- 
dren. The  oldest,  named  Josephus  Crafts,  was  a  woolen  man- 
ufacturer; removed  to  Alabama,  where  he  owned  a  plantation  of 
800  acres,  and  his  descendants  still  live  there  ;  one  is  a  lawyer, 
and  others  in  trade,  besides  carrying  on  the  farm  ;  one  other  son, 
James,  was  a  Methodist  preacher,  was  in  a  cavalry  regiment  in 
the  war  of  the  rebellion  and  died  in  the  service. 

Then  I  thought  of  another  grandson,  Davdd  K.  Crafts,  who 
was  a  mere  lad  when  his  parents  died,  and  among  strangers. 
He  was  put  out  to  a  farmer  with  whom  he  lived  until  about 
seven  or  eight  years  of  age,  when  he  was  sold  to  a  drinking 
fellow  for  a  keg  of  cider  brandy.  When  he  awoke  in  the 
morning  and  found  that  his  drunken  master  was  sleeping  off  his 
last  night's  debauch,  he  slipped  out  of  bed  determined  to  kill  the 
man  who  had  bought  him,  and  seizing  one  of  his  boots  he 
struck  with  will  on  his  head,  but  the  fellow  jumped  up  before 
he  could  repeat  the  blow.  He  had  to  go  with  him,  and  when 
thirteen  years  old  wenttoNauvoo  and  learned  the  tinner's  trade, 
and  the  family  being  Mormons  went  to  Utah,  and  he  of  course 
went.  He  owns  a  large  farm  and  a  large  interest  in  the  mining 
business;  has  a  family  of  seven-or  eight  children,  well  educated. 

All  these  thoughts  ran  through  my  mind  as  I  sat  there. 
Then  I  thought  of  the  grand  old  grandfather,  of  his  long  con- 


274 

tinued  service  in  the  army,  assisting  at  the  capture  of  Burgoyne 
and  his  whole  army.  Here  they  lived.  The  house  stood  in  a 
warm,  cozy  place  on  an  eastern  slope  of  Mt.  Easter.  In  the 
cellar  is  growing  a  stalwart  butternut  tree,  a  part  of  the  cellar 
wall  being  intact  and  pieces  of  brick  are  strewed  around.  There 
is  but  little  land  in  any  way  suitable  for  tillage  or  mowing,  and 
how  they  managed  to  live  here  is  a  question  that  I  am  unable 
to  solve,  yet  here  was  their  home  and  here  their  children  often 
disported.  It  is  no  wonder  that  when  Mr.  Crafts  died  in  i8[5, 
the  house  was  deserted  and  the  land  used  for  a  pasture  even  to 
this  day. 

Other  abandoned  farms  may  have  similar  results  following 
the  removal  to  lands  admitting  of  cultivation,  several  instances 
of  which  I  could  relate  were  it  necessary. 

Most  of  the  farmers  in  the  eastern  and  central  part  of  the 
town  raised  broom  corn,  and  quite  a  good  proportion  of  them 
manufactured  the  corn  into  brooms.  Those  not  choosing  to 
manufacture  had  no  difficulty  in  disposing  of  the  broom  corn. 
The  price  varied  from  five  to  seven  cents  a  pound,  probably  six 
cents  was  about  a  fair  average  price,  the  green  brush  being 
always  worth  more  than  the  red.  It  was  confidently  claimed 
that  a  good,  well-ripened  crop  of  seed  would  pay  for  the  cost  of 
labor  and  fertilizer  for  its  production,  so  the  farmer  could  well 
afford  to  take  the  reduced  price  for  his  brush.  The  manufac- 
turer would  use  the  red  brush  for  the  inside  and  the  green  brush 
to  cover  it,  a  process  that  had  some  doubts  as  to  its  morality. 

Among  our  largest  manufacturers  we  will  name  a  few  only : 
Josiah  Allis,  Eliphas  H.  Wood,  Abel  W.  Nash,  Soloman  Mo- 
sher,  Cahdn  S.  Loomis,  Porter  Wells,  Lucius  Graves,  Stephen 
Belden,  Reuben  Belden,  Carlos  Swift,  Justin  M.  Cooley,  William 
J.  and  Josiah  G.  Wood.  They  soon  began  to  buy  broom  com 
grown  at  the  west  where  it  was  always  harvested  green,  and 
then  broom  corn  raising  ceased  and  the  former  growers  turned 
their  attention  to  growing  tobacco. 

The  yield  of  broom  brush  averaged  about  six  hundred 
pounds  to  the  acre.  Before  the  building  of  the  Connecticut 
River  railway  the  brooms  were  most  generally  sent  to  New  York, 
shipping  by  boats  to  Hartford  and  from  there  by  sloops  or  steam- 
boats, while  many  sent  out  teams  through  all  the  surrounding 
country,  with  an  occasional  two-horse  load  to  Albany,  N.  Y. 
They  used  to  laugh  at  one  of  our  jocose  broom  manufacturers, 
who  took  a  two-horse  load  of  brooms  to  Albany,  of  course  selling 


275 

his  wares  as  he  had  opportunity  by  the  way.  He  closed  out  the 
end  of  his  load  to  a  wide-awake  man  in  Albany,  taking  his  pay 
in  flour.  He  wasn't  much  acquainted  with  handling  flour  and 
the  barrels  were  marked  "fine  flour."  When  he  arrived  home 
with  his  flour  that  he  hoped  to  sell  at  a  profit  the  people  asked 
him  why  he  didnt  buy  "superfine,"  instead  of  fine.  He  replied 
that  they  told  him  that  old  "Super"  was  dead  so  they  could  not 
use  his  name  on  that  flour  any  more.     He  never  outgrew  that. 

But  then  when  we  stop  to  think,  in  those  days  ver>-  few 
families  ever  bought  flour  by  the  barrel;  they  raised  and  ate  rye 
bread.  Once  or  twice  a  year  they  would  buy  a  small  amount  for 
Thanksgiving  and  sometimes  a  little  for  ha3-ing  purposes,  a 
dozen  pounds  or  such  a  matter  at  a  time,  an  ounce  of  nutmeg,  a 
quarter  of  a  pound  of  allspice,  some  cinnamon  and  a  pound  or 
two  of  raisins  also  for  Thanksgiving.  To  see  how  our  people 
live  to-day  would  excite  their  wonder.  In  my  boyhood  days  I 
had  to  eat  from  a  wooden  trencher  until  I  was  ten  years  old. 

As  for  eggs  scarcely  ten  cents  a  dozen  would  be  paid  for 
them,  but  now  they  are  carefully  crated,  and  thus  marketed  or 
placed  in  cold  storage  ready  for  use  when  the  season  of  scarcity 
arrives,  and  every  week  our  merchants  in  villages  receive  them 
from  Indiana  and  Illinois;  and  butter  also  is  kept  in  cold  stor- 
age, and  the  price  seldom  drops  below  twenty  cents. 

The  west  part  of  the  town,  comprising  as  it  does  the  fourth 
division  of  Commons  and  nine  lots  of  the  third  division,  is  stony 
and  hilly,  well  adapted  to  pasturage,  fruit  growing  and  the  pro- 
duction of  meat  and  butter;  with  some  good  arable  lands  and  a 
strong  fertile  soil.  In  fact  I  know  that  the  lands  from  the  top 
of  Potash  hill,  including  Pleasant  hill,  Spruce  hill  up  Chestnut 
mountain,  are  remarkably  rich  soils  producing  every  kind  of 
crop  in  profusion,  warm,  quick  to  respond  to  treatment  of  ferti- 
lizers and  easy  of  tillage. 

As  you  go  further  west  the  arable  lands  are  not  so  abundant, 
yet  on  the  Poplar  hill  road  from  Conway  line  to  and  beyond 
Paul  \V.  Field's,  excellent  farms  are  found,  and  Grass  hill  was 
considered  many  years  ago  as  the  farmer's  paradise,  but  it  was 
principally  a  stock  keeping  portion  of  the  town.  But  now  a 
change  has  come  over  the  conditions  of  the  agricultural  products 
of  the  town.  The  reason  is  found  in  the  growing  of  corn,  and 
seed  leaf  tobacco.  Lands  that  are  suitable  for  the  production  of 
firm,  light  colored  wrappers  suitable  for  cigars,  are  now  used 
largely  for  that  purpose. 


i']6 

This  was  commenced  in  a  small  way  by  Stephen  Belden, 
Lewis  Wells,  Samuel  and  Horace  Dickinson.  Mr.  Relden  pro- 
cured some  seed  and  raised  a  small  quantity  in  1S43,  ^^d  in  1844 
took  it  to  New  York  and  sold  it.  At  this  time,  1S44  or  '4-5, 
Wells  set  out  towards  an  acre  and  the  Dickinson  brothers  about 
one  acre.  They  took  samples  to  Hadley,  and  sold  their  crops 
at  six  cents  a  pound  for  the  wrappers  and  two  cents  for  the 
fillers.  Their  next  crops  were  somewhat  larger  and  the  buyer, 
Mr.  Loomis  from  Suffield,  Conn.,  came  to  Whatelj'  and  better 
prices  were  paid.  Then  others  commenced  growing-  it,  and  in 
1854  there  were  about  seventy  acres  devoted  to  its  culture. 

In  1893  there  were  412  acres  planted ;  but  the  usual  amount 
of  land  devoted  to  tobacco  varies  from  364  in  1892,  to  4  12  in  '93. 
This  yields  verj-  nearly  1600  pounds  to  the  acre  as  an  average  ; 
this  gives  620,800  pounds,  giving  a  cash  return  of  nearly  $75,- 
000,  and  when  prices  run  higher  the  amount  has  reached  over 
$100,000.  There  are  years,  like  1897,  when  the  plants  were  so 
affected  by  the  large  amount  of  rain,  that  many  acres  were  en- 
tirely worthless,  entailing  heavy  losses  upon  the  farmers.  In- 
deed many  acres  of  corn  were  also  ruined. 

At  first  the  tobacco  land  was  sowed  to  wheat  after  tobacco, 
and  heavy  crops  resulted.  I  well  recall  a  field  of  twelve  acres 
raised  \>\  Alonzo  and  Walter  Crafts,  that  was  followed  by  wheat, 
that  was  claimed  to  have  yielded  600  bushels,  and  as  I  have 
grown  very  nearly  forty  bushels  to  the  acre  on  a  poorer  soil,  I 
am  disposed  to  say  it  yielded  as  above.  Now  the  practice  of 
sowing  wheat  has  most  generally  ceased  and  the  land  if  well 
adapted  to  the  growth  of  tobacco  is  kept  continually  for  that 
crop. 

Since  the  completion  of  so  many  railways,  affording  as  they 
do  such  facilities  for  the  quick  transportation  of  what  is  considered 
as  perishable  products,  such  as  milk,  butter  and  eggs,  as  well  as 
small  fruits,  with  the  addition  of  cold  storage,  has  almost  en- 
tirely changed  the  conditions  under  which  the  farmer  labors. 
Now  it  is  possible,  aye  practicable,  for  the  farmer  to  keep  all  the 
cows  his  farm  can  profitably  carrj'.  And  when  the  hay  crop  is 
insufficient  the  silo  and  ensilage  come  in  as  important  adjuncts 
to  piece  out  his  deficient  forage  crop,  as  now  it  is  generally  con- 
ceded that  one  acre  of  ensilage  is  sufficient  to  carr>^  three  cows 
through  the  usual  foddering  season,  with  one  small  feed  of  some 
dr^'  material  such  as  hay,  oats,  straw  or  cornstalks  once  a  day. 

The  land  in  the  west  part  of  our  town  is  peculiarly  fitted 


277 

for  the  keeping  of  poultry',  particularly  for  the  production  of 
eggs.  The  laud  is  not  held  so  high  but  that  a  man  might  de- 
vote an  acre  or  more  fenced  off  in  plats  of  eight  or  ten  rods  in  a 
plat,  with  a  woven  wire  fence,  allowing  to  each  plat  about 
twenty  hens  and  one  cockerell ;  allow  the  grass  to  grow,  thus 
affording  valuable  food  for  the  hens,  and  set  a  number  of  pear 
or  plum  trees  as  he  may  choose  in  each  plat.  These  will 
afford  shade  for  the  hens,  and  the  fertilizer  deposited  by  the 
hens  would  make  the  trees  thrifty  and  productive. 

For  all  these  products  there  is  an  abundant  market,  and 
payable  in  good  hard  cash,  not  as  formerly  a  barter  trade. 
Then  another  excellent  product  is  the  raising  of  early  lambs. 
They  have  the  pasturage,  and  even  though  stone  walls  abound, 
yet  wire  is  now  so  cheap  that  there  need  be  no  difficulty  in  mak- 
ing effective  fences  for  sheep.  Money  is  more  easily  earned  in 
this  way  than  in  growing  tobacco.  Again  a  large  portion  of  its 
area  is  well  adapted  to  the  growing  of  apples,  for  which  we  have 
the  -world  for  a  market.  But  it  is  necessary  to  grow  nice  fat 
apples,  not  poverty-stricken  specimens.  To  do  this  there  must 
be  supplied  the  needed  elements  contained  in  the  fruit.  No  one 
would  think  of  planting  corn  or  seeding  to  grass  a  sand  blow 
knoll,  so  no  man  should  think  of  reaping  "Where  he  has  not 
strown."  The  old  orchards  are  decaying,  simply  for  the  want 
of  potash,  and  this  is  true  as  regards  much  of  our  New  England 
pasturage. 

Then  as  an  incentive  for  improvement,  real  farmers'  clubs 
should  be  formed  wherever  a  dozen  farmers  can  readily  meet ; 
compare  notes,  try  supposed  beneficial  experiments,  and  to  de- 
plore farm  wastes  and  suggest  improvements  ;  a  real  live  insti- 
tution, and  not  a  particularly  literary  affair  attended  by  a  thous- 
and and  one  degrees  and  initiations,  with  a  bevy  of  officials  too 
numerous  to  mention,  where  they  discuss  anything  but  fanning. 


CHAPTER  XV. 
whately's  natural  scenery. 

The  Connecticut  Valley  has  many  beautiful  localities  of 
which  those  to  the  manor  born  are  justly  proud.  In  passing 
through  the  .valley  even,-  one  must  be  struck  with  the  beautiful 
elevation  on  which  the  little  hamlet  of  Whately  is  located.  The 
hill  is  not  sharp  or  abrupt,  but  slopes  gradually  to  the  south  and 
east,  catching  the  first  raj's  of  the  morning  sun  and  the  equally 
cheery  and  balmy  south  winds.  The  hill's  elevation  does  not 
exceed  one  hundred  feet,  and  is  underlaid  with  red  sand  stone. 
It  is  really  a  plateau  and  gives  the  name  Chestnut  Plain  to  the 
highway,  commencing  at  the  West  brook  bridge  and  extending 
to  the  north  line  of  the  town. 

The  soil  is  warm  and  fertile,  producing  large  crops  of  grass 
or  hoed  crops.  The  hills  west  furnish  a  beautiful  background,  and 
serve  to  ameliorate  the  extremes  of  the  weather.  The  water  is 
of  the  best  quality.  It  is  an  extremely  healthy  location,  wholly 
exempt  from  malarial  diseases.  A  wide  area  of  flat  lands  lies 
at  the  base  of  this  beautiful  hill.  A  little  ways  from  its  base 
winds  the  wonderfully  crooked,  yet  beautiful  stream,  usually 
known  as  Mill  river,  but  by  the  Indians  as  Capiwonk,  affording 
a  meadow  the  whole  width  of  our  town. 

Then  there  is  a  continued  level  strip  of  land  about  one  and 
a  half  miles  to  the  meadow  that  fringes  the  Connecticut,  and 
beyond  are  the  eastern  hills  dotted  with  vdllages. 

At  the  north  we  have  the  mountain  of  Sugar  Loaf,  and 
across  the  river  is  Toby,  which  rear  their  proud  heads  and  look 


279 

down  upon  us  in  their  rugged  beauty,  crowned  as  their  summits 
are  with  beautiful  summer  houses.  Still  further  north  are  the 
hills  of  Shelburne,  Colrain  and  Leyden,  while  far  away  to  the 
northeast  we  see  the  mighty  Monadnock  rearing  its  head  ;  be- 
yond this  to  the  southeast  of  Monadnock  is  the  Wachusett,  ris- 
ing to  the  height  of  2,qoo  feet.  Then  as  you  turn  to  the  south, 
Holyoke  and  Tom  stand  as  sentinels  to  guard  our  homes. 

There  are  many  rough  and  rugged  hills,  through  clefts  ot 
w'hich  beautiful  brooks  have  forced  their  way,  making  some  very 
fine  scenerv'.  Among  these  I  will  onlv  mention  West  and  Roar- 
ing  brooks.  Whoever  views  the  West  brook  as  it  runs  between 
Stony  hill  and  Chestnut  mountain  will  be  filled  with  wonder 
when  they  view  the  effects  of  the  many  tens  of  thousands  of 
years  of  its  continued  efforts  ;  also  they  who  follow  Roaring 
brook  and  take  cognizance  of  the  beautiful  scener>'  abounding 
at  the  glen  and  a  long  ways  up  the  brook,  that  only  needs  to 
be  seen  to  be  admired. 

These  and  many  other  beautiful  places  need  no  enconiums 
from  my  pen.  They  are  rich  in  natural  beauty,  and  are  annu- 
ally visited  by  thousands.  What  a  place  for  summer  residences, 
and  some  day  we  will  see  the  old  and  beautiful  town  covered  by 
palatial  places. 

Not  long  since  a  wealthy  hotel  keeper  remarked  to  me  that 
if  he  was  twenty  years  younger  he  would  erect  a  first-class  sum- 
mer hotel  at  Whately,  and  should  consider  it  a  good  investment 
for  a  hundred-room  house.  That  nature  had  here  provided  one 
of  the  finest  and  most  desirable  localities  that  he  knew  of  for  the 
purpose. 

The  main  street  has  always  been  known  as  Chestnut  Plain 
street  even  before  its  occupancy  for  residences.  The  views  from 
the  south  end  of  the  village  embraces  the  mountains  Holyoke 
and  Tom,  distant  about  twelve  miles,  with  the  long  stretch  of 
meadow,  and  beautiful  view  stretching  on  indefinitely.  The 
landscape  is  dotted  with  farm  houses  and  villages  galore ;  the 
woodlands  all  in  their  rich  vestments  of  green,  intermingled  with 
finely  cultivated  fields,  and  the  rugged  hills  hiding  from  view 
the  beautiful  meadow  city ;  while  to  the  east  the  spires  of  many 
churches  can  be  seen. 

But  I  am  well  aware  that  my  descriptive  powers  are  wholly 
inadequate  to  give  an  appreciative  picture  of  the  many  charm- 
ing views  to  be  had  here.  The  reader  will  recollect  that  I  have 
passed  my  eighty-second  birthday,  but  my  love  for  the  old 
home  of  my  active  life  still  retains  its  hold  upon  me. 


28o 

We  here   present  the  fine  view   of  Hon.  H.  S.  Allis'  very 
pleasant  home,  surrounded  as  it  is  with  such  a  wealth  of  beauti- 
ful trees.     It  is  located  on  the  east  side  of  Chestnut  Plain  street,, 
which  is  ten  rods  wide,  on  the  height  of  that  beautiful  elevation 
upon  which  the  village  is  built.     The  point  of  view  selected  for 
this  picture  seems  to  possess  a  fine  artistic  effect.     It  gives  a 
slight  view  of  the  cemetery,  the  wide  street,  the  beautiful  trees- 
and  the  contour  of  the  land,  as  well  as  a  pleasant  view  of  the 
large  and  commodious  house.     The  front  house  was  built  by  his 
father  some  years  ago ;  the  ell  part  now  two  stories  high,  affords 
an  abundance  of  room.     It  is  well  divided,  the  apartments  are, 
large,  finely  furnished,  and  surrounded  as  it  is  with  such  magnifi- 
cent shade  trees,  and  with  the  beautiful  elevations,   flecked  as 
the}'  are  with  villages,  the  mountains  both  north  and  south,  and. 
the  hill  at  the  west,  makes  a  desirable  residence. 

BROOKS   IN    WHATELY.. 

There  are  quite  a  number  of  brooks,  and  as  each  of  them 
has  a  local  name,  we  will  give  them  as  full}^  as  we  can.  We 
need  hardly  say  that  what  we  have  is  the  result  of  many  in- 
quiries and  personal  investigation.  Bloody  brook  is  a  tributary 
of  Capawong  or  Mill  river.  It  empties  into  Mill  river  on  the  Bar- 
nard farm.  It  rises  northeast  of  South  Deerfield,  is  an  inconsid- 
erable stream,  and  is  famous  for  the  massacre  of  Capt.  Lothrop 
and  his  company,  called  the  "Flower  of  Essex." 

About  one-half  of  a  mile  south  we  have  Roaring  brook 
which  rises  in  Conway  east  of  Cricket  hill,  flows  southeasterly 
through  the  famous  Whately  glen,  and  affords  much  beautiful 
and  wild  scenery,  some  water  power,  and  falls  into  Mill  river. 
Chicken  brook,  sometimes  called  Uncle  Nonies'  brook,  rises 
under  Mt.  Esther,  and  receiving  some  small  additions,  unites 
with  Mill  river.  A  small  brook  known  as  Brown's  brook, 
crosses  the  road  near  the  house  of  the  late  George  Brown  and 
enters  Mill  river. 

The  next  one  south  is  known  as  Gutter  Hill  brook.  It. 
crosses  Chestnut  Plain  street  just  north  of  the  center  cemeter5^ 
It  rises  west  of  Stony  hill  and,  collecting  the  springs  flowing, 
from  Stony  hill  east  and  Spruce  hill  west,  empties  into  Mill  river. 
The  next  one  south  on  the  east  side  is  the  Great  Swamp  brook. 
This  in  former  times  was  called  Little  River,  and  crosses  Chris- 
tian lane  just  west  of  the  house  of  Lemuel  F.  Graves,  running 


X 
o 
s; 

X 

> 

CO 

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w 
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28l 

a  few  rods  on  his  lot,  then  crossing  the  Claverack  road  near  the 
house  of  Sherman  B.  Bardwell  and  empties  into  Mill  river. 

The  next  brook,  always  known  as  Schoolhouse  brook,  rises 
from  springs  under  Stony  hill,  crosses  the  Chestnut  Plain  road 
near  the  junction  of  the  crossroad  with  Chestnut  Plain  road, 
runs  thence  southeasterly  and  empties  into  Mill  river.  White's 
brook  is  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  south  of  the  Salmon  P.  White 
place.  The  next  is  Frary's  brook,  rising  in  springs  northwest 
of  Lincoln  B.  Sanderson's,  crosses  the  road  and  runs  on  San- 
derson's land,  and  running  between  his  house  and  barn,  finds  its 
way  to  Mill  river. 

Mill  river,  that  has  received  all  these  tributaries,  rises  in 
the  eastern  portion  of  Conway,  passes  into  the  southwest  part  of 
Deerfield ;  then  through  Whately  and  empties  into  the  Connec- 
ticu.t.river  after  pai?sing  through  Hatfield,  affording  some  water 
power  in  Hatfield  and  also  in  what. we  call  Mill  river  in  Deer- 
field.  There  are  several  large  drains  on  the  east  side  that  dis- 
charge.considerable  water  into  it.  Great  Swamp  drain  has  its 
outlet  across  Claverack  and  enters  Mill  river,  and  from  this  junc- 
tion takes  the  name  of  Little  river.  We  have  as  tributaries  of 
Roaring  brook :  Clark's  brook  which  empties  east  of  the  place 
owned  by  Seth  B.  Crafts  on  the  Easter  road.  Marsh's  brook 
which  rises  in  the  southeast  part  of  Conway,  and  also  Burgess 
brook. 

West  brook  rises  in  Conway,  and  the  two  streams  that  unite 
to  form  this  brook  are  known  as  Sinkpot  brook  and  Avery's 
brook.  They  unite  in  the  south  part  of  Conway,  flow  into  the 
northwest  corner  of  Whately.  and  flows  southeasterly  to  its  junc- 
tion with  Mill  river  at  a  point  near  the  line  between  Hatfield 
and  Whately.  This  stream  furnishes  a  large  amount  of  water 
power.  Its  tributaries  are  first  the  Todd  brook,  which  rises  in 
Conway  and  runs  southerly  east  of  Rufus  D.  Waite's,  and  emp- 
ties into  West  brook.  The  next  and  largest  tributary  is  known 
as  Harvey's  brook.  It  comes  from  Williamsburg  and  has  long 
been  used  to  furnish  power  for  two  sizable  shops. 

Poplar  Hill  brook  is  between  Poplar  hill  and  Mt.  Esther. 
On  this  brook  "Silver"  Joel  Munson  and  his  father,  old  Uncle 
Mosea-Munson,  had  a  mill  for  wood  turning.  Mitchell's  brook, 
a. small  stream  on  the  north  side  of  West  brook,  and  Potash 
brook  empties  east  of  the  Otis  Bardwell  place.  This  unites,  or 
receives  several  small  streams  that  runs  from  under  Mt.  Esther 
and 'Bull  hill,  and  takes  its  name  from  Potash  hill. 


282 

A  small  stream  rises  north  of  the  E.  S.  Alunson  place  and 
empties  into  West  brook.  Then  to  go  back  we  will  find  a  small 
brook  under  the  hill  near  the  West  Whately  cemetery.  Then 
Munson's  brook  empties  into  West  brook  on  the  land  of  Otis 
Bardwell ;  this  runs  under  Shingle  hill  and  comes  along  near  the 
Haydenville  road,  and  is  sometimes  called  "Still  brook,"  from 
the  fact  that  near  it  was  one  or  more  distilleries.  All  empty 
into  West  brook.  Horse  Mountain  brook  rises  in  the  south- 
west part  of  Whately  in  that  section  known  as  Grass  hill,  flows 
southerly  into  Williamsburg  uniting  with  the  Joe  Wright  brook. 
The  two  united  are  afterwards  known  as  Beaver  brook. 

The  other  brooks  empty  into  the  Connecticut  river.  Begin- 
ning at  the  north  side  of  the  town  we  have  what  the  Indians 
called  "Weekioannuck,"  but  now  known  as  Sugar  Loaf  brook. 
This  rises  in  South  Deerfield,  crosses  the  Whately  and  Sunder- 
land road,  near  the  house  where  Abraham  Parker  settled,  and 
runs  southerly  emptying  into  the  Connecticut  on  land  owned  by 
E.  A.  Scott's  heirs.     This  affords  power  for  a  grist  and  sawmill. 

Hopewell  brook  rises  from  springs  under  Hopewell  hill  and 
runs  southerly,  crossing  the  road  near  the  East  cemeter}',  then 
crosses  the  River  road  and  empties  on  land  of  S.  W.  Allis. 
The  fight  known  as  the  Swamp  fight  with  the  Indians  was  near 
the  head  of  this  brook.  It  has  a  small  tributary  from  a  small 
run  near  where  the  Wilcox  house  stands  opposite  Bartlett's  cor- 
ner, and  also  takes  the  water  from  Poplar  spring.  There'  is  a 
small  brook  that  crosses  the  River  road  near  Frank  D.  Belden's 
house.  The  water  from  all  these  brooks  can  be  turned  into  one 
channel,  and  has  been  so  used  at  Belden's  mill.  There  is  a 
small  one  near  the  south  line  of  the  town,  near  the  Shajdor  F. 
Belden  place,  sometimes  called  the  Great  Drain  from  Hopewell. 

NAMES   OF    HILLS   AND    LOCALITIES. 

"Old  fields,"  so  called,  is  a  piece  of  ground  tolerably  level 
and  rather  free  from  stone,  lying  west  of  the  Giles  Dickinson 
house.  These  were  old  cultivated  fields  when  the  town  was  first 
settled.  It  is  evident  that  the  Indians  planted  the  land  for  per- 
haps ages  upon  ages,  as  many  relics  of  their  manufacture  were 
found  here.  Miron  Dickinson  found  a  complete  stone  pot  or 
bowl  and  thoughtlessly  broke  it  to  pieces  ^^dth  his  hoe.  Arrow 
heads  and  other  utensils  such  as  pestles  for  pounding  their  corn, 
etc.,  were  found  here,  and  near  "old  fields"  was  an  Indian  resi- 
dent known  as  old  Samson  Johnson.     He  had  three  sons  that  i 


283 

1 

recollect  as  late  as  about  1S30  to  '35,  Eph,  Dave  and  Cyrus. 
They  used  to  work  for  the  farmers  by  the  month  or  other.vays. 

Beach  island  is  located  east  of  the  Barnard  farm  and  is  a 
barren  spot  in  Great  swamp.  It  is  related  of  a  man  named 
Tr\-on  that  he  lived  there  in  a  shanty  for  sometime  to  escape 
arrest.  Swamp  hill  is  on  the  east  side  of  Mill  river  lying  mostly 
on  the  farms  of  Jonathan  W.  and  Wells  Dickinson  and  the  Scott 
brothers,  Frank  O.  and  Lewis. 

Staddle  hill  is  northwest  from  George  E.  Sanderson's,  on 
the  road  to  Conway,  this  side  of  Long  pond  woods.  Indian 
hill  ;  this  name  has  long  attached  to  this  hill.  Here  Adoniiah 
Taylor  built  his  house,  a  gristmill  and  sawmill,  which  is  now 
owned  by  George  E.  Sanderson. 

The  widow  Waite's  woods  are  west  of  Ambrose  Scott's 
place  and  south  of  "old  fields."  A  place  much  frequented  by 
partridges  and  squirrels.  The  name  Widow  Waite's  woods  is  de- 
rived from  the  widow  of  John  Waite,  son  of  Benjamin,  the  Indian 
scout.  Capt.  Salmon  White  married  her  daughter,  Mary  Waite. 
The  mother,  after  the  death  of  her  husband,  lived  some  years 
with  Capt.  White  and  wife,  and  she  died  iS  Aug.,  1791.  aged 
ninety-nine  years.  She  owned  this  lot  and  the  name  still  clings 
to  that  portion  covered  with  wood.  I  think  it  is  on  lot  Xo.  66, 
fourth  division  of  Commons. 

Weller  hill  is  we-.-t  of  Asa  and  Noah  Dickinson's  places. 
It  takes  its  name  from  its  first  owner,  Richard  Weller.  The 
Park  is  the  hill  east  of  the  Easter  road  to  Conway  and  is  mostly 
in  a  pasture  owned  by  the  Scott  brothers.  It  extends  into  the 
northwest  corner  of  the  Doctor  Harwood  farm. 

Mount  Esther,  or  Easter  as  it  is  generally  called,  is  the 
range  of  hill  or  hills  lying  north  of  Irving  AUis'  place.  This 
eminence  was  called  Easter  from  some  woman  who  had  a  dairy 
and  sugarhouse  camp  or  ranch.  Her  name  was  spelled  Esther, 
but  that  was  pronounced  Easter  in  those  early  days.  Such 
dairy  houses  were  frequently  established  where  an  abundance  of 
good  grazing  lands  were  found,  and  as  much  of  the  sugar  used 
was  home  made  so  Hatfield  people  went  to  the  sugar  trees  and 
boiled  the  sap,  and  this  hill  has  always  been  a  famous  place  for 
grazing  and  for  maple  sugar  making. 

Bull  hill  commences  north  of  the  residence  of  George  Dick- 
inson and  extends  north  into  the  Doctor  Harwood  farm,  now 
owned  by  W.  P.  Crafts.  Spruce  hill  is  a  fertile  and  excellent 
tract  of  land  extending  nearly  or  quite  to  the  West  brook. 


284 

Stony  hill ;  this  long  range  of  hills  west  of  Chestnut  Plain 
street  about  a  mile  and  a  half,  full  of  stones  and  ledges,  is 
wholly  unfit  for  cultivation  and  kept  mostly  for  wood.  Over  the 
west  side  there  are  pastures.  The  hill  extends  from  opposite 
the  old  meeting-house  to  the  West  brook,  back  of  Round  knoll 
and  Round  hill.  Chestnut  mountain  ;  this  is  a  remarkably  fer- 
tile elevation,  and  the  "West  brook  seems  to  have  worn  a  channel 
through  between  Stony  hill  and  the  mountain.  This  seems  ap- 
parent to  the  most  careless  observ-er. 

Round  hill,  so  called  from  its  singular  form,  is  east  of  the 
lower  end  of  Stony  hill  and  rises  some  200  feet  above  its  eastern 
base.  Round  knoll,  just  north  of  Round  hill,  is  similar  in  its 
configuration  to  Round  hill,  but  not  so  high  into  probably  fifty 
or  seventy-five  feet.  This  last  is  about  west  from  the  Luke  B. 
White  place.  Going  west  from  Chestnut  mountain  is  Shingle 
hill,  which  lies  south  of  Paul  W.  Field's,  extending  into  Wil- 
liamsburg. On  this  hill  Nathan  Waite  and  his  son,  Jeremiah, 
lived  in  1782;  after  them  Benjamin,  a  son  of  Jeremiah,  then 
Gilbert  Smith  and  his  son,  Harwood  Smith.  Now  the  house  is 
torn  down  and  the  road  discontinued. 

Hog  mountain  lies  west  of  Willis  F.  Waite's  house  and  C. 
E.  Bardwell's,  and  south  to  Grass  hill.  This  hill  was  thus 
named  from  a  party  of  hunters  from  Hatfield  ;  w^hile  on  this  hill 
they  were  frightened  by  hearing  some  sounds  that  thej^  mistook 
for  the  guttural  sounds  of  Indians;  they  fled  hastily  to  Hatfield. 
The  alarm  was  given  and  a  squad  of  men  fully  armed  started  to 
investigate.  They  carefully  went  to  where  the  hunters  had  first 
heard  what  they  had  thought  proceeded  from  Indians,  and  they 
soon  found  that  the  ominous  sounds  came  from  an  old  sow  while 
suckling  her  pigs.  From  this  circumstance  this  eminence  has 
since  borne  the  euphonious  name  of  Hog  mountain. 

Grass  hill  is  south  and  west  of  Hog  mountain.  It  has  a 
fertile  soil  and  at  one  time  had  quite  a  number  of  houses.  It  is 
now  principally  used  for  pasturage.  In  mj^  opinion  the  best  soil 
adapted  to  apples  and  other  fruit  growing  of  anj^  portion  of- the 
town. 

The  Pinnacle ;  a  high  hill  or  summit  north  of  Grass  hill 
and  south  of  wh.it  is  known  as  New  Connecticut,  which  extends 
most  up  to  the  John  Starks  or  Caleb  Beals  place,  on  the  old 
Williamsburg  road,  and  west  of  Samuel  Sanderson's  place. 

Dr}'  hill,  running  north  from  the  old  John  Starks  place  into 
Conway,  where  first  lived  Jonathan  and  Amasa  Edson  and  after 


285 

them  Orange  and  Chester  Bardwell.  The  name  was  given  in 
consequence  of  its   being   overrun  by  fire,  destroying  the  wood. 

Poplar  hillis  that  hill  extending  north  from  the  Baptist  meet- 
ing-house, past  the  Chester  Brown  place  and  on  northerly  into 
Conway.  It  is  east  of  the  West  brook  and  west  of  Easter;  an 
excellent  fruit  growing  section.  The  road  takes  its  name  from 
this  hill. 

Pleasant  hill,  where  George  Dickinson  now  resides.  This 
place  aiifords  one  of  the  finest  views  of  the  Connecticut  River 
Valley,  embracing  many  towns  east  of  the  river.  Coon's  Den," 
west  of  Irving  Allis'  house,  a  rough,  rugged,  ledgy  locality 
filled  with  loose  rocks,  affording  a  cover  for  wild  animals  ;  for- 
merly a  great  place  for  coons,  wild-cats  and  other  animals  to 
escape  pursuit,  and  reach  a  place  of  refuge.  Gutter  hill,  near 
the  center  cemeter5^  has  reference  only  to  the  roadway. 

Dr.  Dickin.son's  hill ;  this  is  the  hill  west  of  Christian  Lane 
bridge  over  Mill  river  as  you  go  to  the  centre.  The  Doctor 
lived  on  the  Cahdn  S.  Loomis  place  several  years  before  [800. 
Chestnut  Plain  hill  has  sometimes  been  called  an  unsavory 
name  in  consequence  of  the  great  number  of  geese  that  were 
pastured  on  its  wide  plats  of  grass.  It  seemed  in  my  younger 
days  pretty  sharp  work  to  avoid  their  droppings.  Mill  hill,  as 
you  rise  from  Chestnut  Plain  road  to  the  mill  near  E.  C. 
Warner's. 

Great  Swamp  Bridge  hill,  on  Claverack  road  as  you  go  north 
from  the  Gad  Crafts  place,  just  beyond  the  Egypt  road,  has  been 
graded  so  the  ascent  is  slight.  Trumbul's  hillis  the  knoll  south 
of  the  Stephen  Belden  place  and  north  of  the  Gilbert  place.  It 
has  often  been  said  that  a  man  by  the  name  of  Trumbul  was 
killed  here  by  the  Indians. 

Burying  Ground  hill,  near  the  east  cemeter>'.  This  is  the 
ascent  from  the  meadows  up  Kopewell  hill  to  the  Straits,  and 
only  refers  to  the  road.  White's  hill,  where  Capt  Salmon 
White  settled.  Alpha  Dickinson  hill,  only  a  reference  to  the 
Chestnut  Plain  road  as  you  go  south  toward  Schooltiouse  brook, 
from  where  Ashley  G.  Dickinson  lives. 

Old  Boy  hill,  a  rise  in  the  Grass  hill  road  thirty  rods  or  so 
west  of  where  Luther  Thompson's  house  stood.  Hopewell  hill 
is  the  hill  that  rises  from  the  meadows  to  the  second  level.  It 
extends  the  entire  width  of  the  town,  and  it  rises  about  fifty  feet 
on  an  average. 

Egypt  is  that  portion  of  the  Egypt  road  from  about  twenty- 


286    , 

five  rods  east  of  the  Connecticut  River  railroad  and  continues 
across  the  wet  land  to  the  point  where  the  Mother  George  road 
leaves  it.  There  was  for  many  years  a  heavy  growth  of  hem- 
lock and  pine  trees  that  grew  along  both  sides  of  the  roadway, 
and  near  it  the  overhanging  branches  shut  out  the  light,  so  that 
at  night  it  was  as  dark  as  Egypt.     Hence  the  name. 

Christian  Lane  proper  is  understood  to  refer  only  to  the 
houses  east  of  the  Lane  bridge  to  the  houses  of  Moses  and  Levi 
Graves,  now  owned  by  Fied  L.  and  L.  F.  Graves,  while  it  is 
sometimes  alluded  to  as  the  Lane  road  from  Bartlett's  corner  to 
the  railroad  station.  While  west  of  the  station  to  the  crossing 
of  the  Northampton  extension  has  always  been  spoken  of  as  the 
causeway.  This  was  corduroyed  before  1788,  as  my  mother  has 
often  told  of  riding  over  it  in  an  ox  cart  when  the  family  re- 
moved to  Christian  Lane.  Why  it  should  be  designated  "Chris- 
tian" I  don't  know  for  certain,  but  presume  from  the  fact  that 
Deacon  Simeon  Waite,  the  earliest  settler,  was  a  stanch  old-, 
school  Christian,  whose  mouth  was  always  giving  pious  exhor- 
tations even  while  he  dealt  out  liquor  by  the  jug  full  or  con- 
cocted the  beverage  of  the  times,  "phlipp,"  to  his  ungodly  cus- 
tomers. 

Straits.  This  is  a  portion  of  the  Deerfield  road  contained 
between  Bartlett's  corners  south  to  and  including  the  houses  of 
Josiah  Gilbert  and  Benjamin  Bacon.  The  reason  of  its  name, 
"The  Straits,"  is  supposed  to  be  that  it  was  a  strip  of  land  that 
was  dr}',  making  a  fine  roadway  between  the  wet  lands  both  east 
and  west  of  it,  Hopewell  proper  and  Great  Swamp.  This  last 
until  drained  was  very  wet.  For  a  long  time  it  was  the  most 
populous  portion  of  the  town,  being  the  traveled  route  to  the 
north,  and  had  at  one  time  two  quite  large  stores  and  three 
hotels. 

Canterbury''  was  so  called  as  early  as  17 18  and  probably 
earlier,  but  I  can  give  no  reason  for  its  name.  It  is  now  spoken 
of  as  including  the  S.  W.  Allis  place  to  the  Deerfield  line. 

Claverack  probably  takes  its  name  from  some  fancied  re- 
semblance to  Claverack,  N.  Y.  It  is  level,  free  from  stone  and 
airly  fertile.  In  the  time  of  the  Revolutionary  war  we  had  a 
squad  of  Whately  men  located  at  Claverack,  N.  Y. 

Dead  Meadow  is  a  portion  of  land  west  of  the  road  to  South 
Deerfield  and  south  of  the  John  Waite  farm  house  on  that  road. 
Its  peculiarity  that  gives  it  the  name  is  that  it  has  no  wood 
growing  upon  it,  but  to  the  extent  of  some  acres  is  covered  with 


2^7 


a  coarse  sedsre  that  has  sometimes  been  mo^ed  for  bedding  for 


the  stables;  while  all  about  it  is  a  heavy  growth  of  wood, 
has  been  its  condition  from  the  earliest  tradition. 


This 


CHAPTER  XVI. 

PHYSICIANS    OF    WHATELY. 

As  I  look  upon  the  subject  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  a 
good  doctor  is  of  more  importance  than  a  full  fledged  minister, 
even  though  he  is  dubbed  a  Doctor  of  Divinity.  For  many 
years  it  has  seemed  that  the  man  of  pills  accomplished  more 
than  the  tinkerer  of  theology.  I  suppose  this  is  all  according  as 
we  view  these  matters.  Those  who  differ  from  me  and  still  be- 
lieve that  the  claim  they  have  always  made  that  they  have  a 
divine  call,  are  certainly  entitled  to  the  privilege  of  thinking  as 
the}-  do.  I'.ut  our  kind-hearted,  noble  physician,  who  braves 
heat  and  cold,  rain  or  snow,  day  or  night,  seemingly  only  desir- 
ous to  relieve  suflfering ;  and  perhaps  at  the  dead  of  night  com- 
pelled to  leave  his  comfortable  home  and  hasten  to  the  bedside 
of  the  suffering,  and  with  cheering  and  hopeful  words  strives  to 
allay  the  fears  of  both  patient  and  surrounding  friends.  He 
thus  strengthens  the  courage  of  the  sufferer,  and  then  by  the 
giving  of  some  simple  remedy  great  good  results.  Such  ef- 
forts tell  upo  1  us  all;  while  of  the  other  class,  I  only  wish  I 
could  say  something  of  them  of  a  similar  nature. 

Our  first  doctor  was  Perez  Chapin.  He  was  with  us  ten 
3'ears  and  left  his  mark  upon  our  3'oung  town.  He  was  con- 
stant in  his  efforts  to  help  the  cause  of  independence,  as  well  as 
to  cheer  the  hearts  of  the  despondent  or  the  sufferings  of  those 
who  were  really  suffering  from  disease.  When  he  came  to 
Whately,  in  1778,  it  was  a  dark  time  for  the  patriots,  and  his 
voice  was  often  raised  in  words  of  encouragement ;  thus  he  did 


289 

all  that  he  could  to  help  on  the  good  cause.      His  first  child  was 
born  in  Whately  in  November,  177S. 

Dr.  Benjamin  Dickinson  came  from  Sunderland  in  17S7, 
and  bought  the  Abial  Bragg  property,  the  present  Calvin  S. 
Loomis  place,  and  remained  here  until  1S04,  being  quite  promi- 
nent as  a  physician.  He  was  born  about  1740,  and  was  about 
forty-five  years  old  when  he  came  to  Whately.  He  remained 
here  about  seventeen  years,  so  was  about  sixty-five  to  sixty-seven 
years  old  when  he  removed  to  Hudson,  X.  Y.  During  his  stay 
in  town  a  Dr.  Oliver  Norton  came  in  17SS,  but  left  in  17S9.  Of 
him  I  haven't  even  a  tradition,  and  do  not  know  where  he  came 
from  or  where  he  went. 

Dr.  Francis  Harwood  came  in  1794  at  the  age  of  thirty-one 
years.  He  had  married  his  wife  in  Belchertown,  and  two  chil- 
dren were  born  before  they  came  here.  He  was  a  fine  talker, 
of  gentlemanly  appearance;  a  smart,  well-balanced  man.  He 
continued  his  practice  till  near  the  end  of  his  life,  20  May.  1835, 
aged  seventy-two  years.  He  was  a  Free  Mason.  His  oldest 
son,  Joshua  Dickinson  Harwood,  was  educated  for  the  profes- 
sion and  practised  with  his  father.  He  died  in  1820,  his  habits 
not  being  favorable  to  longevity. 

Dr.  Chester  Bardwell  came  to  Whately  from  Hatfield  in 
1S16,  and  built  his  house  on  the  corner  of  Chestnut  Plain 
street  and  West  lane,  or  Lover's  lane.  This  street  was 
laid  after  he  had  built,  a  couple  of  years  or  so.  He 
continued  to  practice  his  profession  until  his  death,  14  May, 
1864.  He  was  a  man  that  the  town  took  a  decided  interest  in, 
sending  him  three  times  to  the  House  of  Representatives,  and 
twice  the  county  made  him  their  senator.      He  was  a  noble  man. 

Dr.  Miron  Har^vood  was  a  son  of  Dr.  Francis.  After  graduat- 
ing from  his  medical  schools  he  commenced  practice  in  his  na- 
tive town,  and  at  once  secured  a  fair  practice.  His  pleasant 
address,  his  ability  as  a  surgeon,  the  tender  touch  of  his  hands 
seeming  to  have  a  soothing  effect  on  every  one  needing  surgical 
assistance,  as  well  as  his  success  as  a  physician,  made  him  ex- 
tremely popular.  Our  two  long-life  doctors,  Harwood  and  Bard- 
well, are  as  yet  honored  names  in  our  town. 

The  next  doctor  was  James  Hannum.  He  came  from 
Westfield  about  the  time  of  Dr.  Harwood's  decease  in  1877. 
He  only  stayed  a  little  over  a  year,  and  was  succeeded  by  Dr. 
James  D.  Seymour,  in  1878.  He  is  a  son  of  Dr.  Seymour  of 
Greenfield.     He  has  probably  had  a  better  preparatory  practice 


290 

than  any  of  his  predecessors,  and  aside  from  his  studies  and  tios- 
pital  practice,  has  undoubtedly  superior  natural  abilit}-  to  prac- 
tice his  honored  profession.  On  the  whole,  Whately  is  to  be 
congratulated  upon  having  had  so  many  skillful  physicians. 

BOATING   ox    THE    CONNECTICUT    RIVER. 

The  portion  of  the  boating  which  we  more  particularly 
wish  to  mention  is  in  relation  to  those  firms  who  owned  the 
boats  that  our  town  was  interested  in.  These  were  owned  by 
Stockbridge,  Culver  &  Co..  and  later  Stockbridge,  Allen  & 
Root.  Mr.  Stockbridge  was  of  Whately,  while  Allen  and  Root 
were  of  Greenfield.  They  owned  a  large  number  of  boats  of 
a  size  to  carry  about  fifty  tons.  These  were  generally  rigged 
with  a  mast  and  carried  one  sail  of  a  considerable  size,  and 
when  the  wind  was  southerly  they  came  up  the  river  at  a  ver%' 
pleasant  rate  of  speed. 

The  companies  also  owned  several  small  steamers  with  a 
power  sufficient  to  bring  the  loaded  boats  up  the  river.  These 
steamers  were  made  expressly  for  towing,  with  the  wheel  on  the 
stern.  The  Ariel  Cooley  was  a  stern  wheeler,  ninety  feet  long 
and  eighteen  feet  wide,  with  two  high-pressure  engines  of 
twenty  horse  power  each.  This  enableU  the  boats  to  make  com  - 
paratively  quick  trips.  When  other  companies'  boats  offered 
they  often  towed  them  up. 

The  work  of  boating  usually  commenced  in  the  spring  as 
:>oon  as  the  water  was  low  enough  for  the  steamers  to  pass  under 
the  bridges  between  Northampton  and  Hadley.  Sunderland  and 
Deerfield.  The  boats,  when  I  first  became  acquainted  with 
thera,  used  to  load  and  unload  at  Belden's  ferry.  About  1834  a 
dock  or  wharf  was  built  directly  east  of  David  Stockbridge's 
new  hotel ;  a  great  improvement  on  the  landing  place  at  Bel- 
den's ierry. 

My  father  was  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  stoneware 
pottery.  The  clay  came  from  New  Jersey  and  from  Hartford  by 
these  river  boats,  and  when  two  or  three  boat  loads  came  at  a 
time  he  would  have  twelve  to  fifteen  teams  at  work  drawing  it 
to  the  factory,  about  three  miles  away.  We  usually  kept  a 
yoke  of  oxen  to  help  up  the  hill,  and  a  boy  like  myself  to  drive 
them,  so  I  write  from  my  own  obsen-ation. 

Prior  to  the  use  of  the  steam  tugs  the  boatmen,  when  the 
winds  were  not  favorable,  had  to  resort  to  what  they  called  a 
"white  ash  breeze,"  meaning  white  ash   poles  about  two  inches 


2gr 

in  diameter,  nicely  turned  from  the  best  of  timber,  with  a  socket 
spike  at  the  lower  end  and  a  nice  head  on  the  upper  end  for  the 
shoulder;  these  were  from  twelve  to  twenty  feet  in  length.  On 
each  side  of  the  boat  was  what  they  called  the  "wale."  This 
was  raised  about  three  and  one-half  feet  above  the  bottom  of  the 
boat,  and  was  a  walk  some  eighteen  inches  wide;  so  on  the 
wale  of  the  boat  the  men  walked  when  poling  the  boat  up  the 
stream.     I  used  to  see  two  men  on  a  side  when  poling  the  boat. 

Thev  used  to  bring  all  the  heavv  lading  from  Hartford, 
landing  it  where  it  was  most  convenient  for  the  merchant  or 
manufacturer,  and  the  return  freights  were  made  up  of  wood, 
shingles,  staves,  wooden  ware  and  fine  lumber,  brooms  and 
other  manufactured  material,  hops,  nuts,  etc.  They  were  taken 
on  at  the  landing  places,  sometimes  a  boat  would  take  down 
hundreds  of  dozens  of  brooms  piled  on  top  of  the  other  heavy 
freight.  In  the  latter  half  of  the  eighteenth  century  there  were 
large  quantities  of  beef  in  barrels  sent  on  these  river  boats  for 
shipment  to  the  West  Indies.  This  industn'  furnished  employ- 
ment for  a  good  number  of  men,  as  the  slaughtering  and  the 
coopering  was  all  done  at  the  Straits.  Gad  Smith  was  the 
leading  spirit  in  the  beef  business. 

David  Stockbridge  had  charge  of  all  the  boating  interests 
in  the  section  above  Northampton  to  Greenfield,  or  Cheapside; 
and  I  will  close  this  condensed  account  by  giving  the 
brief  allusion  of  my  life-long  friend,  Capt.  Tim  Dewey.  He 
says:  "I  have  many  pleasant  remembrances  of  Mr.  Stock- 
bridge.  His  table  was  always  well  loaded  with  the  best  of  fare; 
and  this,  with  his  open,  pleasant  countenance  and  relish  for  .i 
good  joke,  especially  a  boatman's  joke,  was  a  strong  inducement 
to  all  of  his  men  to  reach  Stdckbridge  wharf  in  time  for  meals 
and,  peradventure,  to  spend  the  night.  He  was  very  accommo- 
dating to  all  his  customers  and  would  make  great  sacrifices  in 
order  to  take  along  their  freight  'dy  the  next  boat.'  For  this 
purpose  the  old  white  horse  and  gig  would  spin  up  and  down 
the  valley  at  a  marvelous  rate  of  speed  at  all  times  of  day  or 
night ;  and  yet  while  courteous,  he  was  dignified  and  con- 
servative, commanding  the  respect  of  all."  Mr.  Stockbridge 
had  an  interest  in  boating  and  rafting  as  early  as  1800,  and  per- 
haps earlier.  If  he  came  into  possession  of  his  father's  interest, 
and  this  seems  quite  probable,  he  may  have  been  engaged  in 
boating  even  before  his  marriage." 


292  - 

INNKEEPERS,    OR    ORDINARY    KEEPERS. 

Public  inns  for  rest  and  refreshment  are  as  old  as  civilized 
society.  Some  of  the  earliest  laws  passed  by  the  Massachusetts 
Colony  relate  to  this  subject,  and  are  here  copied:  "In  1634, 
3  Sept.  It  is  ordered  that  no  person  that  keeps  an  ordinary-  shall 
take  above  6d  a  meal  for  a  person,  and  not  above  id  for  an  ale 
quart  of  beer  out  of  meal  time,  under  the  penalty  of  los  for  every 
offence,  either  of  diet  or  beer.  Tvike\Ait>e  that  victualers,  or 
keepers  of  an  ordinary,  shall  not  suffer  any  tobacco  to  be  taken 
in  their  houses,  under  the  penalty  of  5s  for  every  offence,  to  be 
paid  by  the  victualer,  and  i2d  by  the  party  that  takes  it." 
"1635,  4  March.  It  is  ordered  that  no  person  whatsoever  shall 
keep  a  common  victualing  house,  without  license  from  the  court, 
under  the  penalty  of  20s  a  week."  "1638,  6  Sept..  The  inn- 
keepers, or  ordinary-  keepers,  shall  have  liberty  to  brew  the  beer 
which  they  sell  in  their  houses,  or  to  agree  with  the  brewer  as 
they  can." 

The  first  settlers  in  the  valley  used  great  care  in  the  selec- 
tion of  their  innkeepers.  Men  of  high  character — perhaps  the 
oldest  deacon,  and  only  old  men  were  chosen  deacons  then  — 
were  licensed  to  sell  wine  to  persons  "in  real  need."  In  March, 
167S,  Samuel  Partridge  had  liberty  to  sell  liquors  "to  the  neigh- 
bors," "for  their  helpfulness,"  first  in  Hadley,  and  after  16S5, 
in  Hatfield.  The  county  court  always  held  its  sessions  at  the 
inns;  and  it  not  only  required  good  men  to  be  licensed,  but  it 
required  them  to  keep  good  liquors.  In  1674,  Nathaniel  Ely, 
ordinary  keeper  at  Springfield,  was  fined  40s  "for  not  keeping 
beer  that  was  according  to  law,"  made  with  four  bushels  of  bar- 
ley malt  to  the  hogshead. 

The  laws  forbidding  the  sale  of  strong  waters  of  ever>'  kind 
to  the  Indians,  were  strict,  and  were  commonly  enforced  ;  though 
sometimes  the  temptation  to  exchange  six  quarts  of  rum  for  a 
good  beaver  skin,  or  one  quart  for  two  fathoms  of  wampum,  was 
more  than  a  trader  could  resist.  An  illicit  traffic  was  carried  on 
with  the  natives,  greatly  to  their  injury  and  the  injury-  of  the 
whites.  And  though  Indian  testimony  was  not  commonly 
allowed  in  court,  yet  in  this  matter,  the  General  Court  in 
1666,  ordered,  that  "If  any  Indian  do  accuse  any  person  of 
telling  or  delivering  strong  drink  unto  them,  such  Indian 
accusation  shall  be  accounted  valid  against  any  such  persons 
accused." 


293 

In  1670  a  law  was  passed  enjoining  the  selectmen  of  towns 
to  take  special  care  and  notice  of  all  and  every  person,  cr 
persons,  that  spend  their  time  and  estates  by  drinking  and 
tippling  in  taverns  and  alehouses  and  require  him  or  them  to  for- 
bear frequenting  such  houses  or  taverns;  and  if,  after  such 
warning,  any  person  be  legally  convicted  of  drunkenness  and 
misspending  precious  time  and  estate,  he  shall  forfeit  5s  for 
every  offence,  or  sit  in  the  stocks,  as  the  judges  shall  see  meet. 

"Wine  and  beer  were  the  liquors  first  imported  from  England. 
Brandy  was  distilled  from  the  wine ;  and  a  strong  liquor,  called 
usquebaugh,  was  made  from  beer.  Barbadoes  rum,  from  the 
West  Indies,  came  in  use  as  early  as  1650.  New  England  rum, 
made  from  molasses,  was  in  use  about  1700. 

TAVERNS    IN    WHATELY. 

The  first  "baiting  place"  in  town  was  "Poplar  Spring," 
situated  about  forty  rods  north  of  the  Zebina  Bartlett  place, 
on  the  Indian  trail.  Teamsters  in  going  between  Northampton 
and  Deerfield,  would  take  with  them  the  feed  for  their  cattle 
and  lunch  for  themselves,  and  stop  here  for  the  noon  rest  and 
refreshment. 

Daniel  Morton  opened  a  house  of  entertainment  for  the 
emigrants  on  their  way  to  settle  the  districts  of  Conway,  soon 
after  he  built,  in  1759,  and  kept  a  tavern  for  many  years. 

John  Lamson  is  named  as  an  innkeeper  in  1779.  His  house 
stood  a  little  north  of  where  Samuel  Lesure  now  lives.  John 
Crafts  succeeded  Mr.  Lamson,  probably  in  1788.  In  1789  he 
was  taxed  on  "faculty,"  or  income,  8d.  He  kept  accounts  with 
his  regular  customers  by  a  chalk  score;  a  long  mark  was  his 
charge  for  a  mug  of  flip,  a  short  mark  for  half  a  mug. 

Samuel  Grimes  had  an  inn  in  connection  with  his  store  as 
early  as  1798. 

Elijah  Allis  opened  a  tavern  at  the  house  opposite  Reuben 
Winchell's  brick  dwelling  house,  in  181S;  he  afterwards  kept 
tavern  on  the  corner  west  of  the  old  meeting-house. 

Gad  Smith  kept  a  house  of  entertainment,  in  connection 
with  his  store,  in  the  Straits.  He  was  in  business  as  earh-  as 
1779.  His  faculty  tax  in  17S9  was  4s.  A  few  years  later,  Joel 
Waite,  known  far  and  near  as  "Landlord  Waite,"  opened  a 
tavern  in  the  Straits,  which  was  a  noted  stopping  place  for 
stages,  when  these  public  conveyances  were  first  started.  His 
faculty  tax  in  1789  was  is  8d. 


294 

David  Stockbridge,  Jr.,  bought  the  David  Graves  place  in 
the  Straits,  and  opened  a  tavern,  perhaps  as  ear^.y  as  1803.  He 
continued  in  the  business  here  till  1833,  when  he  opened  a  public 
house  at  his  new  stand,  on  the  river  road. 

As  earh'  as  1794  Joshua  Belden  opened  a  tavern  at  his 
dwelling  house,  which  was  continued  by  his  sons  for  several 
years. 

In  the  west  part  ot  the  town.  Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell  kept  a 
tavern  at  his  house  on  the  Poplar  hill  road.  The  records  show 
that  he  was  in  the  business  from  17S3  to  1799. 

Charles  Dickinson  built  and  occupied  the  Oliver  Graves 
place,  in  Christian  lane,  as  a  tavern  from  iSoj  to  1S03. 

Deacon  Simeon  Waite  built  the  house  where  Calvin  S. 
Loomis  now  lives  before  or  in  1764.  This  he  opened  as  a  hotel 
and  sold  spirituous  liquors,  like  Samuel  Partridge,  to  the  neigh- 
bors "For  their  helpfulness"  I  suppose;  by  the  mug  or  half 
mug,  or  rum  by  the  quart  or  gallon.  He  and  his  son  kept  some 
groceries  up  to  about  1785  or  thereabouts. 

As  Mr.  Temple  gave  the  list  down  to  182 1  we  will  continue 
it  to  the  present  time  : 

Elijah  Allis,  1S21  to  1S30; 

Levi  Bush,  Jr.,  1S30  until  1841  ; 

Samuel  Lesure,  about  two  years  ; 

Jehiel  Barron,  who  died  in  1846  ; 

Rufus  Mosher,  two  or  three  years  ; 

A  Mr.  Philips,  one  year ; 

Rufus  Smith,  perhaps  one  year; 

Loren  Hayden,  came  in  the  spring  of  1851;  removed  to 
South  Deerfield  1856  ; 

Darius  Stone,  probably  followed  Hayden  for  two  years  ; 

Ralph  Childs,  I  do  not  know  how  long,  died  12  Dec.,. 1867  ; 

William  Baker,  for  several  years  ; 

John  C.  Faulkner,  two  years  ; 

E.  F.  Orcutt,  several  years; 

Martin  Aldrich  ; 

Michael  Morrisey  ; 

Edward  Lyons  ; 

Joshua  F.  King,  a  couple  of  years  : 

Joseph  LaChapelle  ; 

Patrick  Morrise}',  Jr.,  1898  to  the  present  time. 
This  is  as  near  as  I  can  recall  the  various  landlords. 


295 

The  second  hotel  that  was  opened  by  Capt.  Luke  Wells  at 
the  residence  built  by  his  father.  Rev.  Rufus  Wells,  about  1830 
to  1832.  Capt.  Wells  was  the  first  landlord,  but  he  built  over 
the  ell  part,  adding  several  sleeping  apartments  and  a  large  hall 
well  adapted  to  the  wants  of  the  portion  of  our  communit}-  that 
didn't  think  it  wicked  to  dance,  and  rented  the  hotel  to  Royal 
J.  Bardwell,  and  he  associated  with  him  Lloyd  Look  and  they 
kept  the  hotel  for  some  years.  They  were  followed  by  Silas 
Rice. 

In  the  meantime  the  upper  hotel  had  passed  into  other  hands 
and  the  sign  "Temperance  House,"  that  had  been  used  to  de- 
note the  principles  of  its  occupants,  was  hauled  down  and  liquors 
of  all  kinds  were  sold,  and  the  lower  house  ceased  to  be  a  hotel. 

Now  "The  Old  Homestead,"  a  new  hotel,  has  been  opened 
this  present  year,  undertaking  to  cater  to  the  wants  of  out-of- 
town  parties  and  city  company.  It  is  a  nice,  clean  place,  free 
from  the  crowd  that  too  often  hangs  about  a  hotel.  Mr.  Fox 
fully  understands  its  needs,  and  any  party  favoring  him  with  a 
call  will  be  treated  in  a  courteous  and  gentlemanly  manner  by 
mine  host  and  his  assistants. 

UMBER    AND    SIEXNA. 

The  following  description  of  the  locality  and  character  of 
this  ocherous  ore  of  iron,  is  taken  mainly  from  a  statement  of 
Prof.  C.  U.  Shepard.  '"These  valuable  pigments  form  a  thin 
stratum,  or  bed,  near  the  residence  of  Deacon  Elihu  Belden  and 
cover  about  half  an  acre  of  ground.  The  deposit  presents  itself 
immediately  below  the  turf,  forming  a  somewhat  irregular  stra- 
tum, of  from  thirty  inches  to  seven  feet  in  thickness.  The 
chemical  character  of  the  deposit,  taken  in  connection  with  its 
geological  position,  leads  me  to  believe  that  it  originated  in  the 
out-flow  at  this  place  of  a  strong  chalybeate,  or  iron  spring.  It 
contains  from  fifty  to  seventy  per  cent  of  iron.  The  natural 
colors  of  the  unburnt  material  vary  from  the  most  intense  ochre- 
yellow,  through  the  paler  shades  of  the  same,  into  many  varie- 
ties of  red  and  clove-brown,  including  the  much  prized  sienna- 
brown.  Each  of  these  colors  may  be  obtained  apart  at  the  local- 
ity, by  a  careful  working  of  the  bed,  while  by  blending  them  in 
different  proportions,  their  number  may  be  greatly  augmented. 
This  bed  was  discovered  by  accident  upwards  of  fifty  years  ago, 
and  was  then  prepared  in  a  rude  way  and  used  to  some  extent 
for  staining  floors  and  plastered   walls.     It   was   rediscovered, 


296 

also  by  accident,  in  1S64;  and  appears  to  need  only  skillful 
manipulation  to  become  a  valuable  pigment  for  fresco  painting 
and  all  the  uses  of  the  best  Italian  sienna." 

GALENA.     . 

A  vein  of  sulphuret  of  lead,  which  promises  to  be  of  some 
commercial  value,  exists  in  the  west  part  of  the  town.  Strictly 
speaking,  there  appears  to  be  three  distinct  veins  of  this  metal, 
but  only  two  of  them  have  been  explored  to  any  extent.  One 
is  found  on  the  westerly  margin  of  Poplar  hill  and  extends  into 
Conway  ;  the  other  is  on  the  easterly  side  of  Hog  mountain,  and 
may  be  traced  for  three-fourths  of  a  mile.  A  cross  vein  has 
been  discovered  on  land  of  Edwin  Bard  well.  The  usual  width 
of  the  vein  is  from  six  to  eight  feet,  traversing  the  granite  for- 
mation, and  is  found  disseminated  in  masses  in  quartz.  In  the 
southern  part  it  contains  oxide  of  manganese  along  with  the 
galena. 

In  1S65,  30,000  pairs  men's  wool  hose  were  manufactured, 
of  the  value  of  $14,000.  In  1837,  the  value  of  the  palm  leaf  hats 
made  was  ^7,500. 

POSTMASTERS    IX    WHATELY. 

A  postoffice  was  established  in  Whately  in  1S14,  and  Reuben 
Winchell  was  the  first  postmaster.  He  kept  the  office  in  his 
store.  He  had  built  the  house  where  Peter  Donovan  now  lives, 
and  used  the  southeast  room  as  a  store  and  postoffice.  The 
next  postmaster  was  Elijah  Allis  ;  at  first  the  office  was  kept  in 
the  store  in  the  house  now  owned  by  William  Cahill.  In  1820 
Mr.  Allis  built  the  Whately  hotel,  the  postoffice  being  then 
kept  in  the  barroom  or  office. 

In  1830  Levi  Bush  was  appointed  postmaster,  and  in  1841 
he  was  succeded  b}'  Samuel  Lesure  who  occupied  the  office  from 
that  year,  with  the  exception  of  four  years  that  Dennis  Dickin- 
son held  the  office,  until  his  advanced  age  compelled  his  resig- 
nation, after  which  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Samuel  B.  White,  was 
appointed.  She  attended  to  the  principal  office  work,  while  Mr. 
Lesure  continued  to  pass  out  the  mail,  until  his  memory  of  faces 
and  names  seemed  to  fade  away.  Even,'one  respected  and 
honored  him  to  the  last.  Mrs.  White  held  the  office  nearly 
three  years,  and  she  was  succeeded  by  Micajah  Howes  in  1892. 
The  office  is  now  at  the  store  of  Mr.  Howes  and  his  son,  Ryland 
C.  Howes  ;  an  arrangement  that  is  perfectly  satisfactory  to  our 
people. 


297 

While  at  East  Whately  there  has  been  quite  a  number  hold- 
ing the  position  of  postmaster,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  appended 
list,  some  of  whom  were  the  nominal  postmasters,  while  an 
assistant  transacted  the  business.  The  first  was  David  Stock- 
bridge,  then  Josiah  Allis,  Miles  B.  Morton,  Caleb  L.  Thayer, 
Horace  H.  Hastings,  Elihu  Belden,  L.  L.  Eaton,  Eugene  E. 
Woods,  John  H.  Pease,  Henn,'  C.  Ashcraft  and  now  James  A. 
Woods. 

Since  Miles  B.  Morton  the  ofhce  has  been  kept  by  the  party 
who  occupied  the  store  near  the  railroad  station,  and  as  these 
have  sold  out  they  have  recommended  their  successors  without 
regard  to  their  partizan  affiliations. 

I  want  to  add  a  few  words  relative  to  postage  rates  and  the 
mail  facilities  of  away  back  in  my  boyhood  days,  and  back  of 
that  even.  Prior  to  the  establishment  of  a  postoffice  in  Whately 
letters  addressed  to  a  party  living  in  Whately,  would  be  left  at 
Northampton  or  Hatfield,  and  would  be  advertised  in  the  Hamp- 
shire Gazette,  and  the  owner  would  send  for  it  and  pay  the  post- 
age, unless  it  was  prepaid,  which  was  not  often  done. 

The  rates  charged,  as  I  recall  them,  for  a  letter  sent  to  a 
distance  not  exceeding  thirty  miles  was  six  cents  ;  not  exceed- 
ing eighty  miles,  ten  cents;  above  eighty  and  not  exceeding  one 
hundred  and  fifty  miles,  twelve  and  one-half  cents  ;  then  from 
above  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  and  less  than  four  hundred 
miles,  eighteen  and  three-fourths  cents  ;  and  all  above  four  hun- 
dred miles,  twenty-five  cents  in  our  own  country.  This  is  in 
accord  with  my  recollection,  and  as  far  as  I  recollect  the  bulk 
of  the  postage  was  paid  by  the  recipient.  Really  there  were 
but  few  letters  passed  between  relatives  and  friends  unless  some- 
one was  coming  to  our  town  or  going  from  there  to  the  place  of 
residence  of  a  relative,  and  many  letters  would  be  sent  in  that 
way,  with  long  drawn  out  details  of  the  local  news. 

Newspapers  were  small,  with  little  or  no  local  news,  and  it 
was  seldom  that  one  was  found  in  the  mail  bags.  The  mail,  a 
weekly  affair,  went  from  Buckland  to  Northampton  one  day  and 
back  the  next,  and  it  was  a  large  mail  for  our  town  when  over 
ten  or  twelve  letters  were  received  for  the  week,  and  this  was 
the  way  things  went  until  about  1831. 

About  1S38  a  line  of  stages,  known  as  the  telegraph  line, 
carrying  the  daily  mail  from  Springfield  to  Haverhill,  N.  H., 
was  started.  By  the  completion  of  the  Great  swamp  road  to 
South  Deerfield  in   1836,  the  grading  of  the  hills  through  the 


298 

center  of  the  town  and  the  activity  of  such  men  as  Col.  R.  B. 
Howard,  Drs.  Bardwelland  Howard,  Levi  Bush,  Thomas  Crafts, 
Leander  Clark  and  others  the  line  was  run  through  the  center 
of  the  town,  rela\'s  of  horses  for  ever\'  ten  miles  enabling  them 
to  make  ten  miles  an  hour. 

Then  about  1S3S  we  had  a  daily  mail,  and  the  greater  part 
of  the  time  since  the  building  of  the  Connecticut  River  railroad 
we  have  had  two  mails  a  day.  In  the  meantime  prepayment  of 
all  postal  matter  is  incumbent  upon  the  sender.  The  wonderful 
increase  in  mail  facilities  and  the  reduction  of  the  postal  rates  to 
two  cents  has  a  wonderful  effect  upon  our  community  and  it  is 
now  a  necessity,  as  is  the  daily  newspaper.  All  these  things 
tend  to  broaden  the  views  of  men,  make  them  social  and 
humane  ;  they  know  what  is  occurring  the  wide  world  over. 
The  influence  educationally  and  the  civilizing  effects  upon  our 
people  is  above  my  ability  to  estimate. 

THE    FIRST   TEMPERANCE   SOCIETY    IN    WHATELY. 

In  1 82 8  an  auxiliary'  temperance  society  was  formed  on  the 
basis  or  plan  of  the  Hampshire  County  Temperance  Societ3\ 
They  adopted  the  rules  and  articles  of  the  county  society,  the 
third  article  being,  "That  the  members  of  this  association  shall 
abstain  from  the  use  of  ardent  spirits  except  when  rendered  nec- 
essary as  a  medicine  ;  and  they  shall  not  allow  the  use  of  them 
in  their  families,  nor  provide  them  for  the  entertainment  of  our 
friends  or  for  persons  in  our  employment,  and  they  shall  use  all 
suitable  means  to  discountenance  the  use  of  them  in  the  com- 
munity," "The  stated  meetings  shall  be  held  annually  the  last 
Tuesda}'  of  September,  and  other  meetings  as  may  be  called  by 
the  executive  committee."  This  is  but  an  abstract  of  the  really 
important  portion  of  the  pledge. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  the  male  members  whose 
names  are  attached  to  it : 

Rev.  Lemuel  P.  Bates,  Jeremiah  Belden, 

Stephen  Clark,  Moses  H.  Leonard, 

Jeremiah  Waite,  Samuel  Lesure, 

Levi  Bush,  Jr.,  David  Morton, 

David  Saunders,  Horace  Frary, 

David  Wells,  Jr.,  Barnabas  Alden, 

Amasa  Lamson,  Simeon  Reed, 

Justus  White,  William  Graves, 

Elijah  L    Leonard,  Osee  Munson, 


299 

Reuben  Belden,  Roswell  Train, 

Benjamin  Cooley.  Chester  Bardwell,  2d, 

Francis  Belden, 

In  all  twenty-four  men,  and  they  are  all  dead.  The  ladies 
numbered  ninety,  all  of  whom  are  dead. 

The  first  temperance  society  was  simply  an  individual 
pledge  to  abstain  trom  the  use  of  intoxicating  drinks  as  a  bever- 
age and  only  to  be  used  for  medicinal  purposes.  Soon  after  the 
attempt  was  made  to  prevent  its  purchase  by  their  neighbors 
unless  at  wholesale  ;  first  the  quantity  must  be  five  gallons,  then 
fifteen  gallons,  and  later  they  tried  to  prohibit  altogether  its  sale 
and  of  course  its  use.  These  different  enactments  caused  much 
discussion  and  not  a  little  bad  blood. 

About  1S41  the  Washingtonian  movement  was  commenced, 
and  reached  high-water  mark  in  the  course  of  the  next  two 
years,  and  probably  three-fourths  of  the  people  of  Whately 
entered  into  the  movement  to  try  moral  arguments  and  appeals 
to  young  and  old  to  refrain  from  the  use  of  spirits;  and  the  town 
was  alive  to  respond  to  these  sentiments.  We  were  taught  to 
help  uplift  the  victims  of  the  "rum  habit"  and  to  treat  them  as 
brothers.  In  a  few  years  this  boom  died  away,  and  they  then 
fell  back  to  the  coercive  principle  again,  and  the  old  war  of 
words  was  again  inaugurated.  A  few  joined  the  Sons  of  Tem- 
perance, some  the  Good  Templars,  but  to  join  either  they  had 
to  go  to  South  Deerfield. 

Why  the  leaders  did  not  do  something  to  promote  the  cause 
of  temperance  in  our  midst  is  unaccountable.  They  seemed  to 
think  that  the  church  was  all  sufficient  as  an  instrument  to  pro- 
mote good  social  improvement  and  temperate  living.  Alas,  for 
their  mistake !  As  a  result  we  see  the  town  uniformly  voting 
"Yes"  on  the  question  of  license.  Most  people  learn  by  expe- 
rience that  it  is  far  better  to  rule  by  love  than  fear ;  that  concili- 
aton,'  action  often  captures  the  obdurate  when  coercive  measures 
fail. 

It  seems  strange  that  in  so  beautiful  and  healthful  a  town 
as  my  own  native  town,  that  any  other  than  a  temperate  and 
moral  community  could  be  found  within  its  borders;  but  I  will 
not  fill  any  space  by  my  moralizing. 

It  seems  that  now  there  are  no  organizations,  at  least  so  far 
as  I  know,  outside  of  the  Women's  Christian  Temperance  asso- 
ciation.    This  is  composed  of  many  of  the  best  and  most  efficient 


300 

workers  in  our  town,  fully  alive  and  energetically  pursuing  their 
work  which  I  certainly  hope  will  accomplish  much  good. 

In  regard  to  the  men  who  joined  the  first  society  we  will 
say  that  the  bulk  of  them  remained  sturdy  advocates  of  temper- 
ance during  their  lives.  One  was  a  hard  arinker  and  died  a  sot ; 
two  others  keot  a  hotel  and  sold  alcoholic  drinks  to  all  who 
wished,  but  on  the  whole  they  turned  out  pretty  well. 

SOCIETY   FOR    THE    AMELIORATION    OF    THE    CONDITION 

OF   THE    JEWS. 

This  was  a  name  given  to  a  society  formed  about  1S23,  the 
object  seemed  to  be  for  each  person  who  joined  the  association  to 
pa\-  into  the  local  treasury  one  cent  per  week,  or  fifty-two  cents 
per  annum,  and  this  was  paid  over  to  the  county  treasurer  and 
so  on  to  the  general  treasurer  of  the  state,  but  what  disposition 
was  then  made  of  the  funds  I  do  not  know.  Neither  do  I  know 
how  many  years  this  societ}'  existed. 

It  seems  that  Rev.  Lemuel  P.  Bates  was  at  the  head  of  this 
organization,  and  forty-seven  of  his  church  members  were  on 
the  roll  for  fifty-two  cents  each,  only  one  giving  anj'  more;  Jo- 
seph Sanderson  doubled  that  sum.  I  have  a  full  list  of  the 
names  but  do  not  care  to  copy  them,  as  payments^for  missionary 
purposes  are  not  ven>-  popular  even  to  this  day. 

There  is  an  abundance  of  opportunities  for  doing  good 
right  in  our  midst  without  sending  some  good,  strong  man  that 
would  make  a  fair  farmer  or  mechanic  to  some  foreign  land  to  be 
supported  in  idleness  because  he  hat^  been  to  college  where  he 
added  little  but  a  smattering  of  Greek,  Latin,  or  some  other 
dead  language  to  his  stock  of  knowledge.  Then  they  study 
theolog}',  and  it  seems  that  the  principal  thing  they  learn  is  to 
avoid  the  penalty  placed  on  man,  that  by  the  sweat  of  his  brow 
he  should  earn  his  bread.  There  are  still  in  most  of  our  towns 
a  few  who  bestow  time  and  money  for  the  support  of  these  drones 
in  society. 

MILITIA. 

After  the  close  of  the  war  with  Great  Britain  in  1814,  all 
males  between  the  ages  of  eighteen  and  forty-five  years  had  to 
do  duty  either  in  a  uniformed  independent  or  those  enrolled  men 
in  what  we  used  to  call  such  ununiformed  companies  the 
"Floodwood  militia."  Every  male  citizen  between  the  ages  of 
eighteen  and  forty-five  unless  a  cripple  physically  or  mentally, 
or  minister  of  the  gospel,  or  a  physician  was  compelled  to  do' 


-J 

53 
03 

r> 
> 

75 


■X. 

2i 

O 

3 


^6t 

military  duty.  That  is  was  required  when  duly  warned  to  meet 
at  the  time  and  place  specified,  with  all  the  necessary  equip- 
ments; that  is  a  gun,  bayonet,  cartridge  box,  belt,  two  flints, 
priming  wire  and  brush.  If  deficient  in  any  of  these  things  he 
was  liable  to  a  fine  which  was  at  once  assessed  upon  him.  They 
usually  met  for  the  May  training  at  i  o'clock,  p.  m.,  and  their 
equipments  examined,  and  then  they  were  drilled  in  marching 
by  company  and  platoon.  The  music  was  a  fife,  a  snare  drum 
and  base  drum.  Some  kept  fair  time  with  the  music,  and  if 
they  could  all  have  been  in  one  section  they  would  have  ap- 
peared pretty  well.  '  But  alas,  such  a  mess  as  they  made  of  it! 
Then  they  always  met  for  a  day  just  before  the  general  muster; 
this  was  usually  held  at  Northampton  and  was  a  great  occasion. 
This  continued  up  to  1835,  the  year  that  I  was  old  enough 
to  be  a  soldier.  At  that  time  the  whole  thing  was  so  unpopular 
that  no  one  could  be  found  to  serve  as  an  officer.  James  S. 
Whitney  then  of  South  Deerfield,  I  think  was  colonel  of  the  reg- 
iment, and  he  appointed  a  day  for  meeting  for  the  election  of 
oflBcers — captain,  lieutenant  and  ensign — and  we  were  duly 
warned  to  appear  and  fill  the  vacancies ;  and  Col.  Whitney  pre- 
sided. The  company  met  at  the  hotel  of  Capt.  Luke  Wells. 
We  all  knew  Gen.  Whitney,  and  when  the  company  was  formed 
in  line,  the  general  gave  us  his  views  in  pretty  plain  English  and 
the  necessity  of  a  proper  effort  to  elect  good  efficient  men  that 
would  reflect  honor  upon  our  company  as  well  as  the  town; 
that  he  should  not  allow  any  acts  of  insubordination,  etc.,  etc. 
Then  the  ballots  were  collected  and  a  captain  was  elected,  but 
he  as  promptly  declined  the  honor ;  then  the  votes  were  again 
cast  and  another  one  was  chosen,  and  he  also  declined  to  serve, 
and  so  one  after  another  was  chosen,  but  no  one  was  elected  ex- 
cept those  who  it  was  well  understood  would  not  ser\'e ;  and  at 
last  the  presiding  ofiicer  was  convinced  that  it  was  useless  to 
continue  his  efforts  any  longer  and  he,  after  a  few  deprecatory 
remarks,  gave  the  order,  "Right  about  face,"  and  then  "For- 
VN'ard,  march."  We  were  on  the  west  side  of  the  main  street 
which  is  ten  rods  wide,  and  near  the  east  side  of  the  street 
Capt.  Wells  had  a  long  pile  of  manure  some  four  or  five  rods 
long  and  probably  three  and  one-half  or  four  feet  high,  and  when 
we  reached  that  dizzy  height  the  word  "Halt"  came,  and  then 
"You  are  dismissed."  Now  what  a  shout  was  heard,  and  for  a 
time  there  was  some  prettv  loud  talk  between  the  officer  and  the 
men. 


302 

That  was  the  last  of  the  training  in  Whately  until  after  the 
close  of  the  war,  when  those  liable  for  duty  in  Williamsburg 
and  Whately  were  ordered  to  meet  and  organize  by  choosing 
the  needed  ofhcers.  They  met  at  Kaydenville  and  elected  a  full 
complement  of  officers.  Charles  R.  Crafts,  a  veteran  soldier, 
was  elected  captain  and  properly  commissioned  They  met  a 
few  times,  but  the  whole  thing  fell  through,  the  act  being  re- 
pealed, and  since  then  militarism  has  been  at  a  low  ebb. 

POLITICAL    PARTIES. 

Party  spirit  has  alwa3's  run  pretty  high,  each  partisan  seem- 
ing to  think,  at  any  rate  act,  as  though  the  welfare  of  the 
country  hinged  upon  his  individual  action,  and  each  party  could 
only  be  satisfied  as  they  succeeded  in  downing  the  other  fellows, 
but  much  of  the  time  it  was  "nip  and  tuck,"  sometimes  one, 
then  the  other;  and  so,  of  course,  the  country  was  on  the  high 
road  to  success,  or  otherways  ruin  was  imminent. 

The  ordinary  voter  neither  knew  nor  cared  for  anj'  of  the 
principles  underlying  our  country's  needs.  They  were  simply 
true-blue  Democrats  or  iron-clad  Whigs.  Both  parties  were 
opposed  to  the  so-called  Abolitionists,  and  the  leac^ers  did  not 
mean  to  allow  such  disturbers  of  the  peace  as  Parker  Pillsbury, 
or  any  of  that  kind  of  lecturers  to  even  speak  in  town,  and  they 
mobbed  Mr.  Pillsbury,  using  such  convincing  arguments  as  eggs 
that  had  been  kept  too  long  for  other  uses,  and  he  had  to  make 
his  escape  as  best  he  could  to  save  life  and  limb.  Persecution 
of  this  sort  only  fed  the  fires  of  the  anti-slaver}'  party.  I  could 
name  the  parties  who  thus  determined  to  squelch  free  discus- 
sion, but  I  think  it  hardly  necessary. 

The  division  of  the  parties  usually  carried  the  greater  bulk 
of  the  family  of  that  name,  as  the  Allis  families  were  Democrats 
so  were  the  Crafts  and  Dickinson  families,  and  the  Whites  up 
to  1840.  The  Sandersons,  descendants  from  Isaac,  were  all 
Democrats,  while  descendants  of  Deacon  Thomas  were  Federal- 
ists, then  Whigs  ;  the  Frary  families  always  affiliated  with  the 
Feds  and  then  the  Whigs  ;  the  Beldens  about  evenly  divided  ; 
the  Harwoods,  Feds  then  Whigs  ;  the  Browns  were  divided,  as 
were  the  Bardwells  and  Graves;  and  so  they  run,  and  so  they 
fought  as  bittej  ly  as  intense  politicians  could,  even  as  to  who 
should  fill  a  town  office. 

When  the  Abolitionists  had  secured  some  sixteen  voters, 
all  men  of  fine  abilities  who  professed  to  be  governed  by  high 


303 

moral  influence  and  principles,  they  would  unite  with  the  Dem- 
ocrats, and  thus  be  able  to  outnumber  tbe  Whigs  by  about  two 
v^otes. 

In  1842  Thomas  Xash,  an  intelligent  anti-slaver\'  man,  was 
run  by  the  Democrats  and  Abolitionists  and  Deacon  Justus 
White,  who  had  gone  over  in  the  Hard  Cider  campaign  from 
the  Democrats  to  the  Whigs,  was  his  opponent,  and  even.'one 
who  could  vote  was  on  hand.  The  meeting  was  held  at  the  old 
meeting-house  I  think,  perhaps  at  the  public  house  of  Capt. 
Luke  Wells,  but  most  probably  at  the  meeting-house.  The 
motion  was  made  and  put  "That  we  do  not  send  a  representa- 
tive this  year,"  and  was  declared  carried.  The  vote  being 
doubted  the  house  was  polled,  and  the  vote  not  to  send  was  neg- 
atived by  two  or  three  majority  ;  then  the  voting  commenced  in 
earnest. 

Each  party  then  had  several  of  their  leading  men  to  chal- 
lenge and  also  to  insist  upon  the  right  of  the  challenged  to  exer- 
cise the  right  of  franchise,  and  such  displays  of  oratory  and  of 
ability  to  handle  legal  questions,  and  such  pungent  thrusts  at 
each  other  of  opposing  counsel  was  seldom  excelled  by  the  bar 
of  legal  antagonists.  Well  tho  result  was  that  Mr.  Xash  was 
elected,  but  his  seat  was  contested  by  Deacon  White,  and  the 
facts  in  the  "case  were  obtained  by  a  week's  hearing  at  Whatels-. 
the  Whigs  employing  Hon.  George  T.  Davis  to  conduct  their 
case,  and  a  "young  Methodist  minister  was  engaged  by  Mr.  Xash, 
and  tbe  people  turned  out  en  masse  to  attend  the  trial.  Mr. 
Nash  retained  his  seat. 

Now  what  a  change  has  come  over  the  political  world. 
There  are  no  such  hidebound  partisans  to  the  right  of  one  man 
to  hold  in  bondage  his  fellow  man  whether  he  has  a  black  skin 
or  not.     Everyone  now  is  an  anti-slavery  man. 

Going  back  further  we  had  questions  raised  that  had  their 
day  and  were  then  dropped  out.  Among  those  that  I  recall  dis- 
tinctly was  the  anti-masonic  raid,  that  was  raised  by  the  alleged 
abduction  of  Mr.  Morgan.  The  excitement  was  intense,  and  I 
well  recall  the  abusive  language  used  against  Masonry  and 
against  Masons.  The  threat  was  that  if  they  didn't  cease  hold- 
ing their  accursed  conclaves  the  people  would  arise  in  their 
might,  and  if  needful  armed  and  equipped,  and  end  their  plot- 
ting to  overthrow  the  liberties  of  the  people. 

There  were  a  number  of  Masons  among  our  residents,  who 
by  their  quiet  and  gentlemanly  course,  rather  had  a  dampening 


304 

effect  upon  their  hot-headed  opponents,  and  here  and  there  was 
found  a  crrnmon  sense  man  who  tried  to  pour  oil  on  the  troubled 
watc-rs.  These  won  the  sobriquet  of  "Jack  Masons,"  and  were 
roundly  al)used  by  the  anti-masons. 

Rev.  John  R.  GoDdnough,  pastor  of  the  Baptist  church  at  the 
west  part  of  Whately ,  was  told  by  his  local  associates  of  ministers 
that  he  must  renounce  his  Masonry  or  stop  preaching  in  their  fel- 
lowship. This  he  utterly  declined  to  do  and  said  to  them  :  "Gen- 
tlemen. I  have  hitherto  acted  independently,  and  with  the  ap- 
pro\-al  of  my  conscience,  and  have  never  intentionally  injured 
anv  one.  You  can  stop  me  from  preaching  if  you  will,  but  I 
shall  never  give  up  my  membership  in  Masonry."  His  parish 
was  against  him,  and  he  sought  other  business.  From  that 
time  began  the  downfall  of  that  church.  It  lingered  for  a  time, 
but  the  withdrawal  of  such  men  as  Jonathan  Smith,  Chester 
Brown,  Deacon  James  Smith  and  others  sealed  its  destiny. 

The  election  of  Gen.  Jackson  as  president,  and  his  action 
in  removing  the  deposits  from  the  United  States  bank,  and  the 
fight  for  that  moneyed  institution  was  the  commencement  of  a 
series  of  events  that  have,  as  I  think,  led  up  to  the  division  of 
the  two  great  parties  on  the  questions  of  finance  and  the  estab- 
lishing of  monopolies  and  great  trusts.  Against  these  are 
arrayed  the  old  Democratic  party,  and  so  the  fight  goes  on. 

I  think  that  I  will  close  this  political  history  by  quoting 
verbatim  one  of  the  songs  the  Abolitionists  used  to  sing  at  their 
gatherings,  with  a  gusto  that  was  very  charming.  It  was  fur- 
nished me  by  Rev.  Mr.  Pillsbury.  It  is  a  parody  on  an  old- 
time  hj'mn  as  it  used  to  be  sung  by  a  full-voiced  choir  at  negro 
meetings,  as  well  as  at  gatherings  at  the  north : 


Come  saints  and  sinners  hear  me  tell 

How  pious  priests  whip  Jack  and  Nell, 

And  women  buy  and  children  sell, 

Then  preach  all  sinners  down  to  hell, 
And  sing  of  heavenly  union. 

They'll  talk  of  Heaven  and  Christ's  rewards, 
And  bind  his  image  with  a  cord, 

And  scold  and  swing  the  lash  abhorred, 
And  sell  their  brother  in  the  Lord 
To  hand-guffed  heavenly  union, 


305 


They'll  church  you  if  you  sip  a  dram, 
And  damn  you  if  you  steal  a  lamb, 

Yet  rob  old  Tony,  Doll  and  Sam 

Of  human  rights,  and  bread  and  ham; 
Kidnappers'  heavenly  union. 

They'll  raise  tobacco,  corn  and  rye, 

And  drive  and  thieve  and  cheat  and  lie, 

And  lay  up  treasures  in  the  sky 

By  making  whip  and  cowskin  fly, 

In  hope  of  heavenly  union. 

They'll  crack  old  Sambo  on  the  skull, 

And  preach  and  roar  like  Bashan's  bull 

Or  braying  ass  of  mischief  full ; 

Then  seize  old  Jacob  by  the  wool 
And  pull  for  heavenly  union. 


CHAPTER  XVII. 

COPY    OF    VALUATION    BOOK    FOR    THE    YEAR    181O, 
GIVING    ALL    THE    NAMES    TAXED. 


. 

Buihl- 

Mild 

Acres 

im. 

Hor- 

Ox- 

Reiluoefl 

P( 

)ns 

iii5?s 

Til'«e 

Piist'fe  pt'd 

ses 

en 

Cows 

V.'iluatioii 

Atkins,  Solomon, 

n 

2)4 

->4 

-K 

I 

2 

$   60.34 

Atkins.  Enoch, 

I 

'A 

iK 

ID 

3 

I 

2 

$20.38 

Allis,  Daniel, 

I 

2 

8 

29 

35 

2 

5 

53-92 

Allis.  Russell, 

I 

2 

6 

5 

20 

I 

2 

I 

33-04 

Allis,   Elijah, 

I 

2 

21 

48 

51 

2 

2 

4 

70.98 

Allis,  Daniel,  Jr., 

I  and  money 

at  interest 

,  I 

13.20 

Bard  well,  Lt.  Noah 

■'.  3  . 

2 

25 

60 

T  I  I 

3 

8 

ID 

204.09 

Bard  well.  Cotton, 

)  with  his  father. 

Bardwell,   Charles, 

2 

3 

4 

30 

2 

I 

3 

63.67 

Bardwell,  Chester, 

I 

2 

9 

23 

2 

2 

I 

2 

42.41 

Bardwell,  Orange, 

I 

2 

12 

5 

2 

2 

2 

37-78 

Bardwell,  Asa, 

I 

2 

36 

6 

41 

2 

4 

59-77 

Belden.  Jeremiah, 

I 

Belden,  Samuel, 

I 

I 

.90 

Belden,  Joshua,     | 

/-> 

Belden.  Elijah,      ) 

I 

2 

12 

3 

^:!>2> 

2 

3 

30.80 

Belden,  Reuben.    1 

2 

4 

63 

28 

201 

■\ 

4 

180.92 

Belden,  Aaron,      j 

\^ 

\j 

F^ 

y 

Belden,  Francis, 

I 

2 

32 

16 

57 

I 

2 

49-56 

Belden,  Augustus, 

2 

15 

30 

I 

Belden,  Elisha. 

r 

I 

10 

II 

20 

I 

I 

20.48 

Belden,  Dickinson, 

I 

I 

ID 

II 

20 

I 

I 

19-85 

307 


Poi: 
Belden,  Seth. 
Belden,  Chester, 
Bacon,  Philo, 
Bartlett,  Zebina, 
Barnard,  Ebenezer  ] 
Barn'd,  E'b'z'r,  Jr.   - 
Barnard,  William,  ) 

Cooley,  Lemuel, 
Cooley,  Benjamin, 
Coleman,  Nathan'l, 
Crafts,  John, 
Crafts,  Seth, 

Crafts,  Graves,  ] 
Crafts,  Israel,     j 

Crafts,  Benoni,      ^ 
Crafts.  Reuben, 
Crafts,  Cotton. 
Crafts,  Asa, 
Crafts,  Joel  K., 
Crafts,  Thomas, 
Crafts,  Rufus, 
Crafts,  Elijah, 
Clark,  Elisha, 
Clark,  Reuben, 
Cutter,  James, 
Dicki'son,  Alph'us, 
D'k'son.Wd.Mary, 
Dickinson,  Oliver, 
Dickinson,  Charles, 
Dickinson,  Moses, 
Dickinson,  Jehu, 
Dick'son,  Euiotus, 
Dick'son,  Gideon, 
Dickinson,  Dexter, 
Dickinson,  Asa, 
Dickinson,  Daniel, 
Dick'son,  Gid'n,  Jr., 
Frary,  Thomas, 
Frary,  Orange, 
Frar>',  Capt.  Eleazer 
Frary,  Capt.  Seth, 


Mowin, 
Builti-      ;uiil 

d    inf?d       Til'^e 

Acres 
Piist're 

Un. 
imp 
pi-M 

Hor. 

ses 

ell 

Cows 

Rei1ucp<l 
Viiluiicioii 

2 

6' 

24 

I 

2 

$20.44 

2 

7 

10 

18 

2 

18. iS 

2 

I 

4 

I 

9.90 

4 

43 

40 

66 

3 

2 

6 

123.44 

2 

10 

-^ 
^ 

15 

1 

2 

23-41 

2 

24 

30 

1 12 

2 

2 

6 

I0S.07 

2 

f3 

22 

36 

I 

2 

-^ 

0 

37.26 

■^ 
3 

2 
3/i 

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r  I 

29 

26 
16 

2 

2 

3 

122.34 

^ 

23 

18 

32 

I 

5 

5 

140.43 

I 

I 

9 

I 

12 

6 

14 

2 

I 

3I-3S 

2. ^^2 

S 

8 

9 

13.26 

interest 

mone> 

, 

13-50 

interest 

mone\ 

, 

18.00 

■^ 

J 

32 

18 

ID 

37.68 

T 

J 

I 

14.60 

3 

18 

57 

75 

I 

2 

2 

79-63 

9 

12 

35 

25-50 

I 

13 

12 

35 

39-50 

I 

9 

14 

35 

25-50 

I 

9 

12 

35 

25-50 

2/2 

13 

20 

32 

3 

4 

4 

68.50 

^ 

15 

4 

2 

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28.53 

3 

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30 
IT 

70 

1 

0 

2 
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129.70 
17.00 

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2 

23.40 

- 

2 

II 

6 

2 

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5 

16 

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l8.22 

y-z 

8 

2 

2 

21.89 

2 

9 

I 

I 

2 

2 

15-46 

2 

42 

58 

53 

I 

2 

2 

109.18 

5o8 


Frary,  Isaac,  2 


Mowlnff  Un- 

Build-    und       Acres     iiii-   Ilor- 
ings     Til'fje  I'liwt're  prM    ser* 


<>x.  Re.luced 

en    Cows  \"!ilii:ition 


I 


rran-,  beth,  Jr., 

16 

I 

Fran-,  Dexter, 

I 

5 

r 

Frary,  Maj.  Phineas, 

3 

29 

1 10 

40 

■^ 

J 

Frar}',  Silas, 

I 

2 

I 

Frary,  Horace, 

I 

5 

I 

Frary,  Phineas,  Jr., 

I>2 

8 

Field,  Zenas, 

3 

0 

22 

36 

100 

2 

Gibbs,  Paul, 

0 

I 

Gunn,  Dr.  Luther, 

I 

Gray,  Nathaniel, 

2 

9 

20 

9 

Gilbert,  Josiah, 

2 

13 

13 

16 

Graves,  David, 

15 

23 

30 

Graves,  Moses, 

2 

3 

14 

2 

Graves,  Levi, 

I 

I 

t5 

23 

30 

2 

Graves,  Martin, 

2 

2 

26 

14 

46 

2 

Graves,  Capt.  Lucius,  i 

I 

9 

5 

5 

Graves,  Simeon, 

I 

I 

3-)<^ 

5 

5 

"     Capt.  Salmon, 

3 

3 

30 

34 

49 

3 

Graves,  Dea.  Oliver, 

12 

10 

2 

Graves,  Oliver,  Jr., 

I 

2 

14 

38 

37 

2 

Graves,  Elijah, 

I 

I 

10 

II 

20 

I 

Graves,  John,     1 
Graves,  Justus,  ) 

2 

2 

7 

35 

I 

Graves,  Selah, 

2 

2 

8 

20 

60 

2 

Graves,  William, 

T 

8 

15 

7 

Graves,  Erastus, 

I 

Graves,  Plyna, 

2 

Graves,  Reuben, 

I 

2 

15 

20 

12 

3 

Graves.  Israel, 

I 

2 

Graves,  Perez, 

I 

I 

14 

7 

Murray,  Hart, 

I 

2 

12 

13 

5 

I 

Hill,  Joseph, 

2 

i^ 

14 

40 

20 

Hill,  Moses, 

I 

14 

7 

20 

10 

Harwood,  Dr.  Fran's 

,  2 

3 

7 

30 

45, 

2 

Hastings,  Nathaniel 

,   I 

2 

7 

7 

/ 

I 

Hale,  James, 

I 

1 

Hicks,  Nathan, 

r 

I 

5 

4 

I 

Loomis,  Jona.  C, 

2 

money  at  interest. 

Loomis,  Abner, 

I 

2 

$71-75 

20.34 

20.44 

5 

116  80 

2 

19.41 

12.50 

I 

16.50 

3 

80.15 

I 

14.40 

2.40 

2 

22.40 

20.82 

22.65 

45.68 

I 

44-03 

4 

63.86 

22.10 

38.50 

3 

63-50 

41.60 

6 

78.44 

41.58 

2 

42.60 

2 

55.42 

21.00 

2 

3 

39.54 

I 

I 

19.50 
25.10 

1 

32.10 
51.00 

3 

28.44 

2 

59.18 

I 

15.50 

r 

1.20 

I 

31.26 
18.00 

309 

Mowing  Un- 

Builil-     iinil       Acre.s     im-   Hor-    Ox- 
Polls     in^s     Til'gti  Piist'ie  prM    ?e.-<      en 

Marsh,  Thomas,  i 

Marsh,  Isaac,  i 

Morton,  Daniel. 

Morton,  Sam'l,  G., 

Morton,  Dea.  Levi, 

Morton,  Oliver, 

Morton,  Simeon, 

Morton,  Dexter, 

Morton,  Reuben, 

Morton,  Capt.  Chas, 

Morton,  Consider, 

Morton,  Justin, 

Morton,  Lewis, 

Moor,  Otis, 

Moor,  Lewis. 

Mather,  Capt.  W., 

Mather,  Joseph, 

Mather,  Samuel, 

Munson,  Moses, 

Munson,  Joel, 

Munson,  Reuben, 

Mosher,  Jacob, 

Orcutt,  Stephen,  2     money  at  interest      2 

Parmeter,  John,  i       i  3 2  ^ 

Parker,  Benia'n, 

,  .  ■'  4       2       21       12       2 

and  son  Asa, 

Pratt,  Capt.  Amos,      23         4         8      33      2 

Pierce,  Jonathan,         i  money  at  interest, 

iSash,  Cotton,  i       i       10 

Rogers,  Georee,    )  .  ^ 

Roiers,  Danid,      )      2       2       12       34      36       i       2      4         44.67 

Ruddock,  Justin,  i 

Smith,  Gad.,  Jr.,  r 

Smith,  Bezaliel,  2 

Smith,  Gad,  i 

Smith,  Joseph,  i 

Smith  Seth,       | 
Smith,  David,  \  ^ 

Smith,  Capt.  Rufus,    i 

Smith,  Dea.  James,     i 


-> 

2 

20 

10 

74 

I 

I 

2 

21 

47 

3S 

I 

3 

6 

29 

60 

70 

2 

3 

3 

15 

ID 

10 

2 

I 

2 

20 

20 

40 

I 

r 

2 

7 

12 

17 

I 

I 

iS 

I 

I 

9 

15 

2 

3 

28 

50 

53 

2 

2 

0 

22 

41 

37 

I 

1 

5 

0 

4 

I 

I 

I 

'> 

J 

.5 

24 

9 

29 

2 

r 

; 

5 

0 

0 

4 

1 1 

29 

I 

I 

7 

2 

3 

10 

26 

9 

2 

I 

I 

Cows 

Reduceil 
V;Uu;itioii 

I 

$  .90 

I 

.90 

2 

53-60 

4 

83.76 

5 

133-72 

2 

65-26 

I 

44-74 

3 

32.40 

4 

1S.16 

17.28 

4 

101.98 

3 

87.40 

I 

11-75 

I 

108.46 

I 

1. 14 

2 

44.09 

I 

16  44 

0 

4S-93 

I 

1. 14 

2 

24.60 

2.40 

42.98 

r 

57-17 

18.00 

10.60 

16 

16 

So 

'J 

0 

2 

3 

--,  -q 

20 

—  o 

/  - 

69 

2 

3 

94.20 

12 

28.00 

65 

6 

40 

I 

4 

6 

129.40 

13 

35 

82 

r 

2 

3 

60.85 

7 

1 1 

4 

I 

I 

75.30 

310 


Mowing  Un- 

Buihl-      iiiiil      Acres     iiii-     Hor- 
Polls    in;rs      Til'ge  Past're  prM    ses 


Ox-  Reduced 

en    Cows  Valuation 


Scott,  Benjamin, 

Scott.  Consider, 

Scott,  Lt.  Abel,     ) 
and  son  Abel,  Jr,,  j 

Scott,  Selah, 

Scott,  Israel, 

Sanderson.  Elijah, 

Sanderson,  Asa, 

Sanderson,  Isaac, 

Sanderson,  Luther 

Sanderson,  Elijah, 2d  2 
"     Maj.  Thos., 
"     Dea.  Thos., 

Sanderson,  Chester, 

Starks,  John, 

Stockbridge,  David, 

Stiles,  Capt.  Henry, 

Wright,  Seth, 

Waite,  Joel,  ist, 

Waite,  Joel,  2d, 

Waite,  Joel,  3d, 

Waite,  Aaron, 

Waite,  Luke, 

Waite,  Jeremiah, Sr., 

Waite,  Nathan, 

Waite,  Benjamin, 

Waite,  Elihu, 

Waite,  Calvin, 

Waite.  Capt.  Luther, 

Waite,  Consider, 

Waite,  Jonathan, 

Woods,  Martin, 

Woods,  Jonathan, 

Wing,  William, 

Wells,  Perez, 

Wells,  Chester, 

Wells,  Calvin, 

Wells,  Israel, 

Wells,  Thomas, 

Wells,  Capt.  Luke, 


4 

I 

I 

5 

I 

63-30 

I 

2 

9 

5 

12 

I 

14.80 

v3 

2 

62 

28 

72 

2 

3 

2 

129.53 

I 

2 

40 

38 

8 

2 

2 

2 

76.26 

I 

2 

44 

26 

30 

2 

I 

77.28 

I 

2 

44 

26 

30 

2 

I 

62.53 

2 

0 

8 

17 

6 

r 

2 

77.28 

I 

•^ 
J 

14 

9 

10 

2 

35-30 

I 

2 

I 

I 

I 

11.64 

2 

I 

r 

11.32 

2 

2 

29 

20 

44 

2 

3 

80.66 

2 

5 

46 

30 
40 

214 

3 

4 

8 

271.96 
28.80 

2 

13 

5 

2 

2 

17.80 

6 

61 

18 

I 

4 

120.14 

2 

17 

15 

20 

43-58 

interest  money 

I 

12.12 

2 

7 

22 

6 

I 

14.20 

3 

2S 

90 

2 

2 
I 

70.80 
.90 

I 

22 

1 1 

15-96 

30 

10 

2 

I 

18.90 

I 

9 

20 

25 

I 

3 

63.60 

I 

9 

20 

'25 

I 

3 

37-12 

2 

3 

2 

20.52 

2 

16 
20 

6 

26 

I 

3 
I 

29.48 
18.48 

20 

I 

I 

18.48 

3 

2 

18 

39 

20 

2 

4 

70.22 

4 

3 
4 

14 

18 

2 
2 

34-64 
4-48 

2 

10 

2 

13 

I 

3 

24.00 

and  interest  money 

15.00 

I 

I 

2 

2 

10.00 

I 

4 

8 

4 

6 

33-55 

I 

1 1 

8 

4 

r 

30-17 

311 

Jlowinsir  Un- 

Builil-      Mini     Acro.H      iiT).    Hor-  <)x-  Reduced 

roll.-^     ings      Til'i^'e  I'lisc're  prM     :ies     en   Cows    Valuation 

White,  Capt.  S.,     )      i  3  39  80  94       2       2       7       205.56 

and  son,  John,     )     2  2  21  69  70       2       2       6 

White,  Salmon,  Jr.  I 

and  son,  Justus,    (   ^  ^  9  25                               3        120.37 


231        2162  2795  3933  165  117  307  58,643.47 

Other  cattle  as  enumerated  619. 

Sheep  and  swine  not  enumerated. 

Amount  of  reduced  valuation,  $8,643.47. 

If  the  reduced  value  was  six  per  cent,  the  whole  valuation 
was  $146,058.50. 

The  reduced  valuation  was  then  divided,  giving  to  the  Con- 
gregational church  for  taxation,  $6,785.47. 

To  the  Baptist  church  for  taxation,  1,858.00. 

Polls  paid  for  state  and  county  tax,  $0.^2. 

Polls  paid  for  minister's  tax,  $0.52. 

Polls  paid  for  town  tax,  Sr  30. 

One  dollar  in  town  tax.  So. 02. 

One  dollar  in  minister's  tax,  $o.c)2  S-io. 

Number  of  acres  set  to  residents,  8,890. 

Number  of  acres  set  to  non-residents,  1,852,^:1. 

Of  which,  mowing  and  tillage  to  residents,  2,162  acres. 

Of  pasturage,  2,795  acres. 

Of  unimproved  (wood  land),  3,933  acres. 

Total  number  of  acres  taxed,  io,-j4;^}{. 

Buildings,  houses  not  specified  as  all  buildings  are  together. 

The  horses,  165. 

The  oxen,  117. 

The  cows,  307. 

The  other  stock  cattle,  619. 

The  number  giving  interest  money,  20. 

Rev.  Rufus  Wells  not  taxed,  and  several  aged  men  not 
taxed  for  the  poll. 

The  money  at  interest  was  mostly  held  by  young  men  just 
come  of  age,  and  in  order  to  exercise  the  right  of  suffrage  some 
one  would  give  them  a  note  for  a  sum  sufficient  to  enable  them 
to  vote.  At  that  time  politics  ran  pretty  high  and  every  young 
partisan's  vote  must  be  secured.  I  recollect  of  hearing  old  men 
tell  who  helped  them  with  a  note  to  enable  them  to  vote. 


312 


COPY    OF    A    CHECK    LIST    OF 

Allis,  Dea.  Russell, 

Elijah, 

Daniel. 

Stalham. 

Daniel,  Jr., 

Osee  . 
Anderson,  Henry, 
Atkins,  Solomon. 

Enoch, 

Henry, 
Bardwell.  Lieut.  Xoah, 

Cotton, 

Justin, 

Orange, 

Chester, 

Asa. 

Ebenezer, 
Barnard,  Ebenezer, 

Ebenezer,  Jr., 

William. 
Bartlett,  Zebina, 

Samuel, 
Belden,  Elisha, 

Dickinson, 

Seth, 
"         Augustus, 

Francis, 
"         Reuben, 
"         Aaron, 
,"         Joshua, 
"         Joseph, 

Chester, 
Brown,  Lieut.  John, 

Isaiah, 

Daniel, 
"         Joseph, 
Chapman,  Isaac, 
Clark,  Peter, 
Coleman,  Nathaniel, 
Cooley,  Benjamin, 
"         Lemuel, 


VOTERS     IX     WHATELV      IN      lSl6, 

Crafts,  Thomas, 

Rufus, 

John, 

Asa. 

Cotton, 

Erastus, 

Seth, 

Graves, 

Israel, 

David, 

Moses, 
Cutter,  James, 
Dickinson,  xAlpheus, 

Charles, 

Oliver, 

Asa, 

Daniel, 

Giles, 

Dexter. 

Eurotus, 
Frary,  Maj.  Phineas, 
"         Thomas, 
"  Orange. 

Silas, 

Horace, 
"         Phineas,  Jr., 

Capt.  Seth, 

Capt.  Seth,  Jr., 

Dexter, 
"         Isaac, 

Asa, 
Field,  Zenas, 

John,      . 
Graves,  Erastus, 

Oliver,  Jr., 
"         Moses, 

Levi, 

Martin, 
"         Capt.  Lucius, 

Linus, 
,  Rowland,      . 


313 


Graves,  Capt.  Salmon, 
Oliver, 
John, 
"  Reuben, 

"  Ensign  Pliny, 

Charles, 
Salah, 
Spencer, 
William, 
Israel, 
Gerry,  Stephen, 
Gray,  Nathaniel. 
Grimes,  Samuel, 
Gilbert,  Josiah, 
Har^'ood,  Dr.  Francis, 
Dr.  Joshua  D., 
Col.  Roderick  B., 
Hastings,  Nathan, 
Hill,  Joseph, 

Ruggles, 
Jenney,  Reuben, 
Loomis,  Jonathan  C 

William, 
Morton,  Justus, 
Horace, 
David, 
Samuel  G., 
"         Lieut.  Oliver, 
"  Dea.  Levi, 

"  Simeon, 

"         DeKter, 
Reuben, 
Consider, 
Charles, 
Arnold, 
Justin, 
"  Sylvester, 

Marsh,  Thomas, 

"         Isaac, 
Mosher,  Jacob, 
Mather,  Capt.  William, 
"         Joseph, 


Munson,  Moses, 

Reuben, 

Joel, 

John, 
Nichols,  Daniel, 
Perry,  Ira. 
Parker,  Lieut.  Asa, 

"  Isaac, 

Pratt,  Capt.  Amos, 
Russell,  Levi. 
Rogers,  George, 

Daniel, 
Reed,  Simeon, 
Ruddock,  Edward, 
Smith,  James, 

Bezaliel, 

Gad, 

Gad,  Jr.. 

Horace, 

Seth, 

David, 

Justin, 

Capt.  Rufus. 
Sanderson,  Thomas, 

Silas, 

Eli, 
"         Ensign  Elijah, 

Asa, 

Asa,  Jr.. 
"         Isaac, 
Scott,  Israel, 

Aretas, 

Benjamin, 

Lieut.  Abel, 

Abel,  Jr., 
"         Ambrose, 

Selah, 
Stockbridge,  David,  Jr., 
Starks,  John, 
Waite,  Joel,  ist, 

Joel,  2d, 

Luke, 


314 


Waite,   Jeremiah, 
"  Benjamin, 

Elihu. 

Calvin, 
"  Consider, 

"         Jonathan, 
"         Lemuel, 
"         James, 

Henry, 
"         Thomas, 
\Vells,  Perez, 

Luther, 


Wells,  Calvin, 
Chester, 
Capt.  Thomas, 
Lieut.  Luke, 
"         Israel, 
Winchell,  Reuben, 
Warner,  Luther, 
Woods,  Martin, 

"         Jonathan, 
White,  John, 

Salmon, 
"         Justus, 


In 


Rev.  Rufus, 
all  one  hundred  and  ninety-five  legal  voters. 


A    LIST    OF    NAMES.      WHO     IN      l8l2     WERE     ASSESSED     BY     THE 

TOW^N,   AND    THE    AMOUNT    PAID    TO    THE    BAPTIST 

SOCIETY   BY   THE    TOWN    TREASURER, 

AND    THE    TAX    OF    EACH. 


Allis,  Russell, 

$  -77 

Munson,  Joel. 

$1.13 

Daniel, 

2.09 

Morton,  Dexter, 

1.29 

Daniel,  Jr., 

•94 

Reuben 

Osee. 

•37 

and  Simon, 

1. 10 

Brown,  Lieut.  John, 

6.43 

Pratt,  Capt.  Amos, 

2.15 

Prescott, 

.87 

Rogers,  Geo.  and  Daniel,  1.85 

Spencer, 

1.23 

Smith,  Bezdid, 

1.80 

Isaiah, 

2.64 

Seth, 

2.95 

Daniel, 

1.45 

David, 

1. 10 

Bard  well,  Lieut.  Noah, 

2.08 

Capt.  Rufus, 

2.20 

Orange, 

1. 14 

Sanderson,  Isaac, 

1.66 

Chester, 

1-45 

Waite,  Joel,  ist, 

.42 

Charles, 

1.79 

Joel,  3d, 

•53 

Cotton, 

2,07 

Obadiah, 

.90 

Justin, 

2.04 

Elihu, 

•  84 

Belden,  Seth, 

.85 

Luther, 

.84 

Crafts,  Elijah, 

.62 

Calvin, 

.68 

Cutter,  James, 

•95 

Rufus, 

•47 

Chapman,  Isaac, 

•44 

Consider, 

2.35 

Graves,  John  and  Justin 

.  1-53 

"         Jonathan, 

1.04 

Gerry,  Stephen, 

•42 

Winchell,  Reuben, 

.37 

Hill,  Joseph, 

2.32 

Hill,  Moses, 

1.20 

Total  amount,* 

$61.81 

Munson,  Moses, 

1.20 

315 

STATISTICS   OF    POPULATION,    ETC..    FROM    1 77 1    TO    1 899,    COM- 
PILED   FROM    THE    CENSUS    RETURNS. 

1771.  Number  of  males  over  16  years,  75  ;  total  population, 
estimated,  320.  Number  of  dwelling  houses,  40  ;  number  of 
families,  48. 

1776.  Total  white  population,  according  to  Colonial  cen- 
sus, 410. 

1786.  Number  of  males  over  16  years,  141  ;  total  popula- 
tion, estimated,  544;   number  of  dwelling  houses,  68. 

1790.  Number  of  males  under  16,  199;  over  16,  184;  num- 
ber of  females,  352  ;  total,  735  ;  number  of  dwelling  houses, 
j2o;  number  of  families,  130. 

1800.     Total  number  of  inhabitants,  773. 

Number   of   males,  433  ;    number  of   females,  457  ; 


r8io. 

total,  890. 

1820. 

1830. 

Total  number  of  inhabitants,  1,076. 

Number   of    males,   573  ;   number  of  females,   538  ; 
total,  1,111. 

1840.  Total  number  of  inhabitants,  1,072  ;  number  of  polls 
ratable,  291  ;  number  of  polls  not  ratable,  19  ;  number  of  dwell- 
ing houses,  168  ;   number  of  barns,  160. 

1850.     Total  number  of  inhabitants.  1,129. 

i860.  Number  of  males  544;  number  of  females,  ^J2>' 
total,    1,057;   2  females  over  90;   dwellings,  216;   families,  227. 

1865.  Number  of  males,  538;  number  of  females.  474; 
total,    1,012;    t  female  over    lOo;  dwellings,  222;  families,  223. 

1870.     Total  number  of  inhabitants,  1,068. 

1890.     Total  number  of  inhabitants,  779. 

DEATHS. 

1 77 1  to  '81,  70  ;  1 78 1  to  '91,  64;  1 79 1  to  1 80 1,  92  ;  1 80 1  to 
'11,  107  ;  1811  to  '21,  151  ;  1821  to  '31,  165  ;  1831  to  '41,  131  ; 
1841  to  '51,  166;  1851  to  '61,  209;  1S61  to  '71,  198;  1871  to 
'81,  150;  1881  to  '91,  163;  1891  to  '99,  126;  total  for  128  years, 
1,982.  Died  under  5  years,  571  ;  between  70  and  80  years, 
222;  between  80  and  90  years,  175;  between  90  and  100  years 
23;  over  100  years,  i. 

VALUATION,    ACCORDING     TO    OFFICIAL    RETURNS. 

1830,  $206,858.  1840,  $220,927.  1850,  $438,772.  i860, 
$624,902.        1865,     $665,972.       1870,     $802,511.       1882,     $440,124. 


3i6 


SELECTMEN,       FROM      THE       INCORPORATION      OF     THE 


John  Waite,   1771 . 
Simeon  Waite,  1771. 
Edward  Brown,  1771. 
Philip  Smith.  1771,  '72. 
Salmon  White,  i77i-"75,  '77, 

'78,     '84-'S6,    '90-'92,    '94; 

14  years. 
Noah     Wells,     [772-'75,    '78, 

'82,  '83,  '88;  8  years. 
David  Scott,   1772. 
Elisha  Frar}',  1772,  '80. 
Thomas  Sanderson,  i773-'75, 

'77.    '78,    •83-'87,    '89,    '90, 

'92-'96,     '98-1803.    'i2-'i7; 

29  years. 
Oliver  Graves,  1776,  '77. 
Joseph  Belden,  Jr.,  1776,  '77, 


'80, 


'90, 


John    Smith,    1776,    '77, 

'87-'89. 
Perez  Chapin,  1780. 
Silas  Smith,  17S1. 
Noah    Bardwell,     1781, 

'91-  '93-  '96. 
David  Graves,  Jr.,  1781,  '82. 
Col.    Josiah  Allen,    i783-'89, 

'9i-'93 ;    10  years. 
Maj.  PhineasFrary,  i794-'99, 

i8o3-'6,      '9,      'i2-'i5;      15 

3'ears. 
Asa  Sanderson,    1795,    1803- 

'5,  '12,  '13;   6  years. 
John  White,    1795,    '98-1800, 

'2-'  11;    14  years. 
Capt.   Seth  Frary,    iSoo,    'i, 


4.    5,    14.    15 


vears. 


Levi  Morton,  1801,  '3. 
Bezaliel   Smith,  1804,  '5,  '11. 
Gideon     Dickinson,     i8o6-'8, 
'10,  '11. 


TOWN. 

8,    '10, 


Zenas    Field,    1807, 

•11,  'r6. 
Oliver  Graves,  Jr.,  1809,  '16, 

'18,  '19. 
Capt.  Rufus  Smith,  181 1. 
Consider   Morton,   1812,    '13. 
Capt.    Salmon  Graves.    1812, 

'13- 
Oliver  Morton,  1S14,  '15,  '16. 

Orange  Bardwell,    1814,    '15. 

Lemuel  Waite,  18 16,  '18. 

Isaac  Frary,  1817,  '19. 

Silas  Frary,    181 7,    '18,    '20. 

Seth     Smith,     i8i9-'2i,    '24- 

'27;   7  years. 
Thomas  Crafts,  i82o-'22,  '25, 

'28,  '30,    '32-'36;    II  years. 
Capt.  William  Fay.  i82i,'29. 
Charles  Morton,  1822. 
Dea.  James  Smith,  1822. 
David  Stockbridge,  i823-'26, 

'28,  '31,    '40,    '43;   8  years. 
Dea.  Justus  White,  1S23,  '24, 

'31. 
Dexter  Morton,  1823. 

Dr.  Chester  Bardwell,    1826. 
Calvin  Wells,    1827,   '35-'39. 

'45;  7  years. 
David  Saunders,    1827. 
Daniel  Brown,  1828,  '29,  '30, 

'45. 
Levi  Bush,  Jr.,  1829. 

Capt.  Luke  Wells,  1830. 

Chester  Brown,  i83i-'36.  '40, 

'41  ;   8  years. 

Luke    B.    White,    1832,    '22,, 

'34' 
Hiram   Smith,    i837-'39,    '46, 

'55,  '61  ;  6  years. 


3i7 


J.   C.   Sanderson,    1S37,    '44, 

'45.  '49.  50;   5  years. 
Arnold     Morton,     1S3S,     '39, 

'43.  '44,    '57.    '41  :   6  years. 
Dexter  Crafts,  1840. 
Rufus  Graves.  1841,  '46,  '61. 
Stalham  Allis,  1841. 
Rodolphus   Sanderson,    1842, 

4/  • 
Plyna  Graves,  1842. 
Capt.     Seth    Bardwell.    1S42, 

'51- 
Lyman  Dickinson,  1843,    '44, 

''55. 
Daniel  F.  Morton,  1846. 

Thomas  Waite,  1847,  '49, 
'5O1  '52,  '531  fi^^e  years. 

Samuel  B.  White,  i848-'50, 
'52,  '53.  '56,  '57.  '6i-'66, 
'68,  .69;    15  years. 

John  Field,  1S4S. 

Abel  \V.  Nash,  1S4S. 

Capt.  Asa  Parker,  1S51. 

Stephen    Belden,    1852,    '53, 

'59. 
Elliott  C.  Allis,  1854. 
Zebina    W.    Bartlett,     1854, 

'67. 
Isaac  Frary,  Jr.,  1854. 

James  M.  Crafts,  1855. 

Rufus    Dickinson,    1856,  '57, 

'59,  '69. 
J.  W.  C.  Allis,  1856.  '68,  '69. 

Alonzo  Crafts,  1857,  '60,  '62,- 

'64,  '67;   6  years. 
Alfred  Belden,  1S58. 
Dennis  Dickinson,  1858. 
Edwin     Bardwell,      i858-'6o, 

'62-'67,  '70,  '71;    II   years. 
L.  W.  Hannum,  i860,  '61. 
Elihu  Belden,  1S65. 
EliphasH.  Wood,  1866. 


Harvey  Moor,    1S68. 
Samuel  Eesure,  1S70. 
Samuel  C.  Wood,  1S70, 
Elbridge  G.  Crafts,  1S71. 
David  xVshcraft,  1 87  r . 
Silas    W.    Allis    i872-'Si;    10 

years. 
Dennis  Dickinson,  1872. 
Edwin    Bardwell,     1872,    '73, 

'79 :    14  years. 
Elbridge  G.  Crafts,   1873. 
Chester  K.    Waite,    1 874-' 78, 

5  years. 
Elliott  C.  Allis,  1874. 
Seth  Bardwell,  1874,  '75. 
Hiram    Bardwell,    1877,    '78, 

'80. 
Chester  G.   Crafts,    i88i-'84; 

5  years. 
Elliott  A.   Warner,    i88i-'85; 

5  years. 

Rufus    M.    Swift,    1S79,    '84- 

'89,  '91  ;   8  years. 
Salmon  P.  White,  18S0. 
William    Barnard,    18S2,    'S3. 
Franklin    D.     Belden,     1886, 

'89;   4  years. 
Lyman  A.   Crafts,    1SS6,  '89.' 

4  years. 
Frank  Dickinson,  1890. 
David    Ashcraft,     1890,    '95; 

6  years. 

Charles  E.  Bardwell,  1890. 
Seth    B.     Crafts,    1S91-1900; 

9  years. 
Victor    D.     Bardwell,     1S92- 

'97:   5  years. 
Lemuel  F.  Graves,  [897,  '98. 
Willis  F.    Waite,    1897,    '98, 

'99. 
George  F.  Pease,  1899. 


3i8 


TOWN    CLERKS,    FROM    1 77 1    TO    TQOO. 


Salmon    White,    1 771 -'79;    S 

years. 
Dr.  Perez  Chapiii,    17S0,  '81. 
Thomas  Sanderson,  i7S2-'S6, 

'Sq-'qS,  jSoo,  'i  ;    17  years. 
Col.  Josiah  Allis,    17S7.    '88. 
Dr.  Benj.  Dickinson,  1799. 
William    Mather,     1S02,     '9, 

'12.  '  13  :  9  years. 
Elijah  Allis,  iSio,  '11. 
Thomas  Wells,  1S14. 
Luke   Wells,    1815,    '25;     11 

years. 
Edward  Phelps,  1826. 
Chester  Wells,  1827,  '30. 


Martin  Woods,  183 1,  '32. 
Eurotus  Morton,  1833,  '34. 
Dr.    Myron   Hanvood,    1S35, 

'36,  '38-'4i  ;   6  years. 
Stalham  Allis,  1837. 
Samuel      Eesure,      i842-'56, 

'6o-'7i  ;   27  years. 
Dennis  Dickinson,    1857,  '58, 

'59. 
Samuel  Lesure,    iS72-'82:  in 

all  37  years. 
Dr.  James  D.  Seymour,   1882- 

'91  ;   9  years. 
George  A.  Elder,    1891-1900; 

9  vears. 


TOWN    TREASURERS,    FROM    1 77 1    TO    1900. 


Salmon    White,     i77i-"79;   8 

years. 
Dr.  Perez  Chapin,    17S0,  '81. 
Thomas  Sanderson,  i7S2-'86, 

'92-1802. 
Josiah  Allis,  i787-'90. 
Elijah  Smith,  1791. 
Bezaliel  Smith,  1803. 
Solomon   Adkins,    Jr.,    1804- 

'8,  '15,  '16. 
Jehu  Dickinson,  1809-'!  i. 
Samuel  Grimes,  1S12,  '13. 
William  Mather,  1814. 
Oliver  Morton,  1817,  '18,  '21, 


23- 


Lemuel  Waite,  1819,  '20. 
Luther  Wells,    1822. 
Calvin  Wells,  i824-'2S. 
Col.  Caleb  Crafts,  1829. 
Leonard  Loomis,    1830,    '31, 

'33^  '45.  '69;  5  years. 
Levi  Bush,  Jr.,  1834,  '35. 


Eurotus    Morton,    1832,    '36, 

'37- 
Charles  D.  Stockbridge.  1838, 

'40. 
Samuel  B.    White,    i84i-'44. 

'48  ;   5  years. 
Elliott    C.    Allis,     1H41,    '58, 

'63.  '64. 
Franklin  Graves,     1847,   '52, 

'53- 
Rufus  Graves,   1849. 

James  M.  Crafts,   1850,    '61, 

'71. 
John  White,  1851. 

Zebina    Bartlett,     1855,    '57, 

'59- 
Henry  K.   White,    1856,   '59, 

■60. 
S.  E.  Allis,  1862. 
Horace  B.  Fox,  1865. 
Apollos  Clary,  1866. 
E.  H.  Wood,  1867. 


319 


Edward  C.   Sanderson,    1868. 
Elbridge  G.  Crafts,  1870. 
James  M.  Crafts,  1872;   in  all 

5  years. 
Caleb  L.  Thayer,  1873. 
George  D.  Bartlett.  1874,  '75. 
Perez    M.    Wells,     18  76- '78, 

'83,  '84;  4  years. 
Horace  B.  Fox,  1S79. 


William  Barnard,    1880,    'Si, 

'82  ;   3  years. 
Stalham  E.  Allis,  1885. 
Chester  K.  Waite,    1SS6,  '87, 

'88,  '89  ;  4  years. 
Micajah    Howes,    1S90,    "91, 

'92,  '93,   '94,    '95  :   6  years. 
Ryland  C.  Howes,  1S96,    '97, 

'98,  '99  ;  4  years. 


ASSESSORS,    FROM    THE    INCORPORATION'    OF    THE    TOWN. 


Edward  Brown,  1771. 
Philip  Smith,    1771,    '72.  '95. 
Capt.  Salmon    White,     1771, 

'82,    '84-'86,    ^90,    '92,    '94; 

18  years. 
Elisha  Frary,  1772. 
Thomas      Sanderson,      1773- 

'74,     '77-"79,     82,     •84-'86, 

'89,   '9i-'94,    '99-    1800,  '2, 

'12-'  14  ;  27  years. 
Israel  Graves,  i793-'96. 
Noah   Wells.    1773,   '74,   '78, 

'79,  '82,  '83,  '88. 
Benjamin  Smith,  1775,  '76. 
Oliver  Graves,  1776. 
John  Smith,  i775-'77,  '87,  '89- 
Amos  Marsh,  1780. 
Noah    Bardwell,     1781,    '87, 

'90,  '91.  '94-'96;  7  years. 
Joseph  Belden,  Jr.,  1781,  '83. 
Josiah  Allis,  i783-'93;  roy'rs. 
Phineas      Frary,     1794.     '99- 

1802,  '5;   7  years. 
Asa  Marsh.  Jr.,  1796. 
John  White,  1797,  '98,    i8or, 

Dr.    Francis  Harwood.    1797. 
William    Mather,    1797-1S07, 

'g  ;    12  years. 
Lemuel  Wells,  1798. 
Jonathan  Smith,  Jr.,  i8o3-'o6. 


Seth  Frary,  1S05. 
Asa  Sanderson,  1S05,  '13, 
Bezaliel  Smith,  1S05. 
Elijah  Allis,  1807-'!  i. 
Isaac  Frary,  1808,  '10,  "i 
Charles.  Bardwell,    18 10, 
Thomas  Crafts,  1812,  '30. 
Orange    Bardwell,    1S12, 
Thomas  Wells,  1S13,   '15- 

'26. 
Silas  Frary,  18 14-*! 6.  "19. 
Ebenezer  Barnard,    i''^i4. 
Dexter  Morton,  1816,  "19, 

'31- 
Chester  Wells,    18 17,  'i.^, 

'27-'29. 

Seth    Smith,    18 17,    '18, 

'23,  '28,  '29,  '32,  '34. 
David  Stockbridge,  1820. 
Daniel  Brown,  1820,  '25, 

'30. 
David  Saunders,  i82i-'25. 
Asa  Dickinson,  i'"^2i. 
Justus  White,  1822. 
Edward  Phelps,  1823,  '24. 
Chester  Brown.  1824. 
Charles  Morton,  1826. 
Capt.  William  Fay,  1827,  ' 
Elijah  Sanderson,  1827. 
Arnold  Morton,  i82«.  '29, 

'38. 


I. 
"i  r. 

■13- 
"20, 


15- 
"21, 


:2, 


'26, 


I. 


'36. 


320 


Luke  Wells,  1830. 

Eurotas  Dickinson,  1831,  "32, 


.•).■)• 


Abel  W.  Nash,  1832,  "47. 
Asa  Sanderson,  Jr.,  1833,  '45. 
Rodolphus   Sanderson,    1833, 

'35,  "36,  "39,  '40,   45,   '56;   7 

years. 
Dexter  Crafts,  1834,  "35. 
Col.  Caleb  Crafts,  1834. 
Capt.     Seth    Bardwell.    1835, 

'62. 
Thomas  Waite,  1S36,  '46. 
Calvin  Wells,    1837,  '38,    47. 
John  C.  Sanderson,  1837,  '43, 

'57,  "62  ;   4  years. 
Hiram    Smith,    i837-'39,  '42, 

■48,  "50,  '51.  '57;  S  years. 
Leonard   Loomis,    1839,    '40, 

"42.  '59- 
Dennis  Dickinson,    1840,   "41, 

■43- 
Reuben  Jenney,  1841. 
John  B.  Morton,  1841,  '45. 
Alfred  Belden,  1842,  '54. 
Samuel  Dickinson,    1843,  '44. 
Justin  R.  Smith,  1844. 
Josiah  Allis,  1844,  '46. 
Samuel  B.  White,    1846,  '61. 
Elliott  C.  Allis,  1847,  '52.  '53, 

'60. 
John  L.  Morton,   1848. 
Jabez  Pease,  1848. 
Lewis  Wells,  1849. 
Charles  D.  Stockbridge,  1849- 

"51,    '60,  '65,   '66;   6   years. 
Franklin  Graves,  1849. 
Rufus  Graves,  1850,  '51. 
Isaac  Frary,  Jr.,  1852,  '53. 
Zebina  W.  Bartlett,  1852,  '53. 

'58. 
Porter  Wells,  1854. 


E.  S.  Munson,  1854,  '56. 
Aaron  S.  Stearns,  1855. 
William  C.  Smith,    1855,  "60. 
Charles  D.  Crafts,  1855. 
Henr}-  K.    White.    1856,   '57. 
L.  W.  Hannum,  1857. 
Harvey,  Moor,  1858. 
George  W.   Crafts,    1858.  '64. 
Edwin  W.  Warner,  1859. 
Dr.    Chester  Bardwell,    i860, 

^63  ■ 
Paul  W.  Field,    1861,  '64-'66, 

'70,  '71. 
Samuel  C.  Wood,  1861. 
Edwin  M.  Belden,  1862. 
Eurotas    Morton,     1863,    '67, 

'68,  '69. 
Alvin  N.  Claghorn.  1863,  '64. 
Chester    Bard  well,  Jr.,    1863. 
James   M.  Crafts,    1865,  '66, 

'71- 
Edward  C.    Sanderson,    1867, 

'68,  '69,  '71. 
Myron  Brown,    1867,  '68,  '69. 
Chester  K.  Waite,  1870. 
Edwin  C.  Parker,  1870. 
James   M.    Crafts,    1872,  '73, 

'80,   '83,    '84,    '85;  in  all  9 

years. 
Paul  W.  Field,  1872,  '73,  '74, 

'77,  '78,  '81.    '82,    '83,    '85, 

'86 ;    10  years. 
Edward  C.   Sanderson,   1872, 

'73.    '77-  '79.  "81  ;  5  years. 
John  Donovan,  1879,  '81,  '82; 

3  years. 
George  W.  Crafts,    1874,   '75. 
George  D.  Bartlett,  1874. 
Albert  Bartlett,  1875,  '76. 
Erastus  S.  Munson,  1875. 
Rufus  Dickinson,  1876. 
Hiram  Eardwell,  1876. 


321 


Chester  G.  Crafts,    1877,  '78. 

■80. 
Franklin  D.  Belden,  1884. 
George  N.  Smith,  1884. 
Edraoud  B.' Crai1:s,  1885. 
William  Cutler  Smith,    1883, 

'86,  '90. 
George  R.  Graves,    [886,  '87. 
Victor     D.    Bardwell,      1887, 

'88,  '89,  '90;  4  years. 
Edmond     A.     Belden,     1887, 

•88. 
George  A.   Elder.    1888,  '89. 


■91. 


o> 


Warren  P.  Crafts.  1890, 
Arthur  H.  Jenney,  189 1. 
George    F.   Pease,    188 1, 

'93- 
Willis    F.    Waite,    1892, 

'94.  '95.  '96  ;   5  years. 
Michael   J.    Holloran.     1894, 

'95-     '96,     '97.     "98,    '99;    6 
years. 
Charles  H.  Waite,    1895,  '96, 

'97.  '98.  '99;   5  years. 
Cooley    B.    Dickinson, 
'98,  "99  ;   3  years. 


1897, 


93.   94;  5  years. 

REPRESENTATIVES   TO    THE    GENERAL   COURT- 


John  Smith,  1783. 

Thomas      Sanderson,     1784, 

1812,  "13.  ♦ 

Capt.  Salmon  White,  1785. 
Col.  Josiah  Allis,  1787,  '88. 
Maj.  Phineas  Frar>-,  1805,  "8, 

'to,  '14. 
John  White,  1825. 
Rev.  L-  p.  Bates,  1829. 
David  Stockbridge,  1830. 
Thomas    Crafts,    1831  ;     May 

and  November. 
Capt.  Luke  Wells,  1832. 
Chester  Brown,  1833. 
Leander  Clark,  1834,  '40. 
Calvin  Wells.  1835. 
Asa  Dickinson,  i  36. 
Rodolphus  Sanderson,    1837. 
Samuel   B.   White,    183S,   46. 


Elijah  Allis,  1839. 
Thomas  Nash,  1842. 
Jabez  Pease,  1844. 
Dr.    Chester  Bardwell,   1847, 

'48,.  '51- 
Deacon  Justus  White,  1849. 

Abel  W.  Nash,  1852. 

Josiah  Allis,  1853. 

Edwin  Bardwell,   1854. 

Hiram  Smith,  1855. 

William  H.  Fuller,  1858,  '59. 

h-  W.  Hannum,  1861. 

Capt.  Seth  Bardwell,  1864. 

Alfred  Belden,  1868. 

Seth  B.  Crafts,  187 1. 

Eliphas  H.  Wood,  1875. 

Chester  K.  Waite,  1879. 

Silas  W.  Allis,  1882,  '83. 

George  A.  Elder,  1892. 


DELEGATES   TO    CONSTITUTIONAL    CONVENTIONS. 

Col.  Josiah  Allis  was  delegate  to  the  convention  to  ratify  the 
Federal  constitution  in  1788,  and  on  the  vote  of  acceptance,  he 
voted  "No." 

Deacon  Thomas  Sanderson  was  delegate  to  the  convention 
to  revise  the  constitution  of  Massachusetts,  r820. 

Josiah  Allis  was  delegate  to  the  convention  to  revise  the 
constitution  in  1851. 


CHAPTER  XVIII. 

STOCKADE. 

On  page  6i  of  Temple's  history  is  an  account  of  the  build- 
ing of  the  fort  or  stockade  enclosing  the  premises  of  Deacon 
Joel  Dickinson.  Evidently  Mr.  Temple  "was  not  properly  in- 
formed as  to  its  location,  as  it  was  not  where  the  house  of 
Calvin  Wells  stands.  It  is  however  true  that  it  enclosed  the 
buildings  of  Deacon  Joel  Dickinson  which  were  near  the  south 
side  of  the  farm.  As  I  desired  to  obtain  all  the  information  I 
could  in  regard  to  the  stockade  I  secured  the  services  of  Mr. 
Porter  Wells,  who  was  born  on  the  farm  in  1813,  and  then  sev- 
enty-five years  of  age,  and  together  we  went  to  the  spot  where 
he  said  the  old  cellar  hole  was  in  his  boyhood  days  and  which  is 
now  discernable.  He  had  helped  his  father  plow  in  the  cellar 
and  helped  to  fill  in  the  well  within  a  couple  of  feet  or  such  a 
matter,  then  he  planted  an  apple  tree  in  the  upper  portion  of  the 
well,  filling  good  soil  around  the  tree. 

He  helped  me  to  make  the  measurements  which  are  as  fol- 
lows :  From  the  well  to  the  east  line  of  Chestnut  Plain  street, 
one  hundred  and  nine  feet;  from  the  well  to  the  east  side  of  the 
cellar,  thirty  feet;  from  the  well  to  the  south  line  of  the  original 
farm,  seventy-two  feet.  The  house,  long  known  as  the  Fergu- 
son house,  was  built  by  Asa  Smith  very  near  the  north  line  of 
the  lot  bought  of  Rev.  Rufus  Wells.  Since  the  place  has  been 
owned  by  other  parties  I  think  Eurotus  Morton  bought  a  strip, 
some  thirty  feet  wide,  to  enable  him  to  get  around  his  buildings 
and  also  to  make  a  better  looking  front  yard.  Mr.  Wells 
assisted  me  in  properly  marking  the  site  and  gave  me  the  privi- 


323 

lege  of  setting  up  a  suitable  stone  as  a  monument  to  mark  the 
site.  Indeed,  we  worked  together.  He  furnishing  his  oxen  and 
stone  boat  to  draw  the  stone  to  fill  the  excavation  to  place  the 
monument  upon,  and  George  W.  Moor  came  with  horses  and 
contributed  the  pedestal  which  he  brought  from  his  house,  and 
then  drew  the  yellow  flint  boulder  from  Spruce  Hill  road.  Then 
this  was  suitably  marked,  ''Site  of  stockade,  1754-1S88." 

A  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  this  and  adjoining  towns  was 
held  19  Sept.,  1S88,  at  the  Town  hall,  presided  over  by  Lyman 
A.  Crafts,  Esq.  Addresses  were  made  by  Jamer>  AI.  Crafts, 
followed  by  Hon.  George  Sheldon  of  Deeriield,  his  topic  being 
relative  to  the  Indians  of  New  England  ;  then  they  adjourned 
for  a  collation  served  in  the  vestry  of  the  Congregational  church. 
After  reassembling  sprightly  speeches  were  made  by  Thaddeus 
Graves,  Silas  G.  Hubbard,  Daniel  \V.  Wells,  Esqrs.,  and  Rev. 
R.  M.  Wood,  of  Hatfield;  Rev.  Eugene  M.  Frary  of  Colraine, 
and  Rev.  W.  C.  Curtis  of  Whately.  An  excellent  choir,  under 
the  leadership  of  Micajah  Howes,  furnished  fine  vocal  music, 
and  the  Whately  brass  band  also  contributed  largely  to  the 
success  of  the  celebration.  A  large  and  enthusiastic  audience 
filled  the  hall  even  to  standing  room.  In  every  way  the  meet- 
ing was  a  success,  largely  due  to  the  labors  of  the  committee  in 
charge.  As  all  the  expense  attending  this  was  borne  by  Mr. 
Crafts,  he  now  says,  "That  on  account  of  its  success  the  citizens 
kindly  passed  in  their  money  to  an  extent  that  nearly  equaled 
the  expenditure,  without  solicitation.  The  first  dollar  came 
from  that  public-spirited  man,  E.  F.  Orcutt,  while  others  over- 
whelmed by  the  success,  even  against  many  expressed  doubts, 
gathered  about  the  writer  and  thanked  hira  for  what  had  been 
done  and  nailed  their  thanks  by  financial  assistance  towards  the 
expenses." 

The  remarks  by  Mr.  Crafts  were  published  and  we  will  give 
a  short  extract:  "In  attempting  to  give  a  historical  sketch  of 
the  early  settlement  of  this  town  we  are  met  at  the  outset  with 
the  difficulty  of  finding  documentary  material  from  which  we 
can  weave  our  history.  Our  only  resource  is  to  draw  upon 
the  memorj*  of  aged  individuals  who.  in  the  days  gone  by,  have 
heard  the  fathers  relate  the  story  of  their  trials  and  their  perse- 
vering efforts  to  overcome  the  difficulties  that  lay  thick  in  their 
pathway.  It  was  not  simply  the  taking  up  of  new  land,  build- 
ing houses  and  barns  in  peace  and  security;  all  about  him  was 
to  be  found  the  hostile  Indian,  waiting  and  watching   for  an 


324 

opportunity  to  steal  upon  him  and  secure  his  scalp,  and  thus 
add  to  the  list  of  such  bloody  trophies  that  ornamented  his  dis- 
tant wigwam. 

"To  secure  our  hardy  ancestry  from  harm  we  find  that  forts 
and  stockades  weie  erected.  War  was  almost  continuous  be- 
tween France  and  England  and  this,  of  course,  opened  the  flood 
gates  of  war  between  their  dependencies.  Canada  and  New 
England.  The  last  of  these  wars  was  from  1754  to  1763,  and 
our  little  settlement  cast  about  for  some  means  of  safety  and  de- 
fense. In  1754  it  was  determined  to  build  a  stockade  about  the 
buildings  of  Deacon  Dickinson.  This  was  done,  probably  under 
the  direction  of  Col.  Israel  Williams  of  Hatfield,  then  in  com- 
mand of  the  Hampshire  county  troops,  who  was  experienced  in 
the  construction  of  means  of  defense  against  the  attacks  of  the 
Indians,  and  it  is  claimed  that  while  he  directed,  the  citizens  of 
Hatfield  assisted  our  people  in  the  construction  of  the  stockade. 
The  stockade  is  supposed  to  have  surrounded  from  one-half  to 
three-fourths  of  an  acre  of  ground.  It  was  built  of  hewed  logs 
set  firmly  in  the  ground  and  securely  fastened  on  the  inside  by 
stout  poles  fastened  bj-  substantial  pins  so  that  no  single  post 
could  be  removed.  In  times  of  alarm  or  danger  the  families 
fled  to  the  stockade.  Here  their  cows  and  other  stock  were 
brought  and  kept  until  the  danger  was  over.  I  have  heard  old 
Great-aunt  Martha  Crafts  say  that  she  had  lived  in  the  fort  for 
two  weeks  at  a  time  and  helped  to  milk  the  cows.  She  was 
born  28  May,  1748,  and  died  28  August,  1836,  and  would  have 
been  fourteen  years  old  before  the  war  was  over.  Her  memory 
of  the  fort  was  full  and  perfect,  and  from  her  I  learned  much. 
'Why,'  she  said,  'Our  cows,  horses  and  pigs  were  all  there  and 
those  of  the  other  neighbors.'  My  father,  born  in  1781,  had 
often  heard  all  the  details  of  life  in  the  fort,  and  Uncle  Perez 
Wells,  a  Revolutionary^  soldier,  and  many  otheis  from  whom  we 
gathered  much  of  the  information  that  we  have  obtained. 

"There  was  another  stockade  about  the  house  of  Joseph 
Belden  that  stood  where  now  is  what  we  call  Bartlett's  Corner. 
Of  its  size  I  have  no  knowledge,  but  it  was  large  enough  to 
afford  protection  for  the  families  of  Benjamin  Scott,  Josiah 
Scott,  Jr.,  David  Graves,  Elisha  Smith,  John  Waite  and  any 
others  liWng  near,  with  their  stock.  Each  family  while  in  the 
fort  appeared  to  have  a  domicile  of  their  own  and,  notwithstand- 
ing the  danger,  the  young  people  had  great  times  together." 


-?'> 


5 


COPY    OF    OLD    LETTERS. 

We  give  here  a  letter  written  by  Lieutenant  Abel  Scott  of 
Whately,  while  in  the  Revolutionar}^  army,  to  his  ''betrothed 
sweetheart."  Miss  Martha  Graves,  a  daughter  of  David  Graves, 
Jr.,  of  Whately: 

Irvington.  N.  Y..  15  Oct.,  1780. 

•'I  having  a  opertunity,  I  cannot  forbear  riting  to  let  you 
know  that  I  through  the  goodness  of  god,  I  am  well  as  I  hope 
these  lines  will  find  you  and  the  rest  of  friends  and  acquainteces. 
Sept.  the  6th  I  reseived  about  ten  of  the  clock  at  night  a  letter 
from  you  which  was  pleasant  and  was  ven.'  good  to  hear  from 
you  for  it  came  very  unexpected  to  me  sent  there  and  for  the 
notis  that  you  had  in  writing.  I  am  ver\-  much  obliged  to  you 
for  it  aspeshally  for  that  branch  of  doing  my  duty.  Your  cor- 
shon  is  good,  but  needless.  And  as  for  news  we  have  a  plenty 
concerning  the  afares  of  the  enemy,  but  that  don't  concern  you 
very  much,  but  I  will  give  you  a  few  hints  of  the  afare  of  Sept. 
the  twenty-six.  General  Arnnl  deserted  to  the  enemy  and  the 
agedant  general  of  the  british  army  came  out  as  a  Spy  and  he  is 
in  our  hands  at  present,  and  a  Capt.  of  the  same  tropes  is  with 
him.     And  so  no  more  concerning  the  enemy. 

"But  for  the  afare  of  the  flesh  pleasing  life  we  have  fruit, 
apples  and  peaches  very  good,  and  good  sider,  but  the  best  of 
all  are  the  duck  gates  are  very  plenty  so  that  there  (here  are  a 
few  words  that  I  can't  decipher).  Graves  Crafts  desires  to  be 
remembered  to  you  and  all  the  rest  that  inquire  after  him  aspa- 
shilly  to  Joan  and  tell  her  that  he  cannot  forget  her  how  that 
he  did  in  old  times.  The  hole  that  went  from  Whately  sends 
their  complyments  to  you  and  all  the  rest  that  inquire  after 
them,  aspeshally  to  the  girls.     So  no  more  at  present. 

I  remain  your  well  wisher, 

ABEL  SCOTT. 

I  desire  to  be  remembered  to  Mr.  Eleazer  Frary  and  to  his 
frow,  and  let  them  know  that  I  am  well." 

I  have  a  letter  written  by  Paul  Belden,  who  was  in  Capt. 
John  Burke's  company,  expedition  to  Canada,  1759,  one  hun- 
dred and  forty  years  ago  : 

Camp  at  Albany,  May  29,  1759. 

loving  brother  and  sister  after  my  love  to  you  and  your 
children  hoppin  thes  lynes  will  find  you  in  good  helth  as  tha 
leav  me  through  the  goodness  of  God  and  some  of  our  men  have 


326 

gon  up  the  mohork  river  cutten.  And  when  we  shall  march 
from  this  place  we  dont  no.  We  have  mete  a  noufe  and  that  is 
STOod  some  butter  and  rise  todav  and  thare  wasaman  shot  to 
deth  for  desartion  which  was  a  orfful  site  to  se.  And  I  would 
ha\'e  you  remember  me  en  your  prays  that  god  wold  cep  me 
from  all  danger  and  return  me  en  safety  to  my  frinds  and 
quantans  agan. 

And  I  reman  \-our  loovin  Brother  and  well  Wisher 

PAUIv  BELDING. 

(his  hand) 

ESCAPE    OF    SERGEANT    O'COXXELL. 

Among  the  soldiers  in  the  27th  Regt  of  Infantry  were  a 
number  of  Whately  boys,  prominent  among  them  Bartholomew 
O'Connell.  He  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Southwest  Creek,  8 
March,  1865,  while  in  conjmand  of  his  company,  being  then  the 
ranking  sergeant.  The  commissioned  officers  were  either 
wounded  or  away  on  detached  service.  Bartie,  as  we  all  knew 
him,  was  a  bright,  scholarly  boy  and  a  general  favorite  in 
Whately. 

He  was  taken  prisoner  at  Drury's  Bluff  in  Virginia,  in 
1863.  The  prisoners  were  placed  in  a  freight  car  and  started 
for  Andersonville,  Ga.  After  they  left  Augusta,  Ga.,  Sunday, 
29  May,  1863,  Sergt.  O'Connell  set  to  work  with  others  to  cut  a 
hole  through  the  bottom  of  the  car  with  the  view  of  escaping. 
There  was  a  guard  of  three  confederate  soldiers  in  the  car,  but 
a  number  stood  up  so  as  to  screen  them  from  the  view  of  the 
guard  and  they  worked  diligently.  They  succeeded  in  getting 
the  hole  large  enough  to  let  a  man  through  when  they  stopped. 
Three  of  them  slipped  out  and  escaped  to  the  woods,  his  com- 
panions being  Corporal  Brizee  and  Private  Taylor.  The  plan 
they  first  formed  was  to  strike  north  towards  Nashville,  Tenn., 
distant  fully  350  miles.  They  traveled  nights  and  la}-  concealed 
da^'s.  They  were  fed  by  the  black  men  who  would  not  take  a 
cent  from  them,  but  were  only  too  glad  to  help  them.  It  was 
May  29th  when  they  escaped  and  June  16  they  reached  the 
coast  and  were  taken  on  board  of  one  of  our  gun-boats,  "The 
Winona,"  and  taken  to  Port  Royal,  S.  C,  where  they  were 
cared  for  by  Admiral  Dahlgren  and  b\^  him  sent  to  Philadelphia, 
and  through  the  kindness  of  friends  were  enabled  to  reach  their 
homes.  We  have  the  history  of  their  escape  from  Bartie,  and 
Corporal  Brizee  furnished  an  account  to  the  historian  of  the 
regiment. 


327 

Among  his  Whately  companions  were  Andrew  M.  Weth- 
erell,  brought  up  by  Elbridge  G.  Cx-afts.  He  died  at  Anderson- 
ville  20  Aug.,  1864,  aged  twenty-five  years;  and  Patrick  Mur- 
phy, a  fine  young  Irishman,  who  worked  for  the  writer.  When 
my  son,  Irving  B.  Crafts,  and  Andrew  M.  Wetherell  enlisted 
Pat  said  "If  the  boys  are  going  I'll  go  too."  Hedied  at  Ander- 
sonville  16  March,  1865. 

TsTO  other  of  Whately's soldiers  died  at  Andersonville.  viz., 
John  Brown,  Jr..  who  was  in  the  57th  Regt.,  taken  prisoner  and 
died  12  Oct.,  1864,  leaving  a  widow  and  two  or  three  children. 
He  was  born  in  Whately  in  1820 ;  and  Edgar  Howard  Field, 
an  adopted  son  of  Paul  W.  Field,  who  was  in  the  jjtli  Regt.. 
captured  at  the  battle  of  the  Wilderness  6  May,  1S64,  died  15 
Aug.,  1864.  My  son,  Irving  B.,  was  discharged  for  disability 
in  1863  and  so  escaped  this  imprisonment  as  he  was  in  the 
same  company  the  bulk  of  whom  were  captured. 

THE    GREAT    SWAMP    DRAIN. 

The  Great  and  General  Court  authorized  Governor  Hutch- 
inson to  appoint  a  board  of  commissioners  to  take  charge  of  the 
work  of  constructing  the  great  drain  and  apportion  the  tax  on 
the  proprietors  of  the  land  benefitted  in  the  so-called  Great 
Swamp  in  Hatfield  and  Deerfield.  (The  drain  extended  into 
that  part  of  Deerfield  that  was  annexed  to  Whately. ) 

The  first  rate  or  tax  made  bore  date  21  Aug  ,  1770.  From 
the  size  of  the  tax  it  is  presumed  but  little  had  been  done  before 
this  date.  We  find  the  amount  assessed  to  one  of  the  proprie- 
tors, Nathaniel  Hawks,  21  Aug  ,  1770,  was  i^  9s  5d  if :  at  a 
subsequent  time,  to  wit,  12  xApril,  1774,  6£  is  gd  2f.  This  he 
refused  to  pay  and  the  collector,  John  Waite  of  Whately,  levied 
on  nine  acres  of  land  west  of  the  road  by  the  Barnard  place, 
being  lot  No.  8  now  held  by  Noah  Dickinson's  heirs.  The  col- 
lector made  a  lease  of  this  lot  for  nine  hundred  and  ninety-nine 
years  to  Capt.  Oliver  Shattuck,  the  said  Shattuck  yielding  and 
paying  therefor  to  the  said  Hawks  "One  pepper  corn"  annuall}' 
as  the  rental  for  the  same. 

It  is  not  known  that  anything  further  was  done  on  the  drain 
after  1774  until  1795,  this  time  under  authority  of  the  state  of 
Massachusetts.  At  this  time  the  old  drain  was  cleaned  out. 
enlarged  and  new  lateral  ones  opened.  The  commissioners  for 
this  last  work  were  Gad  Smith,  Gideon  Dickinson  and  William 
Tryon  of  South  Deerfield,  the  work  being  finished  12  Sept., 
1799.     I  will  copy  an  account  from  their  books:      Martin  Graves 


328 

is  credited  for  labor  done  in  Great  Swamp  Drain,  by  clearing  out 

g2-'i  rods  at  Sd.  ^3    is  lod 
7S       rods  at  gd,     2  18    06 
44,      rods  at  3  ^4  d      1 2    i  o 

^6  13s  2d 

We  have  the  names  of  Da\'id  Graves,  Reuben  Crafts,  Lieut. 
Zebadiah  Graves,  Azoniah  Cooley,  'Squire  Cooley,  Eliakim 
Ames.  Capt.  Abner  Cooley,  Lieut.  Elihu  McCall.  Rev.  Rufus 
Wells,  Perez  \\'ells,  Samuel  Marsh.  James  Hale,  Eber  AUis. 
Elisha  Belden.  Asa  Bardwell,  Benjamin  Parker,  Moses  Crafts, 
Graves  and  Seth  Crafts  and  twelve  or  fifteen  others  who  all 
worked  and  earned  from  one  pound  to  six  or  eight  pounds. 
The  number  of  rods  dug  was  3,810^4,  or  11  miles,  29034,  rods, 
making  a  cost  in  all  of  ;/^i58  i8s  3d,  the  average  cost  per  rod 
being  a  trifle  over  ten  pence.  Probably  ^he  owners  of  the  land 
were  allowed  to  work  out  their  proportion  of  the  tax.  There 
were  many  branch  drains.  These  facts  are  gained  from  the 
book  kept  by  the  commissioners  and  are  deemed  perfectly  reli- 
able.     I  have  an  extended  copy  of  their  account. 

The  section  of  land  still  known  as  Great  swamp  extends 
into  Hatfield,  through  Whately  into  South  Deerfield,  about 
four  miles  north  and  south,  and  before  it  was  drained  from 
about  fifty  rods  to  near  a  mile  in  width.  What  is  now  known 
as  the  North  swamp,  above  Christian  lane,  was  the  widest  and 
furnished  much  the  largest  amount  of  water.  This  was  mostly 
carried  off  by  what  we  call  Little  river.  The  South  Great 
swamp  had  its  outlet  near  Egypt  road,  and  it  crosses  Claverack 
road,  and  the  hills  on  each  side  have  always  been  known  as 
Great  swamp  hills.  The  drain  enters  Mill  river,  near  the  Hat- 
field line,  on  the  Gad  Crafts  farm. 


CHAPTER  XIX. 

CENTENNIAL   CELEBRATION. 

A  meeting-  of  the  citizens  of  Whately  was  held  May  i,  1871, 
to  take  some  action  relative  to  the  celebration  of  the  centennial 
of  our  town  ;  Capt.  Seth  Bardwell  presided,  and  Levi  Ford  was 
secretary.  It  was  voted  unanimously  "That  we  observe  the 
town's  centennial  anniversary  on  the  Fourth  of  July  next."  It 
was  voted  to  choose  a  committee  of  twelve,  two  from  each  school 
district,  to  solicit  funds  and  make  all  necessary  arrangements  for 
the  celebration,  and  the  following  persons  were  chosen  as  the 
committee  : 

Southwest  district,  Capt.  Seth  Bardwell  and    Edwin  Bardwell ; 
Northwest  district,  David  Scott"  and  Hiram  Bardwell; 
North  centre  district,  Elon  C.  Sanderson  and  Walter  Crafts; 
South  centre  district,  Francis  G.  Bardwell  and  James  M.  Crafts; 
Southeast  district,  Elihu  Belden  and  Charles  F.  Pease; 
Northeast  district,  Edward  C.  Sanderson  and  Silas  White  Allis. 

At  a  subsequent  time  the  committee  organized  by  choosing 
Capt.  Seth  Bardwell  chairman  and  Elon  C.  Sanderson  as  secre- 
tary.    Voted.  "To  raise  by  subscription  S500  to  pay  the  neces- 
sary expenses  of  the  celebration,"  and  the  following  sub-com- 
mittees and  officers  were  appointed  : 
Treasurer.  Dennis  Dickinson; 
Committee  on  correspondence.  James  M.  Crafts; 
Committee  on  location,   Edward  C.  Sanderson,   Walter  Crafts^ 

Francis  G.  Bardwell ; 
Committee  on  music,   Edwin  Bardwell,  Capt.   Seth.   Bardwell, 

Walter  Crafts ; 


330 

President  of  the  day,  Elihu  Belden,  Esq.  ; 

^'ice  presidents,  James  M.   Crafts,  John  Chapman   Sanderson, 

Esqs.  ; 
Chief  marshal,  Capt.  Seth  Bardwell ; 

Assistant  marshals,   Lieut.  Henr\-  Brown,  Francis  G.  Bardwell; 
Toast  masters,  Rev.  J.  W.  Lane,  William  H.  Fuller,  Esq. 

The  committee  on  selection  of  a  suitable  place  for  the  hold- 
ing- of  the  gathering  reported  that  the  beautiful  maple  grove  on 
the  farm  of  Seth  B.  Crafts  could  be  had,  and  their  report  was 
accepted  by  the  committee.  This  is  on  the  original  Thomas 
Crafts  farm  (the  writer's  great-grandfather),  where  he  settled  in 
1 75 1.  It  was,  and  still  is,  a  beautiful  location.  Great  interest 
was  manifested  by  our  people,  and  from  the  first  success  was 
assured. 

The  day  was  beautiful  and  the  crowd  of  people  that  surged 
into  the  fine,  shady  grounds  was  in  ever}^  way  gratifying  to  all 
that  had  labored  so  constantly  to  make  it  a  success.  .Descend- 
ants of  many  families  were  present  to  add  something  to  the  glad- 
some time.  We  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  and  greeting 
friends  from  Vermont,  New  Hampshire,  Connecticut,  New  York, 
New  Jersey,  Ohio,  Illinois,  Michigan  and  Canada.  The  neigh- 
boring towns  furnished  many  hundreds  ot  interested  visitors,  all 
intent  upon  listening  to  the  many  interesting  as  well  as  eloquent 
speeches  that  were  made. 

A  large  platform  was  erected  for  the  speakers  and  invited 
guests,  and  seats  were  arranged  for  about  three  thousand  peo- 
ple. The  aged  people,  who  were  present  in  large  numbers,  had 
reserved  seats  directly  in  front  of  the  speakers.  There  were 
some  present  who  had  passed  their  four  score  and  ten  years. 
The  large  audience  was  regaled  with  lemonade  and  a  substan- 
tial collation,  with  more  than  twelve  baskets  left.  Indeed,  the 
whole  thing  was  a  success. 

We  would  be  pleased  to  present  many  of  the  speeches,  as 
well  as  the  beautiful  poem  written  by  Rev.  Rufus  P.  Wells,  but 
our  limit  forbids,  so  we  will  only  reproduce  the  opening  speech 
by  Elihu  Belden,  Esq.  This  was  preceded  by  the  singing  of 
America  by  the  entire  audience  led  by  the  bands,  and  a  prayer 
by  Rev.  John  W.  Lane.  Then  Esquire  Belden  gave  the  open- 
ing address  of  welcome  : 

"LADIES    AND    GENTLEMEN: 

It  has  fallen  upon  me  as  a  representative  of  the  descendants 
of  one  of  the  earliest  .settlers  in  this  town,  and  in  behalf  of  its 


331 

citizens,  to  extend  to  you  to-day  our  kindly  greetings  ;  and  I 
assure  you  that  I  but  express  the  feelings  of  all  our  hearts  when 
I  bid  you  a  cordial  welcome.  We  welcome  you  to  the  old 
homesteads  and  all  that  is  left  to  remind  you  of  bygone  years. 
We  welcome  you  to  our  firesides  and  all  that  is  new.  We  wel- 
come you  to  the  festivities  and  associations  of  this  our  hundredth 
birthday. 

Some  feelings  of  sadness  will  mingle  with  our  joys  on  an 
occasion  like  this,  as  we  look  around  and  miss  familiar  faces; 
as  we  recall  the  past,  which  returns  not,  and  recount  the  perils 
and  hardships  of  our  ancestors,  when  these  now  pleasant  fields 
and  meadows  were  almost  a  wilderness.  And  yet  we  come  as 
dutiful  children,  with  our  votive  offerings  of  affectionate  remem- 
brance. And  there  is  a  special  fitness,  which  I  need  not  take 
pains  to  set  forth  at  length,  that  we,  their  descendants,  should 
gather  ourselves  together  on  this  centennial  anniversary  of  the 
incorporation  of  the  town,  to  testify  our  admiration  of  their  vir- 
tues, to  review  the  scenes  and  deeds  of  their  eventful  lives,  and 
unite  in  commemoration  services,  which  may  transmit  their 
names  to  the  generations  yet  to  come  who  will  occupy  the  places 
now  allotted  to  us. 

We  can  speak  with  pride  and  gratitude  of  those  great-grand- 
fathers and  great-grandmothers,  those  grandfathers  and  grand- 
mothers, those  fathers  and  mothers,  who  toiled  and  struggled 
for  us;  who  dared  the  onsets  of  savage  warfare,  endured  the 
privations  of  frontier  life  and  made  any  required  sacrifices  in 
order  to  secure  for  us  the  inheritance  we  now  enjoy. 

We  welcome  with  feelings  of  peculiar  interest  those  who 
were  once  our  citizens  or  children  of  our  citizens,  who  have 
come  from  the  more  distant  parts  of  our  land  and  from  the 
Queen's  dominions,  to  keep  jubilee  with  us  to-day.  We  extend 
to  you  the  right  hand  of  fellowship  ;  we  receive  you  with  a 
happy  greeting,  and  rejoice  that  your  prosperity  in  your  new 
homes  has  not  extinguished  your  interest  in  your  old  native 
town. 

We  welcome  the  citizens  of  Hatfield,  and  are  especially 
glad  that  our  mother  town  has  not  forgotten  us,  and  we  hope  to 
prove  to  you  that  we  are  proud  of  the  relationship. 

We  welcome  the  citizens  of  Williamsburg,  our  sister  town, 
"Twinned  at  a  birth." 

We  welcome  all  who  share  with  us  common  memories  and 
kindred  blood. 


■  332 

May  God  grant  that  the  impressions  received  here  to-day 
from  our  rehearsals  of  the  past,  our  common  offerings  upon  the 
old  home  altars  and  our  rekindled  hopes  may  but  strengthen 
the  cords  that  bind  us  together  and  make  us  better  friends, 
neighbors  and  citizens. 

But  it  is  not  well  for  me  (even  if  I  could)  to  occupy  more  of 
your  time.  We  have  those  present  who  are  capable  of  holding 
your  silent  attention  at  their  will,  and  whose  words  of  wisdom 
you  are  waiting  to  hear." 


CHAPTER  XX. 


SECRET   ORDERS. 

There  has  been  for  many  years  a  few  of  our  citizens  con- 
nected with  orders  of  Free  Masons  and  likewise  of  the  Odd  Fel- 
lows, and  I  deem  it  of  sufficient  importance  to  give,  so  far  as  I 
can,  the  names  of  such  members  as  I  can  recall  as  belonging  to 
either  of  these  orders.  First,  we  will  give  those  of  the  Free  and 
Accepted  Masons,  and  as  far  as  I  can,  will  give  the  year  they 
were  initiated  : 


Peter  Clark,  1796, 
Asa  Frary,  rst,  1797, 
Elijah  Allis.  1797, 
Selah  Munson,  rSoi, 
David  Stockbridge,  1800, 
Zebina  Bartlett, 
Capt.  Salmon  Graves, 
Deacon  James  Smith, 
Rev. John  R.  Goodnough, 
Chester  Brown, 
Jonathan  Smith,   iSiS, 
Austin  Allis, 
Dr.  Richard  Emmons, 
Elijah  Sanderson, 
David  Sanderson, 
Dr.  Francis  Harwood, 
Hubbard  S.  Allis,  1S46, 
Martin  Crafts.    1843, 
Justin  R.  Smith,  1866, 


James  M.  Crafts,  1S69, 
Thomas  S.  Dickinson, 
Myron  Brown,   Nov.,  1S70, 
William  H.  Fuller, 
W.  I.  Fox, 
Albert  S.  Fox, 
Miles  B.  Morton, 
Euther  W.  Clark, 
C.  H.  Stockbridge, 
Edwin  T.  Smith, 
Joseph  L.  Smith, 
John  C.  Faulkner, 
Dr.  J.  D.  Seymour, 
Rev.  E.  B.  Fairchild, 
William  B.  Orcutt. 
W.  W.  Sanderson, 
Freeman  A.  Crafts, 
Charles  E.  Crafts, 
George  E.  Sanderson, 


334 

Dwiglit  L.  Dickinson,  iS66,  \'ictor  D.  Bardwell. 

L.  L.  Eaton,   rS6S, 

During  the  excitement  growing  out  of  the  alleged  abduc- 
tion of  William  Morgan.  Jerusalem  lodge  at  Northampton, 
thousrh  it  did  not  surrender  its  charter,  vet  in  accord  with  the 
demands  of  the  Anti-masonic  party,  suspended  its  meetings  at 
Northampton,  yet  the  members  continued  to  hold  meetings,  in 
connection  with  their  brethren  from  Greenfield  and  adjoining 
towns,  at  \Miately  at  the  hotel  of  David  Stockbridge  in  his  hall, 
where  the  insignia  painted  on  the  walls  is  still  visible.  This 
was  soon  noised  abroad,  and  then  they  had  a  commodious  room 
fitted  up  in  the  two-story  house  of  Capt.  Salmon  Graves,  on  the 
site  of  the  present  house  of  C.  A.  Graves.  I  have  seen  both  of 
these  places  of  meeting,  and  there  is  also  similar  insignia  on 
these  walls.  After  the  excitement  had  in  a  great  measure 
abated  the  various  lodges  were  reopened  and,  for  a  wonder,  are 
very  popular,  and  the  Connecticut  river  still  flows  on  as 
peacefully  as  of  >-ore. 

In  consequence  of  the  violent  and  unreasonable  opposition 
raised  to  Masonry  Rev.  John  R.  Goodnough,  pastor  of  the  Bap- 
tist church  in  Whately-,  was  compelled  to  renounce  Masonry  or 
leave  the  fellowship  of  the  churches,  and  he  decided  to  retain 
his  connection  with  the  Masons  and  his  personal  independence. 

The  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  organized  lodges  at 
Greenfield  and  Northampton.  Nonotuck,  No.  6i,  was  insti- 
tuted in  Northampton,  ii  March  ,1845;  Pocomptuck,  No.  67, 
perhaps  two  years  later;  Alethian,  No.  128,  13  Sept.,  1848, 
at  Shelburne  Falls. 

These  lodges  became  at  once  popular  and  quite  a  number 
of  our  citizens  joined  them,  mostly  Nonotuck,  No.  61.  I  will 
give  a  list  of  the  names,  as  fully  as  I  can,  of  Whately  citizens : 

Col.  R.  B.  Harwood,  "1  George  W.  Moore, 

Samuel  Lesure,  I  Rufus  M.  Swift, 

Josiah  Allis,  |     ^j|  Samuel  C.  Wood, 

Samuel  B.  White,  r  before  George  E.  Wood, 

E.  H.  Woods,  I    1847.  Micajah  Howes, 

J.  R.  Smith,  !  Ryland  C.  Howes, 

James  M.  Crafts,  J  Charles  A.  Coville, 

Edwin  Bardwell,  Leander  F.  Crafts, 

Paul  W.  Field,  Charles  R.  Crafts, 

Salma  \Y .  Field,  Edmund  B.  Crafts, 

Charles  H.  Field,  Henry  S.  Higgins, 


335 

Charles  E.  Bardwell,  John  C.  Field, 

Hiram  Bardwell,  Nelson  H.  Damon, 

Edgar  M.   Bardwell,  Selah  Smith  Graves, 

Lyman  A.  Munson,  Hubbard  S.  Allis,  1S41. 
Henrv  J.  Hoar, 

REMINISCENCES. 

Sometimes  the  memory  of  old  times  will  impress  me  with 
some  curious  scenes  that  used  to  occur  in  the  old  meeting-house 
at  Whately,  and  I  seem  to  see  clearly  the  old-time  faces  that 
were  then  so  familiar  to  me.  As  I  think  over  these  incidents  I 
seem  to  live  over  again  the  scenes  that  then  impressed  them- 
selves upon  my  mind.  Seventy-four  years  ago  I  was  a  bo>"  of 
eight  years  of  age  and  my  parents,  having  great  confidence  in 
me  that  I  should  behave  myself  properly,  allowed  me  to  occupy 
a  seat  in  their  pew  in  the  gallery,  but  didn't  want  me  to  sit  be- 
hind the  singers,  as  it  was  called,  where  a  good  many  mischiev- 
ous young  men  and  boys  congregated. 

Then  people,  old  and  young,  went  to  meeting  forenoon  and 
afternoon  and  often  at  five  o'clock  unless  the  day  was  extremely 
unpleasant.  In  warm  weather  the  boys  went  barefoot  and  the 
men,  if  they  took  a  coat,  carried  it  on  their  arm  often  not  put- 
ting it  on  during  the  day.  Wagons  were  not  as  plentiful  as 
now  and  many  walked  two  or  three  miles,  carrying  their  shoes 
and  stockings  in  their  hands  until  they  were  near  the  meeting- 
house, and  when  going  home  they  would  take  them- off  again 
and  walk  home  barefoot. 

But  what  we  have  to  relate  has  to  do  with  some  of  the 
scenes  enacted  in  the  church.  The  singers'  seats  comprised  a 
double  row  of  seats  on  three  sides  of  the  gallery.  The  singers 
occupied  the  east  side  of  the  gallery  facing  the  pulpit,  while  the 
other  seats  on  the  south  side  were  filled  with  young  men  and 
boys,  and  the  north  side  by  young  ladies  and  girls.  It  is  need- 
less to  say  that  various  flirtations  were  in  progress  between  the 
boys  and  girls,  to  say  nothing  of  laughing  and  giggling,  snap- 
ping apple  seeds  and  throw-ing  apple  cores  and  other  missiles. 
If  they  failed  to  reach  across  the  30-foot  space  they  would  fall 
upon  the  older  people  on  the  ground  floor.  To  keep  order 
among  the  young  bloods  of  both  sexes  one  or  more  tything 
men  were  among  the  singers.  The  particular  one  of  which  I 
shall  speak  was  Deacon  James  Smith,  a  really  pleasant  man, 
but  he  fully  understood  his  business.     He  was  a  large  man  of 


33^ 

over  two  hundred  pounds  avoirdupois,  with  long,  bushy  ej-^e- 
brows  and  sharp  eyes  that  would  faixly  flash  when  with  his 
great  hand  he  would  rap  on  the  counter  with  a  force  that  was 
easily  heard  all  over  the  house,  and  with  a  scowl  on  his  face,  he 
would  point  at  the  disturbers  who  would  most  generally  sub- 
side. If  not,  he  would  march  in  among  them  and  by  his  pres- 
ence overawe  the  mischief  makers.  I  well  recollect  one  Sun- 
day, the  latter  part  of  September,  some  seven  or  eight  tough, 
roistering  young  fellows  occupied  the  pew  adjoining  the  one 
where  I  sat.  To  reach  our  pew  one  step  up  was  needed  and 
the  next  one  two  steps  up,  fully  eighteen  inches.  These  boys 
had  been  down  into  Parsons  Wells'  orchard  and  filled  their 
pockets  with  apples  and  when  the  ser\'ices  commenced  they  be- 
gan to  munch  the  apples  and  "whiz"  would  go  a  core 
across  to  the  girls  on  the  north  side  of  the  gallery.  They  had 
taken  off  the  door  to  the  pew  and  had  laid  a  board  across  in 
front  from  the  sides  of  the  seats.  This  they  had  weakened  so 
that  it  wouldn't  bear  the  weight  of  an  ordinary-sized  man  for  a 
purpose.  They  laughed,  whispered  and  threw  the  apple  cores, 
all  the  more  lively  as  the  deacon's  rapping  became  louder.  At 
last  the  deacon  arose  and  came  with  thunderous  tread  and 
mounted  into  the  pew,  and  every  eye  was  on  him  to  see  what 
would  happen.  He  had  straddled  over  the  board  and  plunked 
himself  down  ;  the  board  broke  and  he  fell  backward  into  the 
aisle,  striking  on  his  head  and  shoulders,  making  things  jar. 
His  fall  caused  much  laughter,  but  not  dismayed  he  regained 
his  feet  and  marched  into  that  pew,  the  boj^s  making  a  seat  for 
him,  even  without  his  demanding  it.  Everybody  laughed,  and 
even  the  good  old  dominie  could  with  difl5culty  restrain  an  out- 
burst at  the  grotesque  figure  cut  by  the  pious  old  deacon,  but 
you  may  safely  bet  your  last  sixpence  that  you  never  saw  a  pen 
of  lambs  that  were  any  more  quiet  than  were  these  fun-loving 

chaps. 

Tything  men  were  endowed  with  constabulary  powers,  and 

at  an  earlier  day  used  to  be  armed  with  a  pole  four  or  five  feet 

long,  with  some  feathers  tied  on  one  end,  and  when  one  of  the 

tired  old  ladies  fell  asleep  and  was  making  too  much  noise  in 

her  open-mouthed  respirations,  the  tything  man  would  use  the 

feather   end  to  tickle  her  face  and  thus  awaken  her,  and  the 

other  end  was  used  to  arouse  some  old  man  if  he  snored   too 

loud. 

Jeremiah  Waite,  an  uncle  of  mine,  was  chosen  to  the  high 

position  of  a  tything  man  of  Whately.     He   had    Levi   Graves 


337 

arrested  for  using  these  wicked  and  profane  words  following, 
that  is  to  say :  "God  damn  you,  to  the  great  displeasure  of 
Almighty  God,  against  good  morals  and  good  manners,  against 
the  peace  of  the  said  Commonwealth,  contrary  to  the  form  of 
the  statute  in  such  cases  made  and  provided,"  dated  at  Whately 
13  April,  1826.  Two  days  later  he  was  arrested  and  arraigned 
for  the  crime.  The  trial  was  held  and  the  aforesaid  Levi 
Graves  was  acquitted. 

A  few  vears  before  this,  while  good  old  Nathaniel  Coleman 
and  his  excellent  wife  were  seated  on  the  back  oi  his  faithful, 
old  black  mare,  going  to  meeting,  it  seems  that  Jacob  Mosher, 
the  cooper,  was  drawing  some  water  and  the  pole  turning  on  the 
pin  made  a  loud<  screeching  noise.  This  so  shocked  their  pious 
sensibilities  that  he  went  to  see  Benjamin  Cooley,  the  tything 
man,  and  ordered  him  to  notify  Mr.  Mosher  that  if  he  didn't 
grease  his  well  sweep  and  stop  that  unearthly  noise  he  would 
have  him  arrested.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  a  ladder  was  procured 
and  the  ofifending  well  sweep  was  duly  aniiointed. 

CEMETERIES. 

These  cemeteries  were  early  located  in  Whately.  That  in 
the  center  of  the  town  is  on  the  west  side  of  Chestnut  Plain 
street  at  or  near  the  top  of  Gutter  hill.  Most  of  the  land  is 
measurably  free  from  stone  and  is  of  a  light  gravelly  soil,  while 
the  north  part  is  underlaid  with  stiff  clay  which  is  retentive  of 
moisture.  This  is  more  particularly  true  of  the  northeast 
corner  which  has  now  been  underdrained  with  tile  and  is 
largely  available  for  the  purposes  of  burial.  This  has  been  en- 
larged by  the  addition  of  land  purchased  from  the  farm  of  Ches- 
ter K.  Waite  and  son  at  two  different  times.  These  additions 
have  been  made  by  .private  enterprise  by  parties  who  desired  a 
lot  for  family  use. 

The  town  has  made  liberal  appropriations  for  the  fencing 
and  care  of  cemeteries,  and  chooses  a  set  of  commissioners  to 
keep  the  grounds  in  order.  This  dates  back  somewhere  near 
1880,  as  near  as  I  can  estimate  it.  Quite  a  number  of  our  citi- 
zens in  this  way  get  excellent  lots.  About  1S75  Rev.  John  W. 
Lane  commenced  agitating  the  subject  of  arranging  the  ground 
by  setting  over  very  many  of  the  headstones  so  as  to  conform  to 
plans  of  the  ground  furnishing  suitable  walks  between  the  head- 
stones, thus  giving  easy  access  to  every  part  of  the  older  portion 
of  the  grounds  where  it  seemed  as  though  everyone  only  cared 


33S 

for  one's  own  self.  Great  credit  is  due  to  Mr.  Lane  for  his  ad- 
mirable work  in  this  cemetery.  It  had  the  effect  to  induce  the 
town  to  do  what  they  have  since  done  under  the  leadership  of 
Leander  F.  Crafts,  who  is  the  sexton  as  well  as  the  chairman  of 
the  board  of  commissioners.  Mr.  Crafts  fully  understands  the 
subject  of  improxnng  the  grounds.  Since  the  work  done  by 
Mr.  Lane,  verj-  many  costly  monuments  have  been  placed  in 
the  cemetery. 

The  Eastern  cemetery  is  located  on  the  south  side  of  the 
road  leading  from  the  Straits  to  the  River  road,  just  at  the  top 
of  Hopewell  hill,  and  east  from  Bartlett's  corners.  For  some 
years  Mr.  David  Ashcraft  has  had  the  control  of  this  cemetery, 
and  under  his  able  super\-ision  the  grounds  have  always  had  a 
cleanlv,  tidv  look,  showing  that  thev  have  been  well  cared  for. 
The  soil  is  easil}'  handled,  wholl}'  free  from  .stone,  dr}-  and  well 
adapted  to  the  purpose  for  which  it  is  used,  and  the  small  sum 
appropriated  by  the  town  serves,  with  the  assistance  of  the  good 
people,  to  keep  it  in  a  creditable  condition.  Probably  the  first 
one  buried  here  was  Joseph  Sanderson  whose  headstone  is  dated 
20  March,  1772. 

The  Western  cemetery  is  on  the  east  side  of  Poplar  Hill 
road  south  of  the  Isaiah  Brown  farm.  This  too  is  a  well  kept 
ground.  It  is  largeh-  free  from  stone  and  boulders,  easy  of  dig- 
ging and  dry.  It  shows  intelligent  care  of  its  grounds,  and  is 
in  evidence  that  the  monej'  furnished  by  the  town  for  its  care  is 
used  to  good  advantage.  The  oldest  headstone  is  that  of  Cla- 
rissa Bardwell,  a  daughter  of  Lieut.  Noah  Bardwell,  who  died 
15  Dec,  1776.  It  has  been  claimed  that  Miss  Charity  Brown, 
who  died  24  Nov.,  t8oo,  aged  forty  years,  was  the  first  adult 
person  buried  there.  This  can't  be  true,  as  Mrs.  Ezra  Turner 
died  7  Jan.,  1777,  aged  thirty-five  years,  Peter  Train  21  Jan., 
1793,  and  full}'  seven  or  eight  others  before  Miss  Brown. 

The  oldest  grave  in  the  Central  cemetery  is  that  of  Esther 
(Bardwell),  wife  of  Daniel  Morton,  who  died  27  Oct.,  1762, 
while  the  oldest  headstone  is  that  of  Jemima,  wife  of  Captain 
Lucius  Allis,  who  died  9  June,  1S64. 

We  can  but  commend  the  liberality  of  the  town  hot  only 
for  the  present  care  of  the  grounds  of  all  the  cemeteries,  but  for 
providing  a  good,  substantial  tomb  for  the  use  of  the  whole  town 
during  the  severities  of  our  winters,  and  affording  a  suitable 
hearse  and  biers  for  the  accommodation  of  our  people  in  giving 
suitable  service  for  the  burial  of  our  dead. 


339 

The  first  hearse  was  given  to  the  town  in  1S24  by  the  heirs 
of  Deacon  Thomas  Sanderson.  This  Deacon  Sanderson  had 
ordered,  but  he  died  before  its  completion. 

LONGEVITY. 

In  looking  over  the  list  of  marriages  where  the  couple  had 
lived  together  over  fifty  years  we  find  the  following: 

Allis,  Elijah  and  Electa,  59  years  ; 

Allis,  Deacon  Russell  and  Sarah,  57 

Bacon,  Benjamin  and  Rebecca,  61 

Bardwell,  Lieut.  Noah  and  Lucy,  60 

Bardwell,  Spencer  and  Sophia,  60 

Bardwell,  Ebenezer  and  Sarah  Tute,  58 

Bartlett,  Zebina  and  Demis,  59 

Belden,  Joseph  and  Margaret,  5'S 

Brown,  Edward  and  Hannah,  62 

Brown,  George  and  Almira,  63 

Chauncey.  Richard  and  Elizabeth,  61 

Crafts,  Thomas  and  Sarah,  61 

Crafts,  Thomas  and  Mehitable,  57 

Dickinson,  Eurotus  and  Sarah,  68 

Dickinson,  Jehu  and  Eleanor,  54 

Dickinson,  Abner  and  Sarah,  62 

Frary,  Isaac  and  Sarah,  59 

Graves,  David  Sr.  and  Abigail,  61 

Graves,  David  Jr.  and  Mary,  50 

Graves,  Matthew  and  Hannah,  53 

Graves,  Deacon  Oliver  and  Rebecca,  56 

Graves,  Oliver  Jr.  and  Abigail,  58 

Graves,  Spencer  and  Lura,  -  54 

Graves,  Edward  and  Elizabeth,  56 

Graves,  Lyman  and  Electa,  58 

Lesure,  Samuel  and  Lucy,  55 

Loomis,  J.  C.  and  Electa,  54 

Mather,  Capt.  Benjamin  and  Abigail,  54 

Morton,  Justin  and  Esther,  67 

Morton,  Consider  and  Mercy,  64 

Morton,  Randall  and  Crissa  A.,  59 

Morton,  Joel  and  Violet,  53 

Munson,  Reuben  and  Sibyl,  .  60 

Robinson,  Hiram  and  Sophia,  53 


340 

Scott,  Phineas  and  Rhoda, 
Smith,  Elisha  and  Sarah, 
Smith,  Bezaliel  and  Levinia, 
Stiles,  Capt.  Henr\'  and  Ruth, 
Waite,  John  and  Harriet, 
Wells,  Perez  and  Elizabeth, 
Wells,  Calvin  and  Thankful, 
White,  Capt.  Salmon  and  Marj^ 
Wood,  E.  H.  and  Sarah, 


67  years  ; 

57 
50 

65 
60 

65 
57 
55 
61 


In  all  forty-seven  couples  with  some  who  came  to  town  and 
whose  dates  of  marriage  we  did  not  obtain.  Mr.  Temple  only 
mentioned  three  couples. 

WOLF    KILLED. 

In  I  So  I  Reuben  Crafts  and  two  other  hunters  killed  a  wolf 
towards  the  south-west  part  of  Whately .  It  had  been  heralded  for 
some  days  that  a  wolf  was  thought  to  be  about  in  this  region. 
The  snow  was  very  deep,  but  they  brought  the  old  rascal  to  the 
center  and  exhibited  it  at  the  store  of  Lemuel  and  Justus  Clark 
which  stood  where  now  is  the  garden  of  Porter  Wells,  south  ot 
his  house.     The  hunters  received  a  bounty  of  ten  dollars. 


CHAPTER  XXI. 

I  regret  very  much  that  the  following  beautiful  article,  de- 
scriptive of  the  Glen,  could  not  have  been  received  earlier,  but 
as  the  printing  has  progressed  while  we  have  waited,  so  we 
assign  it  to  the  best  place  that  is  at  our  disposal,  and  we  are 
only  too  glad  to  give  our  readers  the  beautiful  article  by  our 
noble  townswoman.  Miss  Laura  A.  Sanderson,  the  gifted  poet 
of  Indian  Hill. 

WHAT  ELY. 

She  lies  across  fair  lengths  of  meadow  land, 
And  on  the  hills  where  earth  and  heaven  meet 

She  lays  her  head — while  like  a  gleaming  band 
The  river  moves  majestic  at  her  feet. 

No  stored  wealth  is  hers,  no  world-wide  fame — 
And  yet  she  holds  our  hearts  where'er  we  roam  ; 

And  prince  of  comrades,  whatso'er  his  name, 
Who  says  in  greeting,  "Whately  is  my  home." 

Situated  on  the  western  slope  of  the  Connecticut  Valley 
about  two  miles  north  of  Whately  village,  is  a  broad  plateau 
midway  up  the  mountain  side,  which  is  known  as  Indian  Hill. 
The  point  of  its  location,  opposite  the  abrupt  termination  of  the 
Pocumtuck  range,  renders  the  view  unsurpassed.  It  includes 
the  great  lake  basin  whose  outlet  was  the  narrow  pass  between 
Mt.  Tom  and  Mt.  Holyoke.  while  across  the  meadow  and  be- 
yond the  intervening  band  of  the  Great  Swamp  woods  runs  the 
old  Indian  trail  from  the  fort  of  Umpanchala,  at  Hatfield,  to 
Sugar  Loaf  or  Mt.   Wequomps.     It  was  to  the  broad  level  of 


342 

this  western  plateau  and  the  mountain  solitudes  above,  that  the 
Indians,  crowded  from  their  valley  hunting  grounds,  made  their 
last  camp.  The  Roaring  brook  swarmed  with  trout  and  the 
heavily  timbered  heights  were  a  natural  game  preser\'e  which 
amply  supplied  their  simple  needs. 

Into  this  sylvan  solitude  the  white  man  came,  and  in  the 
mouth  of  the  gorge  where  the  brook  first  flashes  into  the  sun- 
lighi  he  built  a  rude  mill,  catching  the  rushing  waters  in  a  little 
lake  upon  whose  ancient  bed  the  city  now  enjoys  its  lunch  at 
the  picnic  tables,  l^he  site  of  the  dwelling  house  hard-by  is 
still  noticeable.  Here  came  the  settlers  on  horse-back  or  in 
their  rude  farm  wagons,  bringing  the  grain  of  their  own  raising  ; 
ai:d  the  Indians  brought  their  scanty  harvest  also  aud  begged 
srrain  of  the  kind-hearted  miller. 

In  later  years  a  dam  was  laid  across  the  stream  farther 
down,  and  a  saw  and  gristmill  under  one  roof  were  built.  The 
old-fashioned  up-and-down  saw  was  a  wonder  in  its  day  and 
played  a  prominent  part  in  furnishing  lumber  for  the  houses  of 
those  early  times.  Hidden  in  a  hollow  of  the  hills,  the  roaring, 
hurrying  brook  became  a  tranquil  lake  over  whose  grassy  banks 
the  trees  leaned  to  watch  their  own  reflection  in  its  crystal 
depths.  At  its  outlet  the  escaping  waters  ran  their  course 
through  the  racewav  of  the  mill.  The  noisv  stream  was  well 
known  to  the  Sanderson  children  who  played  in  its  clear  waters 
on  scorching  summer  days  and  went  fishing  in  the  spring  and 
fall.  They  called  it  "up  the  brook."  But  the  beauty  of  the 
place,  with  its  grandeur  of  primeval  forest  whose  mighty  mon- 
archs  stretched  their  giant  arms  high  over  the  long  vista  of 
foaming  waters,  remained  unnoticed. 

In  1836  there  came  to  the  town  and  was  installed  as  pastor 
of  the  little  band  of  worshipers,  the  Rev.  John  Ferguson,  a 
strong  and  noble  character,  with  the  burr  of  Scotland  upon  his 
tongue  and  the  love  of  nature  and  nature's  God  in  his  heart. 
"Priest"  Ferguson  his  people  called  him,  and  his  wise,  forceful 
and  witty  sayings  are  still  remembered.  The  picture.sque  scen- 
ery of  our  rocky  township  was  a  reminder  of  his  boyhood  home 
in  far-off  Berwickshire.  The  drive  over  Chestnut  mountain  and 
the  view  from  Dickinson's  hill  and  the  Old  Oak  were  favorites 
of  his,  and  he  was  not  long  in  discovering  the  roaring  brook 
with  its  wild  and  rugged  surroundings  for  which  he  conceived  a 
deep  and  ardent  admiration.  He  came  again  and  again,  bring- 
ing his  friends  to  enjoy  the  place,  and  it  was  he  who  first  named 
it  "The  Glen." 


343  . 

One  of  his  daughters,  ^Irs.  Margaret  Allen,  was  the  hero- 
ine of  an  almost  fatal  accident  during  one  of  these  excursions. 
While  crossing  the  stream  on  the  trunk  of  a  fallen  pine  that 
bridged  the  chasm,  she  slipped  and  fell  upon  the  jagged  rocks 
below,  escaping  death  as  by  a  miracle.  To  reach  the  roadway 
by  following  the  brookside  path  was  an  impossibility,  and  by 
almost  superhuman  exertion  her  senseless  form  was  carried  up 
the  precipitous  bank,  and  she  lives  to  tell  the  story  to  her  chil- 
dren's children  who  come  from  afar  to  visit  the  place  and  recall 
its  memories. 

There  are  tragic  tales  too,  of  the  old  Conway  road,  where 
just  below  Staddle  hill  a  plain  black  headstone  is  inscribed  : 
"Killed  on  this  spot  by  being  throw-n  from  a  wagon.  Philo  Bacon, 
July,  1825."  It  was  right  against  these  ledges  that  the  bruised 
and  lifeless  body  of  the  sturdy  farmer  was  found. 

One  summer  evening  in  the  long  ago,  the  family  at  the  old 
homestead  heard  the  sound  of  a  wagon  lumbering  along  up  the 
hill  and  creaking  past  the  house  ;  but  they  did  not  know  that 
the  driver  was  dozing  on  the  seat,  nor  that  slow-going  faithful 
Dobbin  had  taken  the  old  mill  road  and  was  wandering  further 
and  further  out  of  the  way;  past  the  tidy  tiers  of  lumber; 
past  the  piles  of  slab-wood  and  the  gristmill  door;  past  the 
log-wav  of  the  mill  ;  on  a  little  further  vet,  over  the  bank 
and  down  into  the  brimming  pond.  The  horse,  snorting  and 
terrified,  turned  instinctively  in  an  effort  to  gain  the  shore,  and 
the  luckless  driver,  wakened  from  a  sound  sleep  by  the  over- 
turning of  the  wagon,  bewildered  by  the  darkness  and  unable 
to  swim,  struggled  helplessly  beyond  his  depth  and  sunk  to  rise 
no  more.  The  astonished  miller  found  the  horse  the  next  morn- 
ing, and  suspecting  the  truth,  drained  the  pond  and  recovered 
the  body. 

In  later  times  tragedy  has  given  place  to  comedy,  and 
many  the  luckless  one  who  has  dried  his  garments  over  a  broil- 
ing fire  on  a  hot  July  day,  or  gone  home  clad  in  make-shift 
habiliments.  It  is  recorded  that  several  parties  of  girls  who 
went  wading  in  the  water  above  the  upper  falls,  found  their 
shoes  wholly  unwearable  and  were  forced  to  return  past  the  pic- 
nic grounds  in  barefoot  procession,  to  the  undisguised  delight 
of  the  camera  fiend  who  happened  to  be^llong. 

While  occasional  visitors  sought  the  place,  no  effort  was 
made  to  render  its  delights  accessible  to  the  world  at  large  until 
i860,  when  Whately  church  installed  as  pastor  a  worthy  sue- 


344 

cesser  to  the  godh'  men  who  had  held  the  ofEce  before  him. 
In  full  vigor  of  mind  and  body,  with  a  keen  perception  oi  artis- 
tic values  and  a  broad  and  comprehensive  grasp  on  all  practical 
problems.  Rev.  John  W.  Lane  was  ready  at  all  times  to  minister 
not  only  to  the  spiritual,  but  to  the  material  needs  of  the  town. 
In  one  of  his  numerous  pedestrian  trips  he  followed  the  course 
of  the  rushing  stream  over  the  slippery-  boulders  and  moss- 
grown  ledges  into  the  depth  and  solitude  of  the  silent  forest, 
and  was  charmed  with  the  quiet  beauty  of  the  scene.  He  sought 
to  improve  the  place  by  clearing  the  path  of  brushwood  and  the 
falls  from  its  accumulation  of  debris,  and  being  mindful  of  the 
welfare  of  others  in  this  as  in  all  other  things,  he  from  time  to 
time  persuaded  photographers  to  visit  the  place  and  secure  views. 
These  pictures  given  by  him  to  many  people  and  oftered  for  sale 
by  photographers  at  different  places,  caused  the  Glen  to  become 
widely  known  and  thus  brought  it  to  public  notice. 

In  the  early  '70's  the  Glen  was  invaded  by  the  enterprise  of 
the  age.  Roadways  crept  along  the  precipitous  banks,  bridges 
stretched  across  the  stream,  logways  climbed  the  mountain  side, 
and  the  mighty  forest  fell  before  the  onslaught  of  steel  and  mus- 
cle. The  old  mill  was  remodeled.  New  and  improved  machin- 
ery took  the  place  of  slow-going  methods.  The  whir  of  the  cir- 
cular saw  was  heard,  the  golden  grain  rode  up  to  light  in  its 
Aladdin-like  elevator.  Old  times  had  passed  away.  The  Glen 
was  a  scene  of  devastation,  with  its  shady  sides  bare  to  the  blaze 
of  the  sun,  the  swift-running  stream  choked  with  rubbish,  the 
paths  filled  with  brush,  and  desolation  everywhere.  The  Glen 
passed  through  its  Purgatory  of  neglect.  Years  went  by  and 
nature,  as  ever  heroic  to  conceal  the  scars  of  her  wounds,  made 
haste  to  reclothe  her  rugged  slopes  and  shelving  banks.  The 
spring  floods  came  swirling  down  the  gorge.  The  massive  tim- 
bers of  the  bridges  were  loosened  and  swept  away  by  the  re- 
morseless waters,  and  to-day  only  a  faint  trace  of  the  winding 
roadway  remains,  unused  save  as  the  denizens  of  the  forest 
wander  down  its  \\'Oody  ways  on  their  nocturnal  rambles- 

Even  the  remodeled  mill,  with  its  marvel  of  machinery',  is 
but  a  picturesque  ruin  now,  and  the  squirrels,  who  for  genera- 
tions held  undisputed  right  to  corners  and  crevices  for  the  stor- 
age of  their  winter  food  supply,  revel  in  the  situation  and  drop 
saucy  admonition  and  empt}'  shells  on  the  heads  of  those  who 
acamping  come-  The  erstwhile  brimming  pond  is  a  green 
meadow  thick  covered  with  clover  and  buttercup  blossoms, 
through  which  the  brook  but  hurries  on  its  way. 


345 

In  the  autumn  of  1884,  Elbridge  Kingsley,  the  painter- 
engraver,  came  to  the  Glen  with  his  sketching  car.  The  first 
and  only  artist  to  thoroughly  understand  the  mystery  of  our 
Indian  summer  haze  and  color,  he  found  the  hills  alight  with 
royal  welcome.  Some  of  his  most  famous  engravings  were  here 
conceiv'ed,  and  many  of  his  daring  successes  in  color  first  blazed 
along  the  banks  of  the  stream.  His  fame  in  the  world  of  art 
and  his  wonderful  personality  have  brought  his  disciples  to  the 
place.  Here  too,  came  his  brethren  of  the  block  and  burin, 
notably  John  P.  Davis,  pioneer  and  leader  of  the  Society  of 
American  Wood  Engravers,  and  Gustave  Kruell,  the  famous 
portrait  engraver.  It  is  unquestionably  to  Artist  Kingsley  that 
the  great  popularity  of  the  Glen  in  late  years  is  due.  Of  his 
impressions  of  the  place  he  says  in  poetic  prose  : 

"Striving  for  hidden  values  is  a  condition  of  the  human  soul 
in  its  earthly  seeking  for  the  infinite.  The  Creator  dictates  : 
'My  best  is  in  the  depths  of  the  sea,  in  the  fastness  of  the  rock, 
in  the  floating  summer  cloud,  beyond  the  reach  of  all  but  your 
highest  aspirations.' 

"Mankind  longs  for  the  ideal  resting  place  while  in  the 
turmoil  of  practical  life.  The  Connecticut  Valley  is  rich  in  such 
refuge  from  the  eternal  grind,  and  nature  spreads  abroad  the 
meadow  carpet,  the  sylvan  groves  of  elm  and  maple  in  the 
valley,  digs  the  rocky  glen  in  the  mountains  as  invitation  for  the 
weary  soul  to  rest  from  the  heat  and  dust  and  seek  once  more 
the  unknown  beyond. 

"Like  unto  a  dragon's  mouth  is  the  gorge  at  Whately  Glen, 
and  the  dragon  guards  the  fairy-  fountain  while  it  weaves  gar- 
lands of  fancy  for  the  generations  that  come  and  go  along  its 
borders. 

"The  winter  frosts  build  wonderful  palaces  of  the  overhang- 
ing mists  among  the  bending  evergreens,  in  springtime  the 
opening  buds  dance  a  unison  with  the  colors  of  the  rainbow, 
and  when  summer  merges  into  autumn  a  gorgeous  phalanx  of 
maples  comes  trooping  down  from  the  blue  to  be  reflected  in  the 
mirror-like  pools- 

"But  it  is  so  restful,  so  peaceful,  to  sit  in  the  cooling  shad- 
ows of  the  mountain  at  sunset  and  look  for  miles  down  the  smil- 
ing valley.  Softly  the  light  steals  awa}'  over  the  hill.  Gloom 
gradually  settles  over  the  beautiful  vision  and  blackness  issues 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Glen.  Soon  naught  is  left  but  the  light 
of  the  stars  and  the  murmur  of  falling  waters  on  the  evening  air. 


346 

"Long  may  the  rocky  dragon  guard  the  fair>'  fountain  at 
Whately  Glen  for  the  happiness  of  future  generations  of  men.  ' 

And  as  here  in  the  grim  solitude  of  the  rugged  steep,  deep 
in  the  heart  of  the  hills,  we  find  this  rhythm  of  poesy  rippling  in 
its  wondrous  cadence  from  rock  to  rock  on  its  waj^  to  an  oblivion 
in  the  immensity  of  ocean,  so  underneath  the  sometimes  for- 
bidding exterior  of  the  true  old-time  New  Englander  we  find 
deep  in  the  heart  a  love  of  beauty,  a  passion  for  art,  a  lofty  con- 
ception of  true  ideals,  that  are  a  revelation  to  those  who  have 
never  discovered  the  breadth,  the  depth  and  the  fineness  of 
character  exemplified  by  our  best  types  of  Puritan  descent- 
The  superficial  obser\'er  might  cross  the  hills  a  hundred  times 
and  never  find  the  Glen. 

The  message  of  the  Glen  is  but  the  same  that  comes  from 
all  our  hills  and  valleys  to  the  wanderers  who  have  gone  forth 
into  the  busy  world,  and  who  as  the  river  of  Time  broadens  and 
deepens,  can  hold  their  early  associations  only  as  a  precious 
memory.  ^ 

The  woodland  path  still  runs  by  gate  and  bridge. 
Beneath  the  trees  deep  shadows  linger  cool ; 

The  sheen  of  summer  rests  on  rock  and  ridge, 
The  speckled  trout  lurks  in  the  darkling  pool. 

And  Nature  ever  reigns  triumphant  here, 

To  rich  and  poor  her  steadfast  grace  she  shows, — 

While  round  the  circle  of  the  flying  year 
Her  carnival  of  seasons  comes  and  goes. 

Her  message  permeates  the  solitude  ; 

High  on  the  hills  her  warning  beacons  burn ; 
Her  winds  go  wailing  in  the  wayside  wood, 

"O  children  of  mankind,  return,  return." 

"Lay  by  your  grief,  forget  your  wrongs  and  ills, 
Tear  loose  the  thorns  that  hedge  your  onward  way  ; 

Come  to  the  consolation  of  the  hills, 

The  earthly  peace  that  God  shall  hold  for  aye." 


1 


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CHAPTER  XXII. 

THE    SANDERSON    HOMESTEAD. 

Beneath  the  ancient  roof-tree  of  the  old  farmhouse  at  Indian 
hill  four  generations  have  come  and  gone — a  sturdy,  thrifty, 
level-headed  race,  tracing  their  ancestry  from  Robert  Sanderson, 
master  of  the  mint  at  Boston,  who  devised  the  Pine  Tree  shil- 
ling. His  descendant,  Deacon  Thomas  Sanderson,  Esq.,  one  of 
the  first  and  foremost  settlers  of  the  town,  owned  and  occupied  a 
broad  tract  of  land  running  south  from  Sugar  Loaf  mountain 
and  extending  from  the  Connecticut  river  to  Conway  line.  This 
was  originally  a  part  of  Deerfield,  but  was  annexed  to  Whately 
through  the  influence  of  Deacon  Sanderson.  He  selected  Indian 
hill  as  the  best  location  and  reser\'ed  three  hundred  and  fifty 
acres  for  his  homestead. 

The  original  story-and-a-half  house  was  built  in  1769  and 
remains  intact,  while  each  generation  has  added  thereto.  Dea- 
con Thomas  Sanderson  at  his  death,  divided  the  farm  between 
two  of  his  sons,  but  his  grandson,  Elon  Chester  Sanderson, 
bought  back  the  property  and  also  the  farm  on  the  south,  thus 
obtaining  control  of  the  hillside  towards  Whately,  which  he 
cleared  to  secure  a  view  of  the  town. 

Elon  Sanderson  at  his  death,  likewise  divided  the  farm  be- 
tween his  two  sons,  but  the  land  has  been  bought  back  again 
by  his  son,  George  Elon,  who  lives  on  the  old  farm. 

The  saw  and  gristmills,  situated  on  Roaring  brook,  are  on 
his  farm,  as  is  also  the  famous  Whately  glen. 


348 

THE    SUMMER    RESIDENCE    OF    HON.    T.    P.    BROWN. 

This  place  was  first  occupied  by  Samuel  Grimes,  who  built 
about  1797,  a  large  house  that  he  used  for  his  dwelling,  a  store, 
and  later  as  a  hotel.  He  was  succeeded  by  Leonard  Looniis,  a 
nsphew  of  ]\Irs.  Grimes,  who  continued  the  store  for  several 
years  in  company  with  Rev.  Dan  Huntington  and  Edward 
Phelps.  About  1S50  Mr.  Loomis  sold  off  the  front  house  and 
built  all  new.  About  1873  it  was  sold  to  Thomas  Sanderson, 
and  it  is  now  owned  by  Hon.  Theophilus  Brown  of  Toledo,  O., 
as  a  summer  residence.  Of  course  there  have  been  many 
changes  and  improvements  made  by  Mr.  Brown,  and  every- 
thing inside  as  out,  shows  a  refined  taste  and  a  love  of  the 
beautiful.  The  picture  will  show  the  much-appreciated  trees 
that  afford  such  a  luxur>'  of  shade. 

RESIDENCE    OF    GEORGE    B.    MCCLELLAN. 

This  site  was  first  occupied  by  the  house  of  Moses  Frary. 
He  came  to  Whately  at  a  very  early  period  and  built  a  house 
on  the  west  side  of  the  land  left  for  the  Chestnut  Plain  road  even 
before  it  was  surveyed  and  permanently  laid  out,  probably  in 
1750  to  '55.  He  sold  to  Noah  Coleman  in  1753.  He  was  born 
at  Hatfield  in  1718,  and  married  Lydia  Waite,  a  granddaughter 
of  Benjamin"  Waite.  They  had  no  children  and  adopted  Seth 
Frary,  and  he  came  into  possession  of  the  large  estate.  He  was 
a  soldier  in  the  Revolutionary  war.  He  sold  to  John  B.  Morton, 
who  was  followed  by  his  son,  Eurotus  Morton,  and  he  sold  to 
Elias  B.  McClellan,  who  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  George  B. 
McClellan,  who  has  entirely  remodeled  the  house  and  barns. 
It  is  now  one  of  the  best  residences  in  town,  surrounded  as  it  is 
by  a  wealth  of  trees  and  shrubbery  all  indicative  of  refinement 
and  love  of  the  beautiful. 

The  fine  house  of  John  H.  Pease,  near  the  Whately  station, 
was  built  in  1867  by  Chester  G.  Crafts,  Esq-  It  is  a  beautiful 
residence  surrounded  by  beautiful  shade  trees,  all  indicating  a 
home  of  comfort  and  refinement. 

THE    CAPT.    SALMON    WHITE    HOUSE. 

In  1762  Capt.  Salmon  White  built  on  the  west  side  of 
Chestnut  Plain  street,  probably  on  lot  No.  13  or  14,  in  the  fourth 
division  of  Commons,  I  think  on  No.  13  though  he  owned  both, 
and  later  acquired  others,  but  13  had  been  assigned  to  his  father. 
Salmon  when  he  built  in  Whately,  was  thirty-one  years  of  age, 


349 

and  had  married  Marv-  Waite,  a  daughter  of  Joseph  and  Mary 
(Warntr)  Waite,  who  was  born  in  1730.  She  was  a  remark- 
able woman,  famous  as  a  successful  practitioner  of  midwifen.-. 
She  presided  at  the  birth  of  over  one  thousand  children,  riding 
to  all  the  adjoining  towns.  He  was  probably  for  many  years 
the  most  popular  man  in  the  new  town.  He  was  succeeded  by 
his  son,  Esquire  John  White,  who  was  very  prominent  in  town,  ■ 
a  shrewd  business  man  and  withal  popular  and  much  in  office, 
interested  in  evenv'thing  calculated  to  advance  the  interest  of  the 
town.  This  house  was  painted  white  about  1823  or  '24.  and 
was  the  first  one  that  I  recollect.  The  baseboards  were  painted 
a  bright  red.  making  a  strange  contrast,  and  remained  so  four 
or  five  years  when  they  were  painted  white.  The  next  owner 
was  his  oldest  son,  Luke  Brown  White,  Esq.,  and  then  it  came 
down  to  Henry  K.  White  and  is  now  owned  by  his  son.  Henry 
Kirk  White,  and  his  mother.  It  sets  back  from  the  street  about 
five  rods  and  I  have  heard  Esquire  John  say  that  there  were 
many  trees  east  of  the  house  and  they  used  to  capture  many 
partridges  there. 

All  of  these  owners  were  well  known  to  me  except  Capt. 
Salmon.  They  were  thorough-going,  patriotic  men,  accustomed 
to  occupy  a  leading  position  in  church  and  town.  About  1S24, 
I  think,  the  large  barn  was  struck  by  lightning  and  burned. 
They  had  a  large  farm  and  were  among  our  best  farmers,  as 
well  as  citizens.  While  Capt.  Salmon  White  was  the  chosen 
and  gallant  leader  of  our  citizen  soldiery,  occurred  the  Lexington 
alarm,  the  call  for  troops  at  Bennington,  Bemis  Heights  and 
Saratoga,  when  Gen.  Burgoyne  surrendered  his  whole  army. 
All  honor  to  the  brave  old  patriot.  Well  may  his  descendants 
cherish  his  memory. 


CHAPTER  XXIII. 

THE    SELECTMEN    OF    WHATELY    FOR    THE    YEAR    189S. 

I  feel  just  a  bit  diffident  about  expressing  m}'  feelings 
relative  to  such  dignitaries,  but  can  find  no  legitimate  way  to 
a^•oid  it.  Of  course  it  would  be  eaiiv  to  write  pages  relative  to 
this  group  of  officials,  but  I  must  take  them  one  at  a  time  and 
sa}-  a  few  words  telling  of  his  peculiar  fitness  for  the  place. 
First  let  me  say  that  they  are  all  broad-minded,  liberal,  as  well 
as  generous  men,  and  well  fitted  for  the  position  they  so  well 
filled,  and  the  town  should  be  congratulated  for  selecting  these 
men  to  manage  their  affairs. 

The  chairman,  Seth  B.  Crafts,  is  a  model  man  for  the  place. 
After  getting  the  facts  he  never  hesitates  to  indorse  applications 
wheri  it  is  right  and  proper,  or  to  say  no  when  the  circumstances 
demand  it,  and  is  ever  ready  to  give  his  reasons  why  he  needs 
to  protect  the  interests  of  the  town,  while  he  always  gives  his 
decisions  so  pleasantly  that  the  petitioner  goes  away  convinced 
that  a  ju.st  conclusion  has  been  reached  and  the  town's  interests 
subserved.  Such  men  have  usually  business  enough  of  their 
own  to  attend  to  and  really  feel  that  the  added  burden  is  un- 
desirable, yet  from  patriotic  principles  have  allowed  themselves 
to  be  continued  in  office.  I  need  hardly  say  that  in  his  efforts 
to  consen'e  the  interests  of  the  town  he  has  been  ably  seconded 
by  those  gentlemen  ser\-ing  on  the  board  with  him. 

Willis  F.  Waite  is  a  lineal  descendant  of  Sergt.  Benjamin 
Waite  and  fits  into  the  place  he  holds  upon  the  board  capitally. 
He  is  a  careful,  frugal  farmer  with  a  good  stock  of  brain  power, 


i5i 

modest,  gentlemanly,  always  ready  to  listen  to  the  claims  of 
those  who  approach  him  in  reference  to  town  affairs,  weighs 
carefully  the  statements  and  decides  in  accordance  with  his 
convictions,  and  no  one  has  reason  to  complain  of  his  manly 
action.  Liberal  in  politics  and  religion,  free  from  bigotry  and 
superstition,  really  an  excellent  citizen  :  honest  and  above  board 
in  his  life's  work. 

Of  Lemuel  F.  Graves  we  can  say  nothing  to  detract  from 
the  high  e.steem  in  which  he  is  held.  It  seems  as  though  everv 
impulse  of  his  generous  nature  is  indicated  by  his  splendid  por- 
trait. He  is  one  of  the  most  thrifty  of  our  farmers,  industrious, 
frugal,  as  well  as  persistent  in  following  up  his  plans  for  im- 
provement. He  gets  out  of  the  old  ruts  and  works  on  the  lines 
of  progress,  while  I  may  say  he  is  a  careful  instead  of  a  sharp 
man  for  he  weighs  well  the  laws  that  govern  trade  and  acts  as 
his  convictions  require,  gentlemanly  and  courteously.  He  too 
descends  from  ancestry  of  which  he  may  well  be  proud.  We 
are  glad  to  present  the  group  in  our  work  wiiich  they  as  a  unit 
advised  issuing. 


GENEALOGIES. 


ABBREVIATIONS. 


Ae  for  aged;   abt  for  about;   Amh  for  Amherst; 

Ash  for  Ashfield;   b  for  born;   bapt  for  baptized; 

Ch  for  children;   Con  for  Conway;   d  for  died; 

Dau  for  daughter;   Dfld  for  Deerfleld;   Gtid  for  Greenfield; 

Had  for  Hadley;   Hat  for  Hatfield;   m.  for  married; 

Xthn  for  Northampton;   prob  for  probably;   rem  for  removed; 

Rep  for  representative;   res  for  residence  or  resided; 

Sund  for  Sunderland;   unm  for  unmarried; 

Yrs  for  years;   Wh  for  Whately. 


ABERCROMBIE,  Robert,  prob  a  son  of  Rev.  Robert 
Abercrombie  of  Pelham,  a  weaver  by  trade.  He  may  have 
been  in  the  British  army  and  possibly  a  deserter.  Of  this  we 
have  only  traditions.  He  is  credited  with  building  the  Plyna 
Graves  house  in  Christian  lane.  He  m  (i)  Elizabeth,  dau  of 
Abiel  Bragg  of  Wh,  28  Jan.,  1779.  She  d  and  he  m  (2) 
26  Jan.,  1786.  Thankful  Bragg,  a  sister  of  his  first  wife.  He 
had  rem  to  Chesterfield.     Two  ch  : 

William,  bapt  19  March.  1780:  Agnes,  bapt  20  Oct.,  178-2. 

ABBOTT,  LYMAN  B.,  son  of  Joseph  R.  and  Minerva 
(Frary)  Abbott  of  North  Hat,  b  9  Jan.,  1843,  m  3  July,  r866, 
Julia  R.,  dau  of  Horace  Waite.  He  was  in  the  array  in 
the  Civil  war  and  a  prisoner  at  Andersonville,  Ga.  After  a 
number  of  years  they  rem  to  Florence.     No  ch. 


ADAMS,  354  ALLIS, 

ADAMS,  Alpheus  A.,  son  of  Amos  and  Lucinda  (Col- 
man)  Adams,  b  at  Wilmington,  Vt.,  7  Oct.,  1832.  m  26  June, 
1S69,  Hattie  L  .  dau  of  Edwin  Gould,  b  19  July,  1844.  They 
rem  to  \Vh  in  1879.  He  d  i  March,  1895,  ae  63  yrs.  Was  a 
shoemaker.  Two  ch  : 
Hugh  Elliot,  b  29  May.  1873:  Edwin  Clark,  b  2  April,  1878. 

ALDEN,  Barnabas,  and  wife  Mehitable,  came  to  Wh 
from  Plainfield.  He  was  a  lineal  descendant  from  John  xAlden 
of  Plymouth,  d  in  Wh  i  April,  1830,  ae  70  yrs.  His  wife  d  23 
Sept.,  1847,  ae  83  3'rs.     Two  ch  : 

Mehitable.  b  1796.  d  iinm  at  Wh  13       Barnabas  Gilbert,  b  prob  at  Plainfield 
March,  1829.  ae  33  yrs:  no  dates. 

Barnabas  G.,  son  of  Barnabas,  b  prob  at  Plainfield,  m  i^ 
Sept.,  1835,  Paulina,  dau  of  Selah  and  Mary  (Strong)  Graves 
of  Wh,  b4  April,  1799.     They  both  d  at  Con  I  don't  have  the 

dates.      No  ch. 

ALLEN,  Thomas,  came  from  Connecticut  before  1770, 
lived  on  lot  No.  13  in  the  second  division  of  Commons  just  below 
the  Josiah  Gilbert  place  in  the  Straits  on  the  west  side  of  the 
roadway.  The  house  was  built  by  Benjamin  Bacon.  After  a 
few  years  they  rem  to  Shelburne.      Ch  : 

Daniel,  b  in   Ct.    1759,    d   at   Wh  12       Lydia,  bapt  at  Wh  24  March,  1773; 

March.  1772,  ae  13  yrs:  And  there  ^yere  others  whose  names  I 

Lydia,  b  in  Ct.  iu  1702^^  d  at  Wh  11  don't  know. 

March.  1773.  ae  11  yrs: 

1  ALEXANDER,  Joseph  ",  son  of  Joseph  '\  Joseph  ^ 
John  '^  John  '-,  John  ^,  came  from  Had  after  1790  and  lived  on 
the  Rufus  Sanderson  farm.     He  was  of  Scotch  descent,  b  at  Had 

19  April,  1750,  m  (i)  Sarah ,  no  dates;  m    (2)   7  March, 

1793,  Hannah,  dau  of  Nathan  Waite  of  Wh.     Nine  ch  : 

Josiah.  b  8    March,    1779,   d  in    Dec.  Polly,  b  1792,  d  at  Wh  2  Sept.,  1796, 

following  :  ae  4  yrs; 

Lvdia,  b  3  March.    1781,   d   3   Sept.,  Elizabeth,  b  prob  at  Wh  11  Jan.,  1794, 

1781;  d  21  Sept.,  1796: 

Thankful,  b  30  Dec.  1783  ;  Luther,  b  prob  at  Wh  8  April,  1797; 

Polly,  b  9  April,  1786.  d  1  Dec,  1786;  Calvin,  b  prob  at  Wh  1798;     (2) 

Levi,  b  prob  at  Wh  abt  1800.     (3) 

2  Calvin,  son  of  Joseph  Ci),  b  prob  at  Wh  1798,  m  17 
Sept.,  1829,  Jane,  dau  of  Orange  Bardwell,  b  27  Oct.,  1801,  rem 
to  Buckland. 

3  Levi,  .son  of  Joseph  (i),  was  m  and  built  the  W.  H. 
Fuller  place  in  Canterbury,  now  owned  by  John  H.  White. 
Mr.  Alexander  rem  from  town  soon  after  building  his  house. 
He  m  Maria,  dau  of  William  and  Tirza  (Morton)  Mather  of 
Wh.     Maria  was  b  after  Mr.   Mather  rem  to  New  York  state. 

1  ALLIS,  William,  came  from  England  prob  abt  1635. 
Our  first  knowledge  of  him  was  when  he  took  the  Freeman's 


"•«3' 


355         ALLIS. 

oath  at  Braintree  13  May.  1630.  Perhaps  it  is  well  here  to  re- 
mark that  only  such  men  as  were  members  of  the  church  were 
allowed  to  take  the  Freeman's  oath  and  as  John  Fiske  says  : 
"It  was  decided  no  man  shall  be  admitted  to  the  freedom  of 
this  body  politic  but  such  as  are  members  of  some  of  the 
churches  within  the  limits  of  the  same  "  [Beo:innings  of  New 
England  pp  109.]  On  page  123  he  says:  "None  but  church 
members  should  vote  or  hold  ofEce."  (I  mention  these  facts  as 
showing  the  tendency  of  theageto  have  the  privilege  of  a  Free- 
man to  vote  and  hold  office. )  To  do  this  it  was  the  first  step  to 
join  an  orthodox  church.  Hence  we  find  that  William  Allis 
availed  himself  of  these  privileges,   prob  before  his  marriage. 

He  m  (I)  Mary  ,   who  d   10  Aug.,    1677:    (2)  Mary,  dau 

of  John  Bronson  and  widow  of  John  Graves,  she  was  also  the 
widow  of  John  Wvattof  Haddam,  Ct.,  before  she  m  John  Graves 
of  Hat.  She  m  Lieut.  William  Allis  25  June,  1678,  and  after 
his  decease  6  Sept.,  1678,  she  m  Capt.  Samuel  Gaylord.  She  was 
doubtless  an  attractive  woman.  Mr.  Allis  was  quite  prominent 
at  Braintree.  Among  other  positions  he  held  the  office  of 
cornet  or  2d  lieutenant  in  the  troop  or  mounted  men,  also  had 
the  supervision  of  building  a  road  from  Boston  to  Providence. 
About  1662  he  rem  to  Hat  where  he  was  a  leading  citizen,  a 
trusted  lieutenant  of  John  Pynchon  of  Springfield,  commissioner 
to  end  small  causes  or  minor  law  suits,  often  on  advisorv-  com- 
mittees with  such  men  as  Peter  Tilton  and  Lieut.  Samuel  Smith 
when  they  were  empowered  to  say  who  should  be  inhabitants  of 
Dfld,  regulate  the  herding  of  cattle  and  swine,  advise  about  the 
institution  of  a  church  and  getting  a  good  orthodox  minister, 
etc..  etc.  At  3  later  date  the  Great  and  General  Court  ap- 
pointed Lieut.  William  Allis,  Thomas  Meekins,  Sr.,  Sergt.  Isaac 
Graves,  Lieut.  Samuel  Smith,  Peter  Tilton  and  Samuel  Hins- 
dale to  be  a  committee  to  act  in  all  respects,  to  lay  out  the 
farms,  to  admit  inhabitants  at  Dfld.  Garrisons  were  established 
in  various  towns,  that  at  Hat  being  made  up  of  thirty-six  men 
under  Lieut.  William  Allis,  and  he  had  much  to  do  as  com- 
mander of  a  squad  of  soldiers  in  getting  out  timbers  for  fortify- 
ing Hat  in  the  winter  of  i677-'78.     He   d  6    Sept.,    1778.     Ch  : 

John,  b  5  March,  1642;     (3)  William,  b  10  Jan..  16.i3,  d  Julv.  1653: 

Samuel,  b  24  Feb.,  1647:     (3)  Hannah,    b    1654.    m   28    Jan..    1670. 

Josiah.  b  1649,  d  25  Oct.,  1651:  William  .Scott  : 

Josiah,  b  20  Oct..  1651;     (Of  him  I       William,  b  11  Oct.,  1655.  dli)  May. 1076: 
know  no  more.)  Mary,  b  1657.  d  unm  25  Feb.,  1600. 

2  C.\PT.  John,  son  of  William  (i),  b  at  Braintree  5 
March,  1642,  d  Jan.,  1691,  m  14  Dec,  1669,  Mary,  dau  of 
Thomas  Meekins  and  widow  of  Nathaniel  Clark.  She  m  (3) 
Samuel  Belden  of  Hat,  res  at  Hat.     Twelve  ch  : 

Joseph,  b  11  .Nov..  1670.  m  Naomi 
.  He  was  killed  by  In- 
dians 19  June,  1724: 

Abigail,  b  25  Feb.,  1672,  m  Ephraira 
Wells  23  Jan.,  1696; 


Hannah, 

b 

9   Oct.. 

1673, 

m 

Samuel 

Butler; 

Ichabod, 

,  b 

10  July, 

1675; 

(4) 

Eleazer, 

b; 

23  July, 

1677; 

(5) 

ALLIS.  356 

Elizabeth.  1)  4  April.  1(579.  m  James  Rebecca,  b  10  April,  1083,  m  30  April. 

Bridgmai)  18  Julv,   1704:      '  1702.  Nathaniel  Clraves  of  Hat; 

Lvdia.  b  lo  Aus:..   lliSO.  d  31    Aug..  William,  b  IG  May,  1684:     (6) 

l(j91:  Nathaniel,  b  I680:     (7) 

John,  b  10  May,  1()82.  m    (1)    ^^aiy  Maiy.  b  2o  Aug..    I(i87,    d   20   April, 

Lawrence,  (2)  Bethia  Field;  1688. 

3  Samuel,  son  of  William  (i),  b  24  Feb.,  1647,  d  9  March, 

1691,  m  Alice ,      She  m   (2)    Sergt.  John  Hawks,  res  in 

Hat.     Seven  ch  : 

Mehitable.  b  2   Julv.  1677.  m  Benoni  Mary,  b  6   July,    1682.    m    Nathaniel 

Moore,  13  Dec!,  1698;  Brooks  of  Dfid.  3  Feb..  1710; 

Samuel,  b   20    Feb.,    1679,    killed   29  Thomas,  b  12  March,  1684.  m  Mehit- 

P'eb..  1704.  battle  of  French  and  able : 

Indians  at  Dfld;  Sarah,  b  I680  : 

William,  b  19  Oct..  1680,  m  Elizabeth  Rebecca,  b  29  Nov.,  1687. 

Davis: 

4  ICHABOD,  son  ot  Capt.  John  (2),  b  at  Hat  10  July  1675, 
d  9  Jul)'.  1747.  m  (i)  1698,  Mary,  dau  of  Samuel  Belden,  Jr.,  b 
27  Aug..  1679,  d  9  Sept..  1724;  m  (2)  25  Nov..  1726,  Sarah, 
dauof  Benjamin  Waite  and  widow  of  John  Belden.  She  was 
captured  and  carried  to  Canada  in  1677,  res  at  Hat.     Eight  ch : 

Abigail,  b  28  Feb.,  1700.  m  Nathaniel  Samuel,  b  12  Dec.  1705-     (8) 

"Smith  of  Sund:  Sarah,  b  11  Jau.,  1708,  m  Joseph  Mil- 
Lydia.  b  7  Jan..  1702.  m  Daniel  Dick-  ler.  14  Nov..  1734; 

in.son  of  Hat.  d  1737;  Bathsheba.  b  12  Jan.,  1710,  m  Jona- 
Martha,  b  19  Nov..  1703.  m  (1)  John  than  Warner.  1734; 

Wells   of     Hat,     (2)     Nathaniel  Abel,  b  21  July,  1714,  m  14 Dec,  1735. 

Hammond     of     Hardwick,     (3)  Miriam  Scott; 

Kellogg;  Elisha.  b  3  Dec,  1716.     (9) 

5  Eleazer,  .son  of  Capt.  John  (2),  b  at  Hat  23  July,  1677, 
d  Nov.,  1758,  ae  82  yrs,  m  (i)  17  March,  1720,  Jemima  dau  of 
John  and  Sarah  (Banks)  Graves  of  Hat,  widow  of  John  Graves 
and  mother  of  Deacon  Nathan  Graves  of  Wh,  b  at  Hat  30  April, 
1693,  d  18  Feb.,  1727;  m  (2)  14  Nov.,  1734,  Martha,  widow  of 
John  Crafts  and  dau  of  John  and  Sarah  (White)  Graves  of  Hat, 
b4  Nov.,  1689,  d  at  Hat  5  June,  1780,  res  Hat.  Two  ch  by 
first  wife  : 

Jonathan,  b  22  June,  1723,  m  Submit,       Eleazer,  b  15  Dec,  1725.     (10) 
d  abt 1797,  no  ch; 

6  William,  son  of  Capt.  John  (2),  b  at  Hat  16  May, 
1684.  m  15  Dec,  1709,  Mary,  dau  of  Jacob  Griswold,  prob  of 
"Wethersfield,  Ct.,  as  he  rem  to  that  town  and  lived  and  d  there. 
Five  ch  : 

Mar\-.  b  22  Nov..    1711.    m    Ebenezer      Sarah,    b   6   Oct..    1715,    m    Ezekiel 

Sanford ;  Kelsey ; 

Lydia,    b    14    Sept.,.    1713,    m    John       .Ann.  b  1720,  m  Samuel  Pike  ; 

Collins;  .       John,    b   11    Sept.,    1726,    m  Zerviah 

Hart;  one  son,  Abel,  b  1740. 

7  Nathaniel,  son  of  Capt.  John  (2),  b  at  Hat  1685,  m 
(i)   28  Nov.,   1705,  Mercy  Dudley,  who  bore  him   twelve   ch. 


357 


ALLIS. 


She  d  29  June,  1731  ;   m  (2)  Elizabeth 

Araonsr  his  twelve  ch  the  seventh  ch  was  : 


-,  res  a  Bolton  Ct. 


John,  b  at  Bolton,  Ct.,  10  Nov.,  1718. 


(11) 


8  Rev.  S.\muel,  son  of  Ichabod  (4),  b  at  Hat  12  Dec, 
1705,  d  16  Dec,  1796,  ra  4  Nov..  1729,  Hannah,  dau  ot  John 
Sheldon  of  Dfid,  b  i  Oct.,  1707, 


Julius,  b  18  Sept.,  1732,  m  Hannah 
Dickinson,  14  Nov.,  1755: 

John  and  Jabez.  (twins),  b  12  Nov., 
1734;  John,  m  (1)  Sarah  Burt, 
(2)  Esther  Dwight;  Jabez  prob 
d  early : 

■Samuel,  b  abt  1735.  m  3  times,  rem 
to  Martinsburg,  X.  Y.  :  7  eh  ; 

Lucius,  b  14  May,  1737,  m  3  times, 


settled  at  Somers,  Ct.      Ninech  : 

res  at  \Vh  and  Con.  10  ch  :     (12) 
Abel,  b  22  Oct.,  1745.  m  (1)  Hannah 

Porter.  ( 2  i  Lydia.  d  in  Ct.  : 
Lemuel,  b  22  June,  1747,  m  20  Jan., 
1779,  Elizabeth  Djivis.  d  Plain- 
field,  was  in  the  Revolutionaiy 
army  and  was  pensioned  17  April, 
1818,  S9(5  per  year. 
The  other  two  I  cannot  follow. 


9  Elisha,  son  of  Icbabod  (4),  b  at  Hat  3  Dec,  1716,  d 
17S4.  m  (i)  20  Dec,  1744,  Anna,  dau  of  John  Marsh  of  Had  ; 
(2)  Widow  Sarah  Cutler,  dau  of  Samuel  Reed  of  Burlington,  d 
25  March,  1807.  They  both  had  large  possessions  and  their 
marriage  agreement  is  quite  too  long  for  insertion  here.  They 
res  at  Hat.      Seven  ch  : 


Anna,  m  5  July,  1734,  Dr.  Josiah 
Poraeroy,  res  at  Keene,  N.  H. ; 

Electa,  d  unm  ae  20  vi's ; 

Josiah,  b  1754:     iVPf) 

John,  b  18  Jan.,  1756,  m  Esther  Part- 
ridge, res  at  Hat ; 


Abel,  a  doctor,  b  1757.  m  Miss  Allen, 
relative  of  Col.  Ethan  : 

William,  b  1758,  m  Sophia  Smith, 
rem  to  Lowville,  X.  Y.  : 

Elisha,  b  17(30,  m  Widow  Mary  (Dick- 
inson) Ingram,  dau  of  Obadiah 
Dickinson  of  Hat. 


10  Eleazer,  son  of  Eleazer  (5),  b  at  Hat  15  Dec,  1725, 
d  7  Sept.,  1779,  m  Lucy,  dau  of  Deacon  Obadiah  Dickinson  of 
Hat,  b  20  Nov.,  1731.  They  res  at  Hat  where  he  kept  a  hotel 
many  years.     Six  ch  : 


Eleazer.  b  17(55  ;     (15) 
Jemima,  m  Salmon  Waite  of  Williams- 
burg ; 


Clarissa,  m  Oliver 


Ha.stings 


of   Hat. 


Lucy,  b  abt  1753,  m  15  March,  1770, 

Joseph  Nash  of  Wh ; 
Sarah,  b  20  Nov.,  1757,  m  11  March, 

1777,  Deacon  Levi  Morton  of  Wh; 
Daniel,  b  1763  ;     (14) 

11  John,  son  of  Nathaniel  (7),  b  prob  at  Bolton.,  Ct.,  10 
Nov.,  1718,  d  June,  1768,  m  3  Feb.,  1742,  Mary  Munger,  and 
rem  to  Guilford,  Ct.,  and  to  two  other  places  and  in  1765  to 
Dfld  where  he  d.  They  had  prob  9  ch,  as  I  think  they  had  a 
dau  Lydia.     Ch  : 

Abel,  b20  Feb..  1743: 

AcU'on,  b  1748,  m  4  April    1791,   Hul- 

dah  Snow  of  Wh: 
Eber,  b  abt  1761,  m  (1)  Sarah  Mann, 

(2)  Sarah   Cooley.   res  at   South 

Dfld,  had  several  ch  ; 
Timothy,  d  7  Feb.,  1751; 
Timothy,  b  5  Dec,  1752,  m  Elizabeth 

Clark  and  res  at  Huutingtou,  Ct., 

6ch  ; 
John,  b  15  Dec.,  1753;    (16) 


Daniel,  b  1754,  d  soon  after; 

Russell,  1)  28  April,  1756  ;     (17) 

Prob  Lydia.  b  later  who  m  Bezaliel 
Sniith. 

Of  this  family  Aaron,  Eber.  John  and 
Russell  and  perhaps  Abel  were 
all  in  service  in  the  Revolutionary 
army.  It  is  quite  probable  that 
the  order  of  birth  as  well  as  dates 
are  not  absolutely  correct. 


ALLIS. 


358 


12  Capt.  Lucius,  son  of  Rev.  Samuel  (8),  b  at  Somers, 
ex.,  14  May,  1757,  m  (i)  10  Dec,  1761,  Jemima  Bliss  who  d  at 
Wh  9  June,  1764  :  (  2  )  Mary,  dau  of  Thomas  Wells  of  Dfid,  who 
d  2  July,  1776;    (3)  16  June,  1777,  Mehitable,  dau  of  Nathaniel 


Graves  of  Athol,  who  d  31  July 
dau  of  Eleazer  Graves  of  Athol. 

Zehiidu.  li  7  .Jan.,  ISii;^,  m  Isaiie  Wing 

of  Con : 
Child,  li  ;!  Jnnr,  ITCi-l,  at  Wh,  d  saine 

dny  : 
Sanmcl,  ]>  20  .]un(\   ITfiT,  ni  Hannah. 

dau  of  Israel  and  Mary;  Paitridgej 

1  Jirkjnson  of  rittsliold  ; 
Lucins.    li   111   .lune,     ITOs,     ni    Jane 

Con<']    and    res    in    Charleuiont. 

no  rli : 


I  Sod:  (4)  30  Aug.,  1S04,  Lois, 
res  at  Wh  and  Con.     Nine  ch  : 

Solomon,  b  26  April.  ITGfl,  ni  Anna  P. 

Dickinson   of    Pittsfield.    res    at 

Con:     (18) 
Sarah,  h  15  April,  1771: 
Thomas  Wells,    b   10   Oct..    1772,    m 

Sally  Allen,  res  in  N.  Y.  state,  at 

Skeneatles,  had  3  ch  ; 
Elijah,  b  7  Oct..  1773.  rem  West,  m 

l.ydia  Warren  of  Con,  had  ■)  ch  : 
John,  b  3  Aug..  1778.  m  27  Nov.,  1805, 

Lois  Weston. 


13  Col.  Josiah.  son  of  Elisha  (9),  b  at  Hat  1754,  d  17 
April.  1794,  ae  40  yis,  m  i  March,  1774,  Anna,  dau  of  Elisha 
Hubbard  of  Hat,  b  at  Hat  26  Dec,  1755,  m  (2)  27  Nov.,  1799, 
Salmon  White  of  Wh,  d  21  June,  1839,  ae  83  yrs.  He  rem  to 
Wh  abt  the  time  of  his  marriage.  He  was  very  prominent  in 
church  and  town  affairs,  much  in  office,  also  colonel  in  the 
militia.  He  res  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  Irving  Allis. 
Eleven  ch  : 


Elijali.  b  21  I  ).'t..  1775.  at  Wh  :     (V^) 
Electa,  b  10  Feb..   1777.  m  10   Dec, 

1802,  Elial  Allen  of  Dfld: 
Josiah  Jr..  b  5  Jan..  1779:     (20) 
Anna,  b  3    Dec.    1780.    m   1    March. 

1811.  Chester  Sanderson,  rem  to 

Ash: 
Lucy,  h  12   Dec,    1782.    m    19  Jan., 

1804.    3Iaj.    Thomas     Sanderson 


of  AVh  : 
Henry,  b  29  July.  1784  ;     (21j 
Jerre.  be5  JulT,  1786:     r22) 
Sally,  b  22  April.  1788,  m  2  Jan. 

Eurotns  Dickinson  of  Wh  ; 
-\lmira.    b    3    Oct..    1790.    m 

Bridges : 
Stalham,  b  1  iMav,  1792;     (23) 
Elisha,  b  4  Jan..  1794.     (24) 


1812, 
Elam 


14  Daniel,  son  of  Eleazer  (io),bat  Hat  1763,  d  26  Oct., 
182S,  ae  65  yrs.,  m  2  March,  1782,  Lydia,  dau  of  Peter  Train  of 
Wh,  b  1763,  d  17  Feb.,  1849,  ae86yrs,  resatWh.     Twelve  ch  : 


Moses,  b  20  Sept..   1782.  m  and  res 

awav  from  Wh ; 
Daniel,  b  20  Sept..  1784.  m  30  Nov.. 

1810.  FanuT.  dau  of  Heman  Swift 

of  AVh.  d  11  Jan..  1818,  at  West 

Wh  : 
Eler\z(n-.  b  17  July,  1788,  d  young: 
Harris,  b  13  Fel).".  1788; 
Osee.  b  20  Jmie.  1790:     (25) 


EurotuB  and  Otus,  (twins),  b  27  May. 

1793: 
Austin,  b  12  June,  1794;     (26)      ' 
Martha,    b  30  Sept..    1795,   m   Capt. 

En  OS  Waite  of  Wh ; 
Lvdia.  b  11  Oct..  1797.   m   22    Jan., 

1818:  Justus  3Ioiton  of  Wh  : 
Sophia,  b    24   ;May,    1800,    m    Henry 

Waite  of  W^h: 
Eleazer.  b  23  Sept.,  1803.     (27) 


IS  Eleazer,  .son  of  Eleazer  (lo),  b  at  Hat  1765,  d  abt 
1S23  at  Allis  Hollow,  Pa.,  m  (i),  Mar\-  Ingram  of  Amh,  who 
bore  him  eight  ch.  She  d  and  he  m  (2),  Miriam  Pudmont  of 
Georgia.  Vt.,  who  bore  him  three  ch.  He  then  rem  to  Pennsyl- 
vania and  m  (3)  Esther  Rutty  who  bore  him  ten  ch  ;  in  all 
twenty-one  ch.     He  res  several  3'ears  at  Wh.     Our  space  win 


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359  ALLIS. 

not  allow  any  further  notice  except  that  the  families  have  annual 
reunions  and  number  nearly  four  hundred  descendants. 

16  John,  son  of  John  (ii).  b  15  Dec,  1753.  m  1775, 
Dolly  West  of  Bolton,  Ct.  He  was  a  long  time  a  Revolutionary 
soldier  from  Dfid,  having  served  three  years  in  a  Connecticut 
regiment.  He  d  1790,  and  his  widow  m  (2)  4  Aug.,  1791,  Master 
George  Roberts  of  South  Dfld.      Four  ch  : 

Daniel,  b  abt  1780  :  Lydia.  bapt  at  Wh  15  Dec,  IT'.IO,  after 

John,  bapt  at  Wh  15  Dec,  1790,  a-ftor  the  death  of  the  father: 

the  death  of  the  father  ;  David,  bapt  at  Wh  15  Dec ,  1790,  after 

the  death  of  the  father. 

IT  Russell,  son  of  John  (11)  b  prob  at  Guilford,  Ct.,  2S 
April.  1756,  came  with  parents  to  Dfld,  d  at  Wh  6. March.  i>S35, 
ae  78  yrs,  11  m,  ra  1775,  Sarah,  dau  of  Jonathan  Edson  of  Wh, 
b  1757,  d  9  Jan.,  1S32,  ae  75  yrs  7  m.  He  was  a  saddler  and 
harness  maker  bv  trade,  a  deacon  of  the  Baptist  church  and  res 
at  Wh.     Six  ch': 

Roxa,  b  24  Feb.,  177(3,  m  Lemuel  Demis.  b  81  Dec.  1782,  m  Zel^na 
Waite  of  Wh  ;  Bartlett  of  Wh  : 

Sarah,  b  19  April.  1778.  m  David  Aunis.  b  18  Ft'b.,  1784,  lu  Thomas 
Stookbridge,  Jr..  of  Wh :  ^larsh  of  Wh: 

Lura,  b  19  Feb.,  1780.  m  Joseph  Smith  Polly,  b  Apiil.  1780,  111  Chester  Deldeu 
of  Wh,  m   (2)  Amasa   Woodruff;  of  Wh. 

18  SOLO-MON,  son  of  Capt.  Lucitis  (12),  b  at  Con  26  April. 
1769,  d  7  Nov.,  1S23,  m  14  March,  1794,  Anna  P.,  dau  of  Israel 
and  Mercy  (Partridge)  Dickinson,  Ii\-ed  in  Con.     Ten  ch  : 

Parthena,  b  17  Jan.,  1795,  m  Willard  Elijah,  b  14  March.  1805.  m  ^lelissa 

Crittenden  :  Tobj- ; 

Lucius,  b  2  Sept..    1790,    m   6   Oct.,  Lois,  b  3  April.  1SU7,  m  Asabel  Stone. 

1825,  Fanny  A.  Griswold  :  1829  : 

Thomas  Wells,    b   3    Aug.,  1798.  m  Maiy  W..  b3  July,  1809,  m  Lot  Hall 

Elizabeth  Clements :  of  Ash  : 

John  Dickinson,  b  22  June,  1801.  m  Elliot  C.  b  13  Feb..  181(5  :     (28) 

Lydia  Smith  of  Wh   4  Oct.,  1826  :  Edward  P.,  b  9  Feb..  1819.  m  Isahelle 
Emily  W..  b  1  Oct.,  1803,  m  Lyman  H.  Jennings  2  Aprd,  1851,    res  at 

Smith  of  Wh ;  Adrian.  Mich. 

19  Elijah,  son  of  Col.  Josiah  (  13),  b  at  Wh  21  Oct.,  1775, 
d  9  July,  i860,  ae  85  yrs,  m  27  Nov.,  1800,  Electa,  dau  of  Capt. 
Salmon  and  Mary  (Waite)  White  of  Wh,  b  22  Sept.,  1775,  d  8 
April,  1859,  ae  84  yrs.  They  lived  together  over  58  yrs.  He 
w^as  the  oldest  of  1 1  ch,  and  his  father  dying  at  an  ear]\-  age, 
largely  upon  him  devolved  the  care  of  the  large  fannl>-  and  of 
the  large  farm  and  other  interests  of  the  family  estate.  He  was 
a  large-minded  man  and  easily,  as  well  as  early,  developed  those 
business  habits  that  marked  him  as  a  bkillful  manager  He 
was  town  clerk  and  assessor  for  several  yrs  and  rep  to  the  Gen- 
eral court,  deputy  sheriff  and  postmaster  12  yrs  and  an  equal 
number  of  yrs  a  hotel  keeper,  also  in  trade  a  few  yrs.  He  was 
one  of  the  brainiest  men  ever  raised  in  Wh,  forward  in  improve- 
ments of  all  kinds,  a  gifted  public  speaker,  also  a  genial,  pltas- 
ant  companion  with  a  hearty  laugh  that  v\ould   convince    the 


ALLIS.  360 

most  skeptical  that  he  enjoyed  a  good  joke.  We  are  glad  to 
present  our  readers  a  portrait  of  Mr.  AUis.  His  long  life  was 
spent  in  our  town.      Four  ch: 

Salmon  White,  b  27  Nov..  1801;    (20)  Judith    White,   b   8    Nov..    1807,    m 

Josiah.  b  17  .Inly.  1803  :     (80)  .Myron  Hanvood,  ]\I.  D.,  his  first 

l,ydia.  b  1  Dec,  ISO-"),  m  ^lyron   Har-  wife, 
wood,  yi.  D..  his  second  wife; 

20  JosiAH,  Jr..  son  of  Josiah  (13),  b  5  Jan.,  1779,  d  15 
Nov.,  1S4S,  m(i)  Mary  Bull,  (2)  Elizabeth  Ames  Gould,  res 
Plattsburg,  N.  Y.     Ten  ch  : 

Euiiiy.  b  1  Jan.,  1810,  m  William  Van  June.    1843,    N.  J.  Cookingham  : 

ValkenburK  :  Asha.  b  17  Nov.,  1819.  d  voung; 

Jerry,   b  27  Sept.,  1811.    m   o    Sept.,  Lemira,    b  25  Jan.,   1822'.  m  D.    W. 
1834.  Christian  Quackeubush  :  Sutton; 

Horace    L!..   b  18   Oct.,    1813.   m    18  Marj,  b  3  March.  1824.  d  voung; 

Dec,  183!).  Martha  C.  Atkins;  Henrv  E.,  b  25  Dec,  1826,'m  20  Jan., 

Josiah,  Jr.,  b  20  Aug.,  1815,  d  young  :  1800,  C.  J.  Holcomb  ; 

Josiah     Jr.,    b    18  July,    1817!^   m  17  Asha,  b  29  April,  1831,  d  soon. 

21  Henry,  son  of  Col.  Josiah  (13),  b  at  Wh  29  July.  1784, 
d  24  Jan.,  1824,  m  Charlotte  Phelps,  res  Plattsburg,  N.  Y. 
Four  ch : 

Anna,  b  22  June,  1816.  d  unm  1890;       Elijah,    b   19  June,  1820,  m  4  June, 
Mar\-   P.,    b  15  May.  1818,    m    L.  O.  1801,  Emily  O.  Hayes: 

Dunning:  John,  b  7  April,  182;',  m  Mary  Dera- 

ing. 

22  Jerre,  son  of  Col.  Josiah  (13),  b  at  Wh  25  July,  1786, 
d  19  April.  18S5,  m  i  Oct.,  1S14,  Mary,  dau  of  Dea.  Salmon 
and  Lydia  ( Amsden)  White  of  Wh,  b  3  June,  1793.  d  2  Feb., 
1877.  They  settled  at  Cazenovia,  N.  Y.,  rem  thence  to  Mil- 
waukee, but  Mr.  Allis  d  at  Franklin,  N.  Y. ,  almo.st  99  yrs  old. 
Five  ch : 

Edward  Phelps,  b  31  Dec,  1815.  d  16  Henrv  Callahan; 

Aug.,  1831 ;  Edward  Phelps,  b  12  May.  1824.  m  13 

Elisha.  b  2(5  Aug. ,    1819,   d  25  Aug.,  Sept..  1848.  Margaret  M.  Watson; 

1831  :  Lucy  Jane,  b  19  Sept.,  1828,  m  J.  T. 

Mary   .\nn,   b  4  Aug..  1821,  m  Rev.  Gilbert. 

23  Stalham,  son  of  Col.  Josiah  (13),  b  at  Wh  i  May, 
1792,  d  II  June,  1864,  ae  72  yrs,  m  24  Dec,  1818.  Annis,  dau 
of  David  and  Sarah  (AUis)  Stockbridge  of  Wh,  b  17  Dec,  1798, 
d  9  Dec.  1S38;  ra  (2)  II  Sept..  1839,  Eliza,  dau  of  Joseph 
Sanderson,  d  12  July,  i860,  and  he  m  (3)  Mrs.  Eliza  Wood, 
dau  of  Abner  and  Martha  (Wells)  Dickinson,  formerly  of  Wh, 
then  of  Ohio.  Col.  Josiah  d  when  Stalham  was  3  yrs  of  age. 
His  mother  m  (2)  Salmon  White,  Jr.,  two  years  after  the  death 
of  Col.  Josiah,  and  took  Stalham  with  her.  He  lived  with  Mr. 
White  until  old  enough  to  go  to  a  trade,  when  he  was  apprenticed 
to  Maj.  Thomas  Sanderson  at  Canterbun,',  the  east  part  of  Wh, 
and  learned  the  tanner's  and  shoemaker's  trade.  After  the 
death  of  Maj.  Sanderson  he  had  charge  of  the  business  for  his 
sister,  the  widow  of  Maj.  Sanderson,  until  1825,  when  he 
bought    out    Solomon    Atkins    and    sons     and    moved    to    the 


36  r         ALLIS. 

center  of  the  town  continuing  in  the  same  business  and  accu- 
mulated a  good  estate.  He  was  a  liberal  minded  and  valuable 
citizen,  foremost  in  all  improvements  and  was  often  in  town 
office.  He  was  stern  and  inflexible  in  purpose  when  satisfied 
that  he  was  right.  He  was  the  architect  of  his  own  fortunes. 
We  present  his  photo.     Six  ch  : 

Hubbard  S..  b  4  Oct..  1819:     (SI)  13  Nov..  1831  ; 

Elisha  Chapman,  b    (5   April.  1821.  d  Edward  Phelps,  b  28  3[av.  1828.  d  3 

unm  1  Got.,  1848:  Dec.  1831  ; 

Elam  Bridges,  b  10  July.  1823;  r32)  Stalham  Edward,  b  29  ^fay.  1833.  d 
.Stalham   White,  b    12  ^July.    182U.  d  unui  29  3Iarch.  1890. 

24  Elisha,  son  of  Col.  Josiah  (13),  b  at  Wh  4  Jan..  1794, 
d  6  Aug.,  1S67.  m  (i)  6  Nov.,  1S21,  Nancy,  dau  of  Gamaliel 
and  Nancy  (Kellogg)  Loomis  of  Prattsburg.  N.  Y.,  b  in  Con- 
necticut 19  Oct.,  1799,  d  2  Nov.,  1S28  ;  m  (2)  Diantha.  dau  of 
James  and  Diantha  Stanley  of  Cazenovia,  N.  Y.,  b  19  March, 
1 868.  d  3  May,  1S70.  He  rem  to  Cazenovia  in  18 12  when  six- 
teen years  of  age.     Eleven  ch  : 

lufaat.  b  and  d  22  Aug.,  1822 :  1861,      Harriet     Newell     Little. 

Nancy  E.,  b  2  Aug.,  1823,  d  13  March,  Judge  A  His  now  resides  at  Sj-ra- 

1845:  cuse.  N.  Y.  : 

Electa    Anna,    b   5  Sept..    1824.   m  o  Diantha  Sophia,  b  9  April.  1837:  d  G 

Sept..  1844.  Dr.    Joseph    W.    T.  Dec:  1841: 

Rice:  Jesse  Ashbel.  b   13   Sept.,  1840,  m  1 

Benjamin    B.,    b    0    Nov.,    1826,    d6  Oct.,  1873.  Ellen  E.  Moore: 

Aug.  1828:  Elisha  Burrill.  b  18  Nov.,  1846,  d   14 

Sophronia  Loomis.  b   1  Oct.,  1828,  m  Aug..  1847: 

25  Nov.,  1857.  M.McN.  Walsh  of  Burritt  Elihu.    b   26    Dec.  1849:  d  15 

Rochester.  N.  Y.  ;  Dec.  1850: 

Augustus  GridleyS..  b  5  Jan..  1831,  m  Herbert  [Morrill,  b  8  Jan..  1853,  d  29 

(Ij  Caroline   Barrett.    (2)1  Oct.,  Jan..  1853. 

25  OSEE,  son  of  Daniel  (14),  b  at  Wh  26  June.  1790,  d  6 
March,  1829,  ae  28  yrs,  m  5  Nov.,  1813,  Alice,  dau  of  William 
and  Tirzah  (Morton)  Mather  of  Wh,  b  24  April,  1794.  They 
res  at  Wh,     Two  ch  : 

Austin,  b  1814,  d  15  July,   1820,    ae       Infant,  b  1819,  d  5  Jan.,  1821,  ae  2 
6  yrs ;  yrs. 

26  Austin,  son  of  Daniel  (14),  b  at  Wh  12  July,  1794,  d 
23  June,  1852,  m  (i)  24  Oct.,  1825,  Samantha,  dau  of  Elijah 
and  Sally  (Loomis)  Sanderson  of  Wh,  b  26  Nov.,  1S05,  d  26 
Dec,  1836,  ae  31  yrs  ;  m  (2)  ^Ivira,  dau  of  Job  Warner  of 
Williamsburg.     Seven  ch  : 

Adaline  S.,  b  28  Feb..  1826:  Austin  Judson,  b  8  Dec. .  1836  :     (33) 

Sarah  Frances,  b  19  May,  1828  ;  Isabel  Josephine,  b  13  April.  1840.  m 
Luther  Sanderson,  b  22  Aug.,  1830:  Charles  Tanturu ; 

Mary   Louise,    b   15    Mav,    1832,    m  Ernest  Austin,  b  30  June.  1842.     (34) 
Hiram  M.  Smith  of  Wh  ; 

27  Eleazer,  son  of  Daniel  (14),  b  at  Wh  23  Sept.,  1803, 
m  at  Guilford,  Vt.,  20  Sept.,  1829,  Miranda,  dau  of  William 
Cook  of  Hat,  b  12  June,  1805,  d  18  Dec,  1894.  They  rem  to 
Paynes  Point,  Ogle  County,  111.  He  and  his  three  sons  all 
served  in  the  army  i86i-'65.     He  d  18  Jan.,    1884.     Eight  ch : 


ALLIS.  362 

Ruth  W..  h  at  Hat  21  :\raT.  1880,  m  in  the  ai-rny.  22  Feb.,  1864; 

l(i  Maivh.  1857,  Milo  Haselton  ;  Anna  ]\r.,  b  at  Hat  3  July,  1838,  m  10 

Saiali.  1.  at  Hat  2  June.  1832,  m  E.  C.  March,  18o9.  George  Ireland: 

Bragg.  4  Oct.,  1854,  res  at  Wil-  Eugene,  b  at  Hat  27  Sept.,  1841,  m  18 

lianisburg  ■  Jan.,  1859,  Kate  Peterfield  ; 

Eni.'lineC.  b  at  Hat  30  April,  1834.  Eliza,  b  17  Aug.,  1844,    m   but   lack 

ni  1  Jan.,  1857,  Lorenzo  .S.  Bard-  husband's  name  ; 

well  of  Hat,  but  rem  to  Paynes  Taylor,  b  21  April,  1847,  m  IG  June, 

Point,  111.  :                                 '  -  1888,    Sophia    Clapp    of   Paynes 

Alouzo,  bat  Hat  25  M.ay,  183G,  d  unm  Point.  III. 

28  Elliot  C,  son  of  Solomon  (18),  b  at  Con  13  Feb., 
1S16,  d  10  March,  1874,  ae  58  yrs,  m  (i)  7  April,  1841,  Elvira, 
dau  of  Daniel  and  Polh'  (Scott)  Dickinson  of  Wh,  b  28  Aug., 
1 82 1,  d  25  Aug.,  186 1  :  ra  (2)  Cornelia  A.  dau  of  Horace  John- 
son, 25  June,  1863,  b  1829,  res  at  Wh.  He  was  quite  prom- 
inent, holding  many  town  offices.  He  bought  the  farm  formerly 
owned  by  Elisha  Allis,  then  his  son,  Col.  Josiah  Elijah,  then 
Daniel  Dickinson,  then  Elliot  C,  and  now  b}-  his  son,  Irving 
Allis.      Five  ch: 

Anseliue.  bat  Wh  30  Oct.,  1842,  m  June,  1865; 

23  Mav,  18G4.  Samuel  A.  Hall  of  Esther  D.;  b  27  July,  1846,  d  10  Sept., 

Ash,  3ch:  1861; 

Lucius,  b  at  Wh   20  Aug..  1844,  en-  Irving,  b  at  Wh  28  Jan..  1849;     (35) 

listed  in   31st   Rf'gt.    Mass.  Vols.  Henry  G..  b  at  Wh  4  Nov.,  1855,  d  8 

and   d   unm  at  jNIobile.   Ala..  23  Aug.,  1856. 

29  Salmon  White,  son  of  Elijah  (19),  bat  Wh  27  Nov., 
1801,  d  18  Sept.,  1868,  m  24  May,  1824.,  Emily  W.,  dau  of 
David  and  Sarah  (Allis)  Stockbridge  of  Wh,  b  10  Jan.,  1803. 
She  m  (2)  Hon.  E.  T.  Foote,  (3)  Gen.  Joseph  Colton,  d  10 
Dec,  1S87,  ae  84  yrs.  Mr.  Allis  was  for  a  time  in  trade  at  Wh, 
later  he  kept  for  a  series  of  years  the  Tontine  hotel.  New 
Haven,  Ct.     Three  ch  : 

Henry  White,  d  1843.  while  pursuing       Fanny; 

his  collegiate  studies  at  Yale  uni-      Gertrude,  m  William  H.  Browning,  d. 
versity ; 

30  Josiah,  son  of  Elijah  (19),  b  at  Wh  17  July,  1803,  d 
23  May,  1866,  ae  63  yrs,  ra  13  April,  1826,  Eliza,  dau  of 
Ebenezer  White  of  Hat,  b  at  Hat,  1801,  d  9  Aug.,  1866,  ae  65 
yrs.  Mr.  Allis  always  resided  with  his  parents  and  was  the 
best  equipped  business  man  that  we  had  in  town.  They  had  a 
large  and  well  managed  farm  consisting  of  about  one  hundred 
and  fifty  acres  of  fine  meadow  land  aside  from  much  outside 
land.  He  entered  into  several  different  manufacturing  opera- 
tions, was  a  director  in  the  Con  and  the  Hampshire  county 
banks,  also  in  an  insurance  company,  was  a  warm  friend  and 
companion  of  Gen.  James  S.  W^hitney,  dying  just  at  the  time 
when  his  plans  were  about  maturing.  Politically  he  was  always 
associated  with  the  democrats,  was  a  candidate  for  rep  to  con- 
gress, delegate  to  revise  the  constitution  of  Massachusetts  and  a 
close  friend  of  Gov.  George  S.  Boutwell.  He  fought  sh}'  of 
town  offices.     His  death  was  a  loss  to  our  town  that  all  felt  and 


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realized.      He  left  a  handsome  property.      His  portrait  is  given. 
Six  ch  : 

Justin   Wright  Clark,   b    31    ^larch,  Lewis  Edward  Sikes.  b  14  Julv,  18:^2. 
1827.    d   unm  ;^1  Jan.,    1882,    ae  d  T  April.  18B0: 

54}TS:  Edmond  Bridges,    b  31  .July,  1834,  d 

Silas   Dickinson   White,    b    11    Dec.  ITFeb..  183o• 
1828.  unm.  1899  :  Edmond  Bridges,  b    U    Dec,  183.5.  d 

Mary  Eliza  White,  b  29  Sept..  1830.  d  12  Oct.,  1801. 

unm  11  Nov..  1887,  ae  57  yra  ; 

31  Hubbard  S.,  son  of  Stalhara  (23),  b  in  \Vh  4  Oct., 
1819,  in  (i)  I  Jan.,  1S44,  Sibyl  D.,  dau  of  Dr.  Chester  and 
Mary-  (Hastings)  Bardwell  of  Wh,  b  at  Wh  4  Sept.,  1S20,  d  26 
May,  18S5  ;  m  (2)  27  Nov.,  1888,  Mrs.  Man»-  Bristol  Colton  of 
Philadelphia,  Pa.  He  obtained  his  education  in  the  town 
schools  with  a  number  of  terms  at  a  select  school,  finishing  with 
several  terms  at  the  academy  at  Dfld.  He  then  went  to  Roches- 
ter, N.  Y.,  and  found  employment  as  a  clerk  in  the  post  office, 
serving  in  That  capacity  eight  years,  then  eight  years  deputy 
postmaster,  then  was  appointed  postmaster  and  continued  five 
years  under  Presidents  Pierce  and  Buchanan.  During  the  po- 
litical campaigns  of  each  was  chairman  of  the  Democratic  county 
committee ;  prior  to  this  he  had  been  a  member  of  the  board  of 
education  and  chairman  of  the  Libran.-  committee  and  subse- 
quently was  the  party  candidate  for  various  offices,  including 
that  of  mayor  of  the  city,  county  clerk  and  county  treasurer  : 
was  engaged  in  banking  business  seven  years,  was  prominent  in 
the  present  city  railroad  and  its  treasurer  seven  years,  and  more 
recently  in  the  brokerage  business  until  he  returned  to  Wh  to 
take  charge  of  the  family  estate.  He  is  a  32d  degree  Mason 
and  an  Odd  Fellow,  and  was  half  owner  of  the  Daily  Rochester 
Advertiser  for  four  years.     We  present  his  photo.     One  ch  : 

Gertrude  A.,  b  at  Wh  16  Dec.  1844.  lings  of   Hat.      They   res  at  St. 

m  18  Oct.,  1871,  Maj.  Joseph  Bil-  Louis.  Mo. 

32  Elam  B.,  sonof  Stalham  (23),  b  in  Wh  to  July,  1823, 
d  1893,  at  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  m  4  Sept.,  1850,  Clarissa  S.,  dau 
of  Dr.  Chester  and  Mary  (Hastings)  Bardwell  of  Wh,  b  20 
Sept..  1823,  d  27  April,  1858.  He  was  a  tailor  by  trade  and 
rem  to  Geneva,  N.  Y.',  and  later  I  think  to  Rochester  N.  Y. 
Two  ch  : 

Edward  B.,  b  26  July,  1854,  m  Nov..       :N[arv  Hastings,  b  28  March,  1857,  m 
1882,     Mar>-    T.,   dau  of     Daniel  "U  March.  1883.  Chas.  H.  Palmer 

Kingsley  of  Nthn,  no  ch  ;  of  Rochester,  N.  Y. 

33  Austin  Judson,  son  of  Austin  (26),  b  at  Wh  S  Dec. 
[836,  m  29  Jan.,  1859,  Emma  J.,  dau  of  William  and  Therza 
( Waite)  Taynton,  b  in  England  9  June,  1839.  He  was  in  the 
37th  Mass.  Vols,  war  of   i86i-'65,   res  at  Florence.     Seven  ch  : 

Charles   Ernest,    b  4  July,    1859,  m  William  Clinton,  b  30   Nov.,  1866,  m 

Rose,   dau  of  Jesse   Morley,   res  11  Nov.,  1896,  Helen  J.  Erskine, 

Springfield  ;  res  Nthn ; 

Luther  Austin,  b  13  Dec,  1860; 


ALLIS,  364  ASHCRAFT. 

Josephine  Sanderson,  b  80  Auc  1870;       Robert  Taynton,  b  19  Oct..  1875; 
Geoi-LT  Linroln.  b  IG  Aiit,'.,  1873.  was       John  Lester,  b  13  Maj',  1877,  was  in 
hi  2d  Regt.  Cuban  war-  2d  Regt.  Cuban  war. 

34  Ernest  Austin,  son  of  Austin  (26),  b  at  \Vh  30  June, 
1842,  d  16  March,  1S97.  m  (i)  Florence  A.,  dau  of  Thomas  C. 
Cutter  of  Hat.  4  May.  1869.  was  divorced;  m  (2)  Lucinda  A. 
Donaldson  of  Gfld,  who  d  without  issue  ;  m  (3)  20  Sept.,  1892, 
Emeline  Thompson  of    Palmer,  N.  Y.     Two  ch,   by  first  wife  : 

Ernest  A.,  was  in  the  37th  Regt.  Vols.       Frederick  E.,  b  12  June,  1870,  d  unm 
and   had  a  pension  of     524    per  in  California,  24  June.  181)3. 

mouth,  res  at  \\h.  1  son  ; 

35  Irving,  son  of  Elliot  C.  (28),  b  at  \Vh  28  Jan.,  1S49, 
m  4  July,  1876,  Augusta  M.,  dau  of  Jonathan  and  Betsey  S. 
(Williams)  Howes  of  Ash.  They  res  on  the  old  Allis  farm  in 
\Vh.      He  is  also  a  civil  engineer.     Six  ch  : 

Sarah  IJ..  b  13  Dec.  1877:  George  W.,  b  10  Nov.,  1889  ; 

Clarence  IrA-ing.  b  27  Mar.  1879;  Edward  E.,  b  3  June,  1893: 

Lucius  H.,  b  9  3Iarch,  188G  :  Isabella  R.,  b  5  May,  1897. 

AMES,  Col.  Nathan,  son  of  Sergt.  James  Ames  of  Hol- 
land, near  Palmer,  lived  on  the  farm  later  owmed  by  Aaron  S. 
Stearns.  The  house  has  been  pulled  down.  He  was  a  soldier 
in  the  Revolution,  he  and  his  father  both  being  in  Gen.  Sulli- 
van's expedition  against  the  six  nations  of  Indians  in  New  York 
state  in  1780,  rem  to  Williamsburg.  He  had  a  family,  but  I 
have  the  names  of  only  three  of  his  ch  : 

Experience,  b  20  Nov..  1797.  m 9  Jan.,  Aurilla.  b  abt  180G,  m  21  May,  1828. 

1817,  David   Scott  of  Williams-  Horace  Sanderson  of   Wh,   d    18 

burg,  d  2o  Feb..  1857.  ae  60  yrs:  March,  1847. 
Lyman,  b  abt  1799  : 

1  ASHCRAFT.  John  \  settled  at  Stonington,  Ct.,  where 
we  find  him  in  1662.  His  grandson.  Daniel,  settled  before  the 
Revolutionary'  war  on  Fisher's  island.  About  the  close  of  the 
war  he  rem  to  Guilford,  Vt.,  was  captain  in  the  army,  received 
a  grant  of  six  hundred  and  forty  acres  of  land  from  the  state  of 
New  York  for  ser\'ices  rendered.     Among  his  ch  was  one  John. 

2  John  *,  son  of  Daniel  ^, -,  John  ^,  b  20  Jan.,  1784, 

rem  to  Had  where  he  m  14  March,  1808,  Clarrissa,  dau  of  David 
and  Patience  (Bartlett)  Stockbridge,  b  7  June,  1790.  After  the 
birth  of  three  ch  he  went  back  to  the  old  homestead  at  Guilford , 
Vt.,  where  the  other  ch  were  bom,     A  farmer.     Thirteen  ch  ; 

Susan  A.,  b  at  Had  25  March,  1809.  rem  to  Had  and  d  there;     (3) 

m  1  March.  1838,  Shaylor  Belden  Ephraim,  b  at  Guilford.  Vt.,  19  May, 

of  Wh :  1817.  d  25  Dec. ,  1832 ; 

Elam  S..  b  at  PLad  21  Nov.,  1810,  m  Clarissa,  b  at  Guilford,  Vt.,  15  May, 

19  April,  1837,  Eliza  McLeod:  1819,  d  10  Sept.,  1848; 

Daniel,  b  at  Had  23  Nov.,  1812.  m  9  David,  b  at  Guilford,   Vt.,   28  May, 

Nov..  1834.  Martha  Prindle;  1821;     (4) 

John  Jr..  b  at  Guilford,  Vt.,  20  April,  Julia,  b  at  Guilford,  Vt.,  28  July,  1823, 

1815.  m  28  Jan.,  1840,  Elizabeth  m  5  Jan.,  1848,  Charles  Squires; 
Smith  of  Had,  settled  in  Wh,  but 


ASHCRAFT,  365  ATKINS. 

Ainaiette,  b  at  Guilford.  Vt.,  2  Julv.  1829.    m    17   Jan..    I80O.    DaniHl 

1825.  m   17    Sept..    18-48.    Henry  Strong: 

Stedman:  Amelia.bat  Guilford.  Vt..  21   Sei«t.. 

Uriah,  b  at  Guilford.  Vt.,  1  Oct..  1827,  1881,  m  George  Lines  of  Guilford: 

d  8  Sept.,  1848:  Charles,  b  at  Guilford.  Vt..   17  Nov.. 

Elizabeth,  b  at  Guilford.  Vt..  80  Oct..  1883.  m  lo  April.  18o7.  Elizabeth 

Darling. 

3  John,  son  of  John  (  2),  b  at  Guilford,  Vt.,  30  April,  1S15, 
d  2  May,  1881,  m  28  Jan.,  1840,  Elizabeth,  dau  of  John  Smith 
of  Had.  He  res  at  Wh  many  years  before  and  after  his  ni,  and 
built  the  house  now  owned  by  H.  C.  Pease  at  the  Straits,  but 
afterwards  sold  the  farm  and  rem  to  Had.      Two  ch  : 

Infant,  b  22  Julv.  1841,  d    12   Aug.,       John.  Jr.,  bat  Wh  1843.     (o) 
1841 : 

4  David,  son  of  John  (2),  b  at  Guilford,  \'t.,  28  May. 
1821.  m  (i)  2;^  Jan.,  1845,  Cynthia  C,  dau  of  Samuel  and 
Eunice  (Dennison)  Cole  of  Colrain,  b  29  Aug.,  1824,  d  at  Wh 
2  April,  1882,  ae  57  yrs ;  m  (2)  22  Oct.,  1885,  Marion  H.  Den- 
nison of  Leyden.  He  res  on  the  Chapman  Smith  place  East  Wh, 
and  is  quite  prominent,  having  been  one  of  the  selectmen  many 
years.     He  is  a  farmer  and  an  excellent  citizen.     Two  ch  : 

Henrietta  M..  b  in  Wh  25  Oct..  1845.       Henry  Chandler,  b  14  Sept,.  18(i(.).     ((i) 
m  Frank  H.  Elwellof  Springfield: 

5  John  C,  son  of  John  (3),  b  at  Wh  1S43.  ni  12  Oct., 
1S64,  Martha  A.  Wright  of  Wh.  When  m  they  rem  with  hi.s 
parents  to  Had  where  he  d  12  March,  1878. 

6  Henry  Chandler,  son  of  David  (4).  b  at  Wh  14 
Sept.,  i860,  m  5  Oct..  1889,  Amy  F.  Sears  of  Wh.  They  res  at 
Wh  where  he  was  in  the  mercantile  business  several  years  at 
East  Wh,  and  postmaster. 

1  ATKINS,  JosiAH.  The  progenitor  of  the  Wh  families 
came  from  England  quite  early  and  rem  to  Middletown,  Ct.. 
after  1650.  In  March,  1650,  a  committee  was  appointed  to  ex- 
plore the  lands  of  Mattabeatt,  the  Indian  name  of  Middletown, 
and  they  reported  that  subsistence  might  be  obtained  for  a  col- 
ony of  fifteen  families,  and  in  the  course  of  that  year  settlement 
commenced.  It  now  has  a  population  of  ten  or  twelve  thousand. 
The  principal  portion  of  the  early  inhabitants  came  from  Eng- 
land and  Massachusetts  and  a  few  from  Hartford,  Ct.  How 
early  Mr.  Atkins  located  there  I  do  not  know,  but  he  d  there  12 
Sept.,  1690.      Among  his  ch  was  : 

Solomon,  b  1678.     (2) 

2  Solomon,  son  of  Josiah  ( i ),  b  at  Middletown,  Ct,,  1678, 
m  Phebe  Edwards,  16  May,  1709.  A  deacon,  had  a  large 
family,  always  res  at  Middletown,  and  d  in  1748.  Among  his 
ch  was  : 

Solomon  Jr.,  b  11  Aug..  1720.     (3) 


ATKINS.  366 

3  Solomon.  Jr.,  son  of  Solomon  (2),  b  at  Middletown, 
Ct.,  II  x\ug.,  1720.  d  26  Feb.,  1S04,  at  \Vh  ae  S3  yrs,  m  25  Feb.. 
1748,  Thankful  Lee,  b  in  1727,  d  at  \Vh  7  April,  1S06,  ae  79 
\^rs.  They  rem  to  \Vh  abt  1778,  res  in  the  Straits.  He  d  in 
Colrain  while  on  a  visit  to  his  son,  Giles.     Seven  ch  : 

Thankful,  b  14   San..    1749.    m   John  Abia.  b  20  March,  1756,  m  William 

Crafts  29  April,  1780;  '  Cone; 

Sybil,  b  19  Feb..  17.50.  prob  m  in  Ct. :  Solomon.  Jr.,  b  4  May,  17G2:     (4) 

Chloe.  b  16  March.    1752.    prob   m  in  Giles,  b  4  April.  1795:     (5) 

Ct.:  Elijah,  b  26  Jan.,  1709.     (Q) 

4  Solomon,  Jr.,  son  of  Solomon  {3),  b  at  Middletown, 
Ct.,  4  May,  .1762,  came  to  Wh  177S,  m  9  ]\Iarch,  1787,  Electa, 
dau  of  Deacon  Oliver  Graves  of  \Vh,  b  in  Wh  27  Dec,  1764. 
He  bought  one  acre  of  land  where  H.  S.  Allis  now  lives  and 
built  a  house,  and  later  built  the  square  house,  now  the  parson- 
age, built  a  tannery  on  Gutter  brook  and  a  shop  near  the 
house  for  the  shoe  business.  Sold  in  1825  to  Stalham  Allis  and 
rem  to  the  state  of  New  York,  where  they  d.     Eight  ch  : 

Enoch,  b  24  Aug..  1788:     (7)  ful  school  teacher: 

Henrs'.  b  10  June.  1779;     (8)  Joel,  b  7  Sept..  1800:     (9) 

Electa,  b  20  Nov..  1793,  d  soon;  Hannah,  b   14  July.  1803.  m  a  Miss 

Electa,  b 2 Dec.  1795.  d  3  Sept.,  1796:  Talmage  and  rem   to  New   York 

Chloe.  b  18  April.    1798,  m  John  El-  state  : 

well  and  rem  to  New  York  state.  Solomon,  b  8  Oct..  1805.     flO) 

She  was  for  many  years  a  success- 

5  Giles,  son  of  Solomon  (3),  b  at  Middletown,  Ct.,  4 
April,  I  765,  d  23  Jan.,  1821,  m  ( i)  9  Jan.,  1794,  Martha,  dau  of 
Deacon  Oliver  Graves  of  Wh,  b  19  Jan.,  1763.  She  d  and  he  m 
(2  )  28  Jan.,  1S02,  Sarah  Crittenden,  d  23  Jan.,  1815  ;  m  (3)  11 
Jan.,  1816,  Ruth  Fairbanks,  d  23  June,  1861,  ae  92  yrs,  after  a 
widowhood  of  40  yrs.     Eight  ch  ; 

Infant  dau.   b   27   Sept.,  1794.    d  28  Isaac,  b  in  Colrain,  16  July,  1888.  d4 

Sept.,  1794  ;  March,    1884.    at  Con,   m  Maria 

Elisha,  b  2  Dec,  1795,  at  Wh.  by  (1)  Ford  of  Hawlev  : 

wife:     (11)  Sarah,  b  at  Plainfield,  9  AprU.  1810. 

Giles.    Jr.,   b    29    Sept.,    1802,  d  19  m  Thomas  Jordan   of  Cumming- 

Aug.,1803;  ton; 

Almon.  b  6  Jan..  1805.